The Ancient History of the Maori, His Mythology and Traditions. Nga-Puhi [Vol. XI]
I look and see
The land of trouble
Left behind, and
Dimly see through
Smoke of fire
Since kindled by
Now I see
Come on Paihau.
Meeting of Hau-raki Tribes at Hao-whenua
and Subsequent Action and Battles
The reason of our people assembling at Hao-whenua was the murder of Huka-nui.
That was the old cause, but after Hukanui?
We were living at Hao-whenua before the murder of Hukanui.
But after Hukanui, did not all Marutuahu assemble at Haowhenua?
We had all assembled at Hao-whenua from the time of the Takurua affair.
Were not Nga-ti-haua following you up from Hukanui? No.
The Nga-i-te-rangi join the Nga-ti-haua at Te-tiki-o-te-ihinga-a-rangi.
Our people went from Huka-nui to Hao-whenua.
And did not Waikato advance towards Hao-whenua, and were joined by Ngaiterangi at Te Tiko?
The Huka-nui murder was two months before the Taumatawiwi battle.
You were not at Ongare? No.
The fight at O-ngare was about Katikati. The great cause however was the alliance between Nga-i-te-rangi and Nga-ti-haua at Taumata-wiwi and also the heads of the Pa which were called after Taraia.page (186)
I was with the war party at Te Uira and killed Te-Manu. 400 of us were there. Te Waharoa was at Matamata, and at Kawehitiki. We went to Uira in quest of him. We did not go to Ka-wehi-tiki.
Did you go to Matamata? No, we went to Matamata on a former occasion.
Ngapuhi and our people went to Matamata and Ka-wehi-tiki to kill Nga-ti-haua because of the murder of Takurua, to kill Nga-ti-haua, the people who had actually committed the murder.
Original Boundaries of Hau-raki and the Wars
Tamati Tangiteruru (sworn): I belong to Nga-ti-paoa. I know the land before the Court.
I know the original boundaries of Hauraki. I can name them. Commencing at Cape Colville thence along the coast to Katikati, thence to Awanga-tete, Puapua-tirohia on the top of Te-Aroha range, descends to Manga-kahika stream, thence to Wai-hou, crosses Wai-hou to Pourewa, te Repo of Manga-pouri, Pirau-nui swamp, Wai-toa river, crosses it to Pu-toitoi, thence to Kawhia, Piako stream crosses at Tau-koro, Hanga-were East, turns and runs to Moe-rangi, Marama-rua near Pu-korokoro, Te Koheroa, Tiri-kohua thence to the district of Tamaki - that is the end. This district is called a canoe. The stern post is Te-Aroha, the head Cape Colville.
Puapua-tirohia is the south of the Aroha.
Takurua was my father. When he was murdered, I was with Nga-puhi at Manga-muka, Hokianga. I left for Ngapuhi after Te-Whakaete and Kariaruhe fights.
I went to Ngapuhi to take "kakahu" (mats) and slaves to buy guns to obtain revenge for our relations the Ngapuhi.
Were you there when you heard of your father's death? Yes.
Were you lame there, or, could you walk? I could walk a little.
What did you do? I was at a strange place - I could do nothing. I rested with my chiefs (hosts).page (188)
I told Ngapuhi of the murder of my father. They agreed to come and bring me back to Hau-raki because formerly there was a fight among Ngapuhi at Whanga-roa. My father joined in it, therefore Nga-puhi agreed to come and avenge my father's death. Nga-puhi came down with me too but Taumatawiwi been fought before this and peace had been made long before.
The chiefs of Ngapuhi who came were Patuore, Te-Waka, Kainga-mata, Te-Wharerahi, Te-Taonui, Raumati - the last two came with Te-hira.
How many came altogether? 260 Nga-puhi came in all and joined our people and went to Matamata.
