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Figure 1.—Maps of the Cook Islands: a, locality map of Cook Islands; b, Rarotonga: c, Atiu: d, Aitutaki: e, Mangaia: f, Mauke Figure 10.—Coral and wooden pounders. a, coral pounder, Rarotonga (Bishop Mus., C8883): height middle line, 142 mm.; greatest width of head, 68 mm., thickness 34 mm.; neck, 54 mm. by 41 mm.; base, 124 mm. by 121 mm.; body greatly flared and basal surface very convex. b, side view of a. c, wooden pounder, Aitutaki (Auckland Mus.): height, 292 mm.; base diameter, 63 mm Figure 106.—Triple triangle pattern on working adzes: a , closed triple triangle (British Mus., + 1612), attributed to Rarotonga; c, overlapping triple triangle (Bishop Mus., 8040), Aitutaki. a, haft length 21.75 inches; foot length 4.25 inches, slight dorsal knob (1) on proximal end of shaft; heel with bilateral rounded projections (2), the lashing braid evidently had some fixation turns around the foot and adz butt and then made a couple of vertical turns over heel knobs, after which triple t… Figure 117.—Triangular adz, intermediate; Rarotonga (C8880). a, front: long blade, narrow cutting edge; dropped shoulder, b, back: small bevel surface, straight transversely; median edge extends to poll. c, right side: butt slants backward. d, sections. Weight, 3.25 oz Figure 180.—Hand clubs, Rarotonga: a, total length, 350 mm.: blade (1) covered with zigzag incised lines, edges notched, and two holes near distal edge; transverse width, 115 mm.; right edge (2) width, 80 mm.; shaft (3) also incised with zigzag lines parallel with those of blade; shaft width in middle, 38 mm.; thickness, 21 mm.; raised flange (4) bounding butt ornament (5) of which main motif is two heads in profile (British Mus., 1905, 11-14-2). b, enlarged butt ornament of a: raised bar (4) c… Figure 19.—Cook Islands seats. a, small Atiu type (Bishop Mus., C8882): seat (1), 19 inches long at sides and 18.75 inches in middle; width, 9.25 inches at ends, 8.75 inches in middle; edge 0.5 inch thick; height above ground, 4 inches in middle, and 6.12 and 6.62 inches at ends: leg (2) curved, heart shaped in section, with edge (3) toward middle transverse line; foot (4) expanded, heart shaped, with apex toward middle line. b, long Aitutaki type (Auckland Mus., 12994): seat (1), 7 feet, 9 inc… Figure 23.—Rarotongan fan handles (a, plain, attributed to Rarotonga but probably from Aitutaki; b-e, carved with two heads in profile, looking outward from midline of junction): a, round wood, uncarved, 28 mm. in diameter at proximal end, and uncovered part, with shoulder (1) where sennit braid wrapping in lozenge pattern commences; total length of handle including tang, 390 mm. (Cambridge Univ. Mus., Z.6100). b, 1, double head with narrow notch to mark division, eyes formed by five incised cu… Figure 259.—Tahitian pounders found in Cook Islands: a, Atiu (Otago University Mus., D.34, 399). b, Rarotonga, owned by Makea Ariki. c; Mauke (Otago University Mus., D.34, 559). d, head of type c. Measurements in millimeters. Dimensions Height Head Width Neck Base Weight (oz.) a 155 83 42 119 53 b 142 124 46 141 c 165 97 50 138 77.25 Figure 264.—Polynesian fan outlines. a, Aitutaki. b, Rarotonga. c, Mangaia. d, Tahiti (British Mus., Tah. 69), same technique as a and b. e, Marquesas, curved sides and twilled plaiting. f, Hawaii (Bishop Mus., C9232), found in burial cave, closed leaflets in check, triangular shape conforming to central Polynesian type. g, Hawaii (Bishop Mus., 7965), specialized form of fine fan peculiar to Hawaii. h, Samoa, reversed triangle with straight base on handle and curved sides; twilled plaiting. i, … Figure 274.—Polynesian wooden images, front and side views. a, Rarotonga, fisherman's god (Peabody Mus., Cambridge, Mass., 53517). b, Aitutaki, goddess (British Mus., L.M.S.). c, Tahiti, sorcerer's image (ti'i) (British Mus., 7047). d, Raivavae, Austral Islands (British Mus., 54-12-29-120). e, Marquesas (Bishop Mus., 3020) f, New Zealand, carved figure with face tattooing pattern (Oldman coll., 14). g, Mangareva, god (La Rochelle Mus., H.498). h, Easter Island, carved figure (moai kava-kava) (O… Figure 310.—Types of Samoan points, with Mariannas and Rarotonga points: Figure 7.—Cook Islands basaltic pounders: a, simple concave head (Auckland Mus. 12868); b, c, simple convex head, Atiu (Bishop Mus. C2773); d, e, three-ridged head, smooth curve back and front (Bishop Mus., C2287); f, three-ridged head with concave crescentic edge (1) extending from lateral ridges (Auckland Mus. 12279); g, h, three-ridged head with straight edge (1) lower down (Bishop Mus., 6531); i, j, three-ridged head greatly projected upward from defining edge (1) (Bishop Mus., 6532); k, th… Figure 72.—Tattooing motifs from Rarotonga. a, rau teve, on Tupai, on left side of neck but transposed in drawing to right side for comparison with b: 1, rau teve with three lobes and small lozenge-shaped space left untattooed; 2, hour-glass motif with triangular spaces not filled in on each side; four to the middle line (3) with one on other side when Tupai refused to allow second half to be completed. b, rau teve of Pakitoa on right side: 1, rau teve with four lobes with upper part touching l… Figure 78.