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Cook Islands

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Figure 1.—Maps of the Cook Islands: a, locality map of Cook Islands; b, Rarotonga: c, Atiu: d, Aitutaki: e, Mangaia: f, Mauke Figure 133.—Cook Islands paddle (British Mus., 1912-123). a, with handle shortened: total length, 2,020 mm.; shaft length, 1,070 mm.; shaft diameter at upper end, 43 mm.; at shaft junction, 52 mm. by 41 mm.; blade length, 950 mm.; width at shoulder, 128 mm.; greatest width, 250 mm. b, enlargement of upper part of blade: shows zigzag incised lines for depth of 102 mm. on both surfaces and on side edges which are 23 mm. thick. c, lower end of blade: shows median ridge, 9 mm. wide, 4 mm. thick and… Figure 187.—Cook Islands spears, a, Atiu spear (Fuller coll., 3120): four-edged point; remaining length, 1,720 mm.; greatest width of blade point, 41 mm. and thick ness, 21 mm.; lower end of shaft, 33 by 31 mm. b, Atiu vero (in field): length, 12 feet, 4 inches; leaf point (1), 4.7 inches long, greatest width, 1.5 inches and thickness, 0.65 inch; middle shaft diameter, 1.6 inches; lower leaf point (2), 4.3 inches long, greatest width, 0.8 inch, thickness, 0.5 inch. c, Atiu vero (in field): leng… Figure 188.—Cook Islands slings. a, Atiu technique of pouch: 1, sennit, forming margin; 2, coir cords in pairs caught in close rows of two-pair interlocking weft (4); 3, coir cords separated and caught simply in two-pair interlocking weft (5). b, Rarotongan sling (Bishop Mus., C8861): pouch (1) formed of nine lengths of sennit, plaited in check from middle toward either end; length, 145 mm.; middle width, 50 mm.; at ends, braid plaited into round plait (2) 70 mm. and bound with two-ply coir cor… Figure 189.—Cook Islands sling stones (Bishop Mus.): Measurements in millimeters. Locality Museum no. Material Diameters (mm.) Weight (oz.) a Rarotonga C521 basalt 63 × 63 15.5 b Rarotonga C8857 basalt 84 × 84 28.0 c Atiu C515 basalt 48 × 48 6.25 d Mauke C2720 stalagmite 82 × 88 26.5 e Mangaia C2775 coral 50 × 50 5.75 f Mangaia C2774 coral 52 × 64 8.0 Figure 19.—Cook Islands seats. a, small Atiu type (Bishop Mus., C8882): seat (1), 19 inches long at sides and 18.75 inches in middle; width, 9.25 inches at ends, 8.75 inches in middle; edge 0.5 inch thick; height above ground, 4 inches in middle, and 6.12 and 6.62 inches at ends: leg (2) curved, heart shaped in section, with edge (3) toward middle transverse line; foot (4) expanded, heart shaped, with apex toward middle line. b, long Aitutaki type (Auckland Mus., 12994): seat (1), 7 feet, 9 inc… Figure 24.—Cook Islands fan (British Mus., L.M.S.). a, outline; length of plaited part, 395 mm.; base width, 430 mm.; length of external handle, 130 mm. b, front, showing short butt knobs (1, 1), raised flange (2) divided in middle line, rounded body (3) with large perforation, bilateral curved flanges with lower end (4) incised with chevrons and upper end (5) notched, terminal flange (6) with perforation below it, and plain lashing (7) of fine cord. c, side view with same numbering as b; upper… Figure 257.—Rim projection of bowls: a, Cook Islands; projection rectangular in vertical section and full thickness of rim (see exception in figure 4, a), b, Tahiti; projection triangular in vertical section, full thickness of rim at base, and carved with median and lateral lines in manner reminiscent of markings on head of stone pounders (fig. 10, c, d). c, Austral Islands; projection not full thickness of rim, curved at ends, and stepped, d, Austral Islands (Raivavae); projection carved in ci… Figure 258.—Polynesian stone pounders: pestle form (a-c); medium form (d-e), flared form (f-i). a, Cook Islands, lateral projecting head with three low ridges (Bishop Mus., 6531). b, Mangareva, rounded circular head (Bishop Mus., C7632). c, Society Islands, laterally expanded head with three high ridges (Bouge coll.). d, Mangaia, head with lateral projections, flat upper surface, concave longitudinally; calcite (Bishop Mus., B3489). e, Austral Islands, head similar to d but with upper surface r… Figure 259.—Tahitian pounders found in Cook Islands: a, Atiu (Otago University Mus., D.34, 399). b, Rarotonga, owned by Makea Ariki. c; Mauke (Otago University Mus., D.34, 559). d, head of type c. Measurements in millimeters. Dimensions Height Head Width Neck Base Weight (oz.) a 155 83 42 119 53 b 142 124 46 141 c 165 97 50 138 77.25 Figure 260.—Types of small four-legged seats. a, type one, Cook Islands (British Mus., 1905/1-20/4): 1, curved seat with slight concavity at ends, not carved; 2, leg heart shaped with edge (3) toward middle line; 4, foot heart shaped with point toward middle. b, type two, Tahiti (Bishop Mus., C4190): 1, seat with little curve, straight ends; 2, straight legs, round in section but with edge (3) to outer side; no feet. c, type two, Tahiti (Royal Swedish Mus.): 1, seat with greater curve than b, c… Figure 261.