They joined us and we had a war dance at Tara-ru. Te-hira took 200 with him and went by way of Wai-hou. My hosts and I went by way of Pi-ako. The chiefs of Hau-raki were Kohi-rangatira, Taha-roku, Hau-auru, Haora and Tipa. The Nga-ti-paoa at Whakatiwai did not hear of it. Messengers were sent to them afterwards. 400 of the Nga-ti-paoa went on to join the others. I did not go.
Were you present at any peacemaking? I was. How did it occur? I had embraced christianity.
Peacemaking was made by Taiporutu and Te-Aroha, came from Matamata to Wai-tahi.page (189)
When they arrived Haua got up and spoke. He was replied to by Te-Awhe. I then made my first public speech. Then Tai-porutu got up to speak. He spoke about his "mahi he" (wrong-doings) - the murder. He did not come expecting that his life would be spared. He sang a song:
"E tama ma tu atu ki runga ra
E kore e ara oku ringa e
Kati he whakarite ko au koi ia wa
Kia neke to e - e"
"O young men stand up
My hand I can not use
I now fulfil the need
Required of me for deeds of past
And have a blank in memory"
He stayed there that night. His companions were Nga-tarawa, Kio, and Tai-pari. On the following morning, he went to Te-Horeta. After this we went to Wai-au (Coromandel) to collect the Nga-ti-paoa, as we had agreed to go back with Tai-porutu. The Hauraki at Waiau came to Wai-o-tahi. This was the first peacemaking, and was the first time that Nga-ti-haua came out from the Hauraki district to meet the Nga-ti-paoa. We went back to convey Tai-porutu - went to Pi-ako. On getting there it was decided that I was to go with them, and a litter was prepared for me as I could not walk. We went to Wai-toa where we slept. Messengers were sent from Tai-porutu. 30 were to carry one. I went with Tai-porutu to the Pa. One the following day we stayed at Tao-nui, and rested there. The Nga-ti-haua were collected outside the Pa. The people who carried me were in front. A white flag was held by me. When we got into the middle of the cultivation the Nga-ti-haua saluted us. Before we had got close they waved their garments as a welcome. When we had got as far as the Pa then Nga-ti-haua sprang into the canoe, called Maru-tuahu which page (190)was outside the Pa, on the road. We went into the Pa, and had a tangi. In former days the Nga-ti-haua were my father's firm friends. Te-Pakaroa got up and asked who was to wash the raupa (roughness) off his legs. Nga-ti-haua replied and said - Here is water - I am the water. We were two days there discussing peace, and it was fully established. This took place at Matamata. We went to Tapiri to Wi-Tamihana - some speeches were made and some pledges of peace were given - we stayed four days. We came back. We should not have gone to make this peace had Taiporutu not come to us.
Murder of Kumete and Te Maumutu
Some of our people went to Ka-wehi-tiki and then Kumete was killed. They afterwards went to Matamata and then Te-Maumutu was killed.
This district belongs to Nga-ti-maru. Those were the ancient tribes to whom it belongs, viz: Nga-ti-hue and Nga-ti-kopiri-mau. These are all that I am clear about. When I said it belonged to Nga-ti-maru, I meant that Nga-ti-hue and Nga-ti-kopiri-mau were conquered by Nga-ti-maru. My ancestor Maru-tuahu took part in that conquest. Maru-tuahu is the name of a man. Te Ruinga was the ancestor who made this conquest. These two whom I have mentioned are both ancestors of Nga-ti-maru. I cannot trace my genealogy from Te Ruinga. The Maru-tuahu conquered that land and held it until the time of the battle of Taumata-wiwi.page (192)
Before the battle of Taumata-wiwi we were making canoes, and during that time also, we had commenced to make some before the battle and some after Taumata-wiwi. We took our time over making them. They were carved canoes - the top sides, the stern post and the head pieces were carved. Before we left we were joined by Te Hira and others. Te Hira brought 200 people with him.
