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Samoan Material Culture

Figure 290.—The pa ala hooks (two types of shanks with points:

Figure 290.—The pa ala hooks (two types of shanks with points:

Figure 290.—The pa ala hooks (two types of shanks with points:

a-e round shank and point; f-i flat shank and point): a, Front of round shank, 62 mm. in length and 4 mm. wide at lower end; pointed head end (1) with short upper median edge (2) and hole (3) bored transversely through head; lower part (4) of ordinary thickness with natural inner surface of shell exposed and grooves (5) on sides for lashing the point. b, Side view, showing thicker head part and thin lower part, 2 mm. thick at end. c, Section through head at hole level, round, transverse and vertical diameters both 10 mm. d, Section of upper end of lower part; front surface, concave; back and sides, convex; width, 9 mm.; thickness, 5 mm. e, Turtle shell point; straight base (6) for fitting against front of shank, 13 mm. long; two holes for lashings; bend (7) and sharp point (8) without barb; greatest length, 25 mm.; width between point and line of base produced, 12 mm. f, Front of flat shank, 57 mm. long; pointed head end (1); convex sides; (2) showing; two holes (3) bored through from front to back, on either side of middle line and not necessarily on the same level; grooves (5) on sides at lower end for lashing. g, Side view, showing thin nature of shell throughout which does not exceed 5 mm. in thickness; transverse single hole thus impossible and replaced by two holes from front to back. h, Cross section near holes; sides well rounded off, convex; width, 13 mm.; thickness, 5 mm. i, Section lower part of shank, showing steeper sides; width, 10 mm.; thickness, 5 mm. j, Turtle shell point; straight base (6), 21 mm. in length; bend (7) and sharp point (8) without barb; greatest length, 27 mm.; width across inner angle of bend, 16 mm.; width between point and line of base produced, 15 mm. Most points have two holes, but the point figured has four. The two holes (9, 10) are the lashing holes. The hole to the outer side (12) was evidently made for the snood but being unsuitable another hole (11) was bored to which the snood is attached in the actual hook.