# Samoan Material Culture

# Figure 258.—Technique of whitebait scoop (fonoti):

Figure 258.—Technique of whitebait scoop (fonoti):

a, the braid (1) was carried over the line (2), brought down behind it and held below the line by the left hand. The braid makes a wide loop (3) to the right, passes over both limbs of the loop around the line, passes back below them from the left and comes up through the loop (3) on the right. The knot is drawn taut as in the loops already made on the left. The technique of setting up loops is continued until the proposed length of the scoop is reached. b, The work is turned and meshes are now made by passing the braid through a loop above and tying the same knot. The knot is shown on the right where the braid has passed through the loop (1). The knot is the usual Samoan netting knot but instead of being made over the limbs of the loop above as in nets, it is made below the loop as shown. Each row is made with the same number of meshes and the work turned at the end of each row so that it proceeds from left to right. With an ordinary scoop 11 inches long and 8 inches deep, each row corresponds in length to the first one, namely 11 inches. The rows are added until the material is twice the required depth, namely 16 inches. The 16-inch length is doubled to make a depth of 8 inches and one end is closed. c, The end to be closed is turned downwards with the folded margin which is to form the bottom turned to the left. The closing knot is the same as on the body but the braid passes over a mesh from each edge instead of one. d, The meshes (1 and 1') are the meshes on either side of the left fold in (c). A piece of braid with a stopper knot (2) at the end is passed through both meshes and the usual knot tied below them. The braid then passes through the next two meshes on the right (3 and 3') which are brought together, and the knot (4) made under them. The next two meshes (5 and 5') are brought together, the braid passed through them and the knot (6) is shown in the making. The knots thus close the end up to the right edge which is to form the opening. e, The material is turned so that the right edge in the last figure is now above and the closed end to the right. The two sticks are now fastened in the position shown. f, The end of a piece of braid is looped around the handle end (1), through a mesh (2), and tied around its standing part with the knot (3). The braid passes to the right for about 0.5 inches, turns downward through a mesh and after passing around the handle passes over and then under the standing part of the braid in the knot (4). This is continued till one handle is fixed, then the other handle is fastened to its upper edge in the same way. The above is the technique described by the Samoan expert. g, In the scoop figured, however, the loops were set up on a piece of braid for twice the depth, namely 16 inches. The material was then netted to a depth of 8.5 inches, turned upside down, and another set of loops formed on the same braid cord (1) but on the other side from the first part (2). The loops are continued for the full length of 16 inches and additional rows (3) added for a depth of 2.5 inches. The longest diameter of 16 inches was then doubled and dealt with by closing one end and attaching the handles.