—Triangular adz, variation 1, Rarotonga (C2753). a, front: long butt, dropped shoulder; b, back: bevel surface straight, median edge to poll; c, right side; d, sections. Weight, 8.25 oz Figure 8.—Cook Islands basaltic pounders, small bulbous type: a, head with convex curve (Bishop Mus., 6533); b, head with concave curve, Rarotonga (Otago University Mus., D.27.50); c, three-ridged head, Aitutaki (Otago University Mus., D.33.2062); d, unique with four projections, Rarotonga (Otago University Mus., D.35.352); e, three-ridged head, one lateral ridge broken, made of stalagmite, Aitutaki (Auckland Mus., 10713). Dimensions in millimeters: Height Head Neck Base Weight (oz.) a 122 42 3… Figure 85.—Triangular adz, intermediate, Rarotonga (C8848). a, front: long blade with practically parallel sides an deep dropped shoulder, butt with nicely rounded lateral edges and squared poll end; b, back: bevel surface concave with apical point fairly high and median edge continued to poll; c, right side: shows deep dropped shoulder and extension of shoulder down sides; d, sections. Weight, 65 oz Figure 86.—Triangular adz, intermediate, Rarotonga (C2390). a, front: blade polished, butt with pecked surface and well-rounded lateral edges, dropped shoulder with lateral extensions; b, back: bevel surface straight transversely and markedly convex longitudinally; median edge extends to backward slant of poll surface, c, right side: shows depth of dropped shoulder and extension down on side, d, sections. Weight, 8.25 oz Figure 92.—Quadrangular adz, type 1; Rarotonga (C2754). a, front surface: straight transversely and convex longitudinally; gradual increase in width from poll to cutting edge; slight rounding off of front edges of butt by pecking. b, back: shows narrower back surface and shortened view of sides, also bevel surface and chin. c, right side: shows increasing thickness from poll to chin. d, cross sections with front uppermost. Weight, 7.75 oz Figure 93.—Quadrangular adz, type 1; Rarotonga (C518). a, front surface: straight transversely, convex longitudinally; front edges of butt continuous with those of blade and not rounded off; increase in width from poll to cutting edge. b, back: shows narrow back surface and shortened view of sides; quadrangular bevel surface with chin. c, right side: increasing thickness to bevel of chin. d, sections. Weight, 3.5 oz Figure 95.—Quadrangular adz, type 2; Rarotonga (C8961). a, front surface: shows shoulder with slight downward curve at sides; blade convex transversely and longitudinally; increase in width downward; front side edges well marked on blade, rounded off on butt. b, back with well-marked side edges on blade and butt; bevel surface concave transversely with gradual slope onto back, without distinct chin; cutting edge distinctly curved with convexity forward; back surface slightly wider than front. c… Figure 96.—Quadrangular adz, type 2; Rarotonga (C8960). a, front: shows short blade and curved shoulder with convexity upward; well-defined front edges; front butt surface and sides ground down to form tang. b, back: back edges clearly defined on blade and butt; back straight transversely and concave longitudinally; quadrangular bevel surface and straight chin. c, right side: shows thickness of adz, shoulder, concave back longitudinally, and angle of chin. d, cross sections. Weight, 5.75 oz Figure 97.—Quadrangular adz, type 2 with nipples; Rarotonga (C8962). a, front: shows shoulder and two nipples; front edges of blade well defined and front edges of butt well rounded off. b, back: back edges well defined on blade and butt. c, right side; showing deep shoulder and forward projection of nipples. d, section. Weight, 3.75 oz Figure 99.—Quadrangular adz, type 3; Rarotonga (C8871). a, front: narrower front surface well defined by side edges on lower two-thirds of blade, upper third and curved shoulder somewhat rounded off; butt with front surface and side edges rounded off in concave longitudinal curve leaving a single rounded nipple in middle line near poll; cutting edge chipped on left side and thus breaking normal curved line of original cutting edge. b, back: posterior surface of blade and butt occupies full widt… GOVERNMENT RADIO STATION, Rarotonga Plate 12 — A, Slings and Sling Stones, Rarotonga (Auckland Mus.); C, Sling Stone Carriers, Rarotonga (Bishop Mus., C8860); B, D, Net Food Carriers, Aitu (Bishop Mus., C2867, 2868) Plate 13 — Wooden Images of Gods: A, B, Goddess, Aitutaki (British Mus., L.M.S.); C, Staff God, Rarotonga (Cambridge Univ. Mus., 101); D, E, Fisherman's God. Rarotonga (Munich Mus., 191) Plate 1 — Groups in Native Dress: A, Rarotonga, Priest Seated in Middle B, Aitutaki, Men Wearing Plaited Baldrics Plate 4 — Fans: A, B, Aitutaki (Bishop Mus., 2167); C, Rarotonga, Back (Cambridge Univ. Mus., Z.6101); D, Cook Islands, Front (British Mus., L.M.S.) Plate 6 — Clothing: A, Tapa Beater, Aitu, Four Sides (Bishop Mus., C2814); B, Perforated Poncho, Mangaia (Bishop Mus., 8059) C, Plaited Girdle. Rarotonga (British Mus., 9963); D, E, Coiled Cap, Aitu (Bishop Mus., C2849) Plate 7 — Feather Headdresses: A, Aitutaki (British Mus., L.M.S.); B, Rarotonga (British Mus., L.M.S.); C, Makea-Ariki Family, Rarotonga; D, Probably Aitu (British Mus., L.M.S., 120) Raratonga


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