—Types of house ridgepole support, a, median ridgepost, Cook Islands. b, kingpost with tie beams supported by two lateral posts, Samoa. c, kingpost with tie beam supported by wall plate, post-missionary. 1, median ridgepost; 2, ridgepole; 3, wall posts; 4, wall plate; 5, principal rafters; 6, lateral supporting posts; 7, plate supporting tie beam; 8, tie beam; 9, kingpost; 10, plates resting on ends of tie beam and supporting rafters; 11, median plate supporting kingpost. — Note: the… Figure 265.—Polynesian cloth beaters (ike, i'e): a, Atiu, Cook Islands; b, Mangaia, Cook Islands, finishing beater; c, Tahiti; d, Marquesas; e, Austral Islands, general form; f, Tubuai, Austral Islands, crossed pattern; g, Rapa, crossed pattern; h, Hawaii, general form; i, Hawaii, zigzag pattern; j, Mangareva, showing wide smooth surface (1) and narrow grooved surface (2); k, Easter Island; l, New Zealand; m, Tonga Figure 269.—Distribution of haft types, with literature citations. References for Polynesia are as: 1, toe haft: New Zealand (6, pp. 383, 393); Hawaii (11, pl. 60); Marquesas (47, pl. 48, A); Tuamotu (Emory ms.); Easter Island (Bishop Mus. Hafts); Manihiki-Rakahanga (75, pp. 144, 145); Tongareva (74, p. 180) Niue (48, pl. 8, A); Samoa alternate form (73, p. 362); Austral Islands alternate form (1, pp. 158, 159). 2, medium haft: Samoa (73, pp. 360, 361); Tonga (Bishop Mus. Coll.); Pukapuka (3, p… Figure 272.—Polynesian bailers. a, common form with median free handle, used in Tuamotu, Marquesas, Samoa. b, handle end attached to bottom, Niue, Ellice Islands. c, unilateral attachment of handle, sporadic in New Zealand and other regions. d, bilateral connection of handle to sides, Tahiti (British Mus., Tah. 6): length, 435 mm.; outside width, 135 mm.; depth, 110 mm.; width of cross connection, 40 mm. e, Cook Islands form, Mauke (fig. 135, d-f). f, specialized New Zealand form of a Figure 273.—Polynesian drums. a-d, direct upper attachment; e-h, indirect upper attachment. a, Aitutaki, Cook Islands, see figure 168: lower slot attachment. b, Tahiti, Society Islands (Cambridge University Mus.): lower slot attachment; height, 20.5 inches; upper diameter, 7.75 inches; lower diameter, 8.5 inches. c, Raivavae, Austral Islands (British Mus., L.M.S. coll.): lower attachment to rectangular slots with another row of unused rectangular slots above engaged slots; lower third carved; h… Figure 4.—Cook Islands wooden bowls. Small beaker bowl without legs, (a, b) Mangaia (Cambridge University Mus., Z.6077), from G. Bennet, July 1824: a, rim opening, length 10 inches, greatest width 7 inches, showing pointed end (1) and base (2) with upward projecting knob (3); outer rim edge rounded off and inner edge inverted and sharp, making greatest diameter a little below upper rim; b, side view, height 3 inches. Medium-sized beaker bowl with legs, (c-e) Aitutaki (Bishop Mus., C8920): c, ri… Figure 7.—Cook Islands basaltic pounders: a, simple concave head (Auckland Mus. 12868); b, c, simple convex head, Atiu (Bishop Mus. C2773); d, e, three-ridged head, smooth curve back and front (Bishop Mus., C2287); f, three-ridged head with concave crescentic edge (1) extending from lateral ridges (Auckland Mus. 12279); g, h, three-ridged head with straight edge (1) lower down (Bishop Mus., 6531); i, j, three-ridged head greatly projected upward from defining edge (1) (Bishop Mus., 6532); k, th… Figure 75.—Triangular adz, with raised shoulder, Cook Islands (B3522). a, front: increase in width from poll to cutting edge, raised shoulder between blade and butt which are on same plane; b, back: concave bevel surface and median edge extending to poll; c, right side, raised shoulder evident in profile, side edges of butt rounded off;d, sections. Weight, 9.75 oz Figure 8.—Cook Islands basaltic pounders, small bulbous type: a, head with convex curve (Bishop Mus., 6533); b, head with concave curve, Rarotonga (Otago University Mus., D.27.50); c, three-ridged head, Aitutaki (Otago University Mus., D.33.2062); d, unique with four projections, Rarotonga (Otago University Mus., D.35.352); e, three-ridged head, one lateral ridge broken, made of stalagmite, Aitutaki (Auckland Mus., 10713). Dimensions in millimeters: Height Head Neck Base Weight (oz.) a 122 42 3… PACIFIC WRITERS SERIES Plate 4 — Fans: A, B, Aitutaki (Bishop Mus., 2167); C, Rarotonga, Back (Cambridge Univ. Mus., Z.6101); D, Cook Islands, Front (British Mus., L.M.S.) “We know that whenever there's a gathering such as this, it's usually men who are invited to attend. So to me, sometimes, it would appear that only men are the ones able to speak and that only men know how to speak, and that it would be men who know what is best for the home. Perhaps at the end of this conference, men will know that women are able to speak too.” Matakai Ariki Wichman (Cook Islands) “Women do not preach from the pulpit—only men do that. I often wonder why this is so, especially since women clean and sweep the pulpit. If only men are allowed to preach from the pulpit then why can't they sweep and clean it?” Ataiti Ama (Cook Islands)


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