We killed two men and destroyed all the cultivations of Nga-ti-haua. We built a Pa at Matamata. Some dead of Nga-ti-haua were taken up by our army, at Matamata. We brought the bones to Hau-raki to catch fish with and to drink water out of the skulls. We did not tell the Nga-ti-haua of our having taken up the bones. After we had left they may have seen it. After we got back to Hau-raki, I took part in the Hira's fight. After we returned to Hauraki I heard that Nga-ti-haua had left Matamata and fled to O-tawhao at Kawhia. I heard this from Nga-ti-tumutumu, and they heard it from the Nga-ti-haua. I know of two messengers, coming to Hou called Te-Wharau and Hauraki. I saw Hau-raki. Te-Wharau was with Hou. Hauariki was with Nga-ti-whanaunga. They came from Te-Waharoa. Hauariki came to Kauwae-ranga. Hou's place was at Korokoro. Hauariki said - "The Nga-ti-haua have fled. They are scattered about at O-tawhao and Kawhia." Horeta said - "It is alright, the matter rests with Te-Waha-roa." That is all that he said. The next fight that I was at was Te-Uira. The page (193)Hau-raki tribes and Nga-ti-haua fought there. We made an attack. Te Manu, Te Uru-karaka and Kau-ki-uta were killed. Rapana caught Te-Manu, Te Waka caught Te Uru-karaka and Te-Whare-iro caught Kau-ki-uta. We lost none on this occasion. There were 340 of our party there. These are all the fights in which I took part. I know that there were many other fights between Nga-ti-maru and Nga-ti-haua. I was not in these fights. I have heard of the Kariaruhi fight. I was there. That was before Taumata-wiwi. The fights after Taumatawiwi were Te-Uira, Wai-harakeke, Matamata, Kumete, (Maungakewa) and Ongare. No revenge was ever taken by the Nga-ti-haua for Te Uira, nor for Wai-harakeke, nor Kumete, nor Matamata, nor Ongare - which was the last fight. All these fights were open fights, not murders. Te Uira was an open fight, so was Kumete, and Matamata and Wai-harakeke - the whole of them were and they were fought on account of Taumata-wiwi. I mean as return or revenge for Taumata-wiwi. These are the fights after Taumatawiwi, and these fights pehi (overlay or exceed) Taumata-wiwi. At the battles of Uira, Matamata, Wai-harakeke and Kumete the people of Hau-raki went to attack the other tribes. I know something of my people going to cultivate at Te-Aroha. Before Taumata-wiwi, at Taumatawiwi and afterwards my people went to cultivate. At the time of Taumata-wiwi the people of Te-Aroha were at Te-Aroha.page (194)
It was because of the murder of Te-Horeta at Wai-kato by the Wai-kato's after Taumata-hiwi that he and his wife and child were murdered. He had been living at Waikato before Taumata-wiwi, and continued there afterwards until he was killed. He belonged to Hau-raki. According to our Maori ideas it was a mean thing to do to kill a man who had been living among them. Nga-ti-haua and Waikato were all the same people. That is why we went to fight them. Te-Horeta had married a Waikato woman, and had children when he was murdered. The missionaries turned us back to Hauraki. There was another "taua" (war party) went to Wai-harakeke which I did not go with. I saw it go. I was unwell at the time. The second "taua" (war party) killed some people. This "taua" went with the intention of fighting the Nga-ti-haua. I don't know how many men were in the "taua". There were 400 in the party which the missionaries turned back.page (195)
Taraia-nga-kuti was at that time at Kai-a-poi killing people there. Wai-harakeke belonged to Nga-ti-hine-rangi. Taraia had a claim on it with the Nga-ti-maru. Nga-ti-maru claim with Nga-ti-hine-rangi through their ancestor. All the tribes of Hau-raki do not claim in Wai-harakeke, only Taraia and Ropata, and those connnected by Nga-ti-hine-rangi. When Taraia returned from Kai-a-poi and heard that Hou had given Te-Waha-roa permission to dress flax at Te-aroha and Wai-harakeke he was angry with Hou. It was in consequence of this that the evil took place at Wai-harakeke. The Wai-harakeke affair was not a murder, it was a "huaki" (open attack). Our "ope" (body of people) found men at Wai-harakeke. Te Piki, Ngutu-tai and others, about 20, they did not turn round to fight - they ran away. After killing some women we took Pinenga prisoner, and then we came away. Nga-ti-haua did not lift their hand about this affair. They did not remain at Wai-harakeke. Te-Waha-roa was at Tauranga when we made this attack. He afterwards came to Matamata. I know about an adultery committed with the wife of Wi-Tamihana by Paora-Te-Ahura and Te-Ha-wau of Nga-ti-haua in consequence of that Wi Thompson fled to the Aroha, and the Nga-ti-tumutumu took him back to Matamata. I don't know the place on Te Aroha that Tamehana came to. He came to "whakamomori" (commit suicide) or that he might be killed by the Hauraki people. The Nga-ti-tumutumu took him back to Matamata. After that Nga-ti-haua paid the Nga-ti-tumutumu one cask of tobacco because they had taken Wi Tamehana safely back to his home.page (196)
The cask of tobacco was brought to Hau-raki and divided. It was rope tobacco. This took place shortly before the Wai-harakeke affair. At the time that Wi-Tamehana fled to Te Aroha the Nga-ti-tumutumu were living there in their settlements, and he found them there. I was present at the Uira affair - that was a fighting expedition - not a murder. I was at Ongare. I saw the battle at Taumata-wiwi, but did not take part in it. I know about the peacemaking after Ongare. The first peacemaking was by Puke-rahaki, Raihe's father. That took place at Nga-hine-pouri within a year of Ongare. Paora-Te-Ahuru accompanied Te Raihe's father, also Nga-rata, and Te-ahuru-whenua, and another - the latter was a Nga-ti-tawhaki. That was the first peacemaking between Nga-ti-haua and Hauraki. At this peacemaking speeches were made. Nothing was given. The Nga-ti-haua went back after the peace made at Matamata. The Nga-ti-maru had gone up to Nga-hine-pouri to meet them, when the Nga-ti-haua, Wi-Hopihana and Hohepa-Te-Rau-hihi accompanied them. Matamata, Hau-o-ira, Te Puke-rahoki came with them, also the people I have named before except Paora, Hohepa, and Te-Awhe permitted them to come in their canoe from Maunga-emiemi. The canoes had been taken to Maunga-emiemi by the Nga-ti-haua on their way up. They left them there and went over land to Matamata. I am quite certain that the Nga-ti-haua made the first proposal for peace, and that none of the Hau-raki's had been sent there before on that event.page (197)
I was at the Ongare battle. The cause of it was the Katikati land. It was between Taraia and Te-Whanake.
Do you remember a song of Te Tiwha? No. Where were you between Taumatawiwi and Ongare? At Te Puru. After Ongare where did you go? To Te Puru.
The land at Katikati was the principle cause of Ongare battle but the former fights had something to do with it.page (198)
Nga-ti-haua did not, come to fight us, but the Wai-kato did. They came to Haua-rahi, as a "huaki" (surprise party), the same as Wai-harakeke and Te Uira was also "he huaki". The Nga-ti-paoa were the people attacked at Haua-rahi. The Waikato killed some people. The men of the place came out, and the Waikato fled. The Waikato did not remain. The Nga-ti-paoa had no Pa at Haua-rahi. The attack commenced at Haua-rahi but the regular fight took place at Whakatiwai. The Nga-ti-whatua joined the Waikato - Te Warena, Te Kauwae and Te Kauwae and the Waikato went to Whakatiwai, but the people of the place proved the stronger, and Waikato fled. We were pulling across the gulf, having heard the firing. When we arrived at Whakatiwai, the Waikato had left and gone to their own place. They went by way of Marama-rua. The cause of this attack was the murder of Te-Horeta by Te-Katipa. After this, Kapa and Te-Matikara came to Hau-raki, and Hoera-Tipa killed Kapa, and Te Kaha killed Matikara. The battle of Haua-rahi was in consequence these murders. All the fights except Haua-rahi, were in the Nga-ti-haua country. The only attack made on us in our district was to Hauraki and that was by Waikato only and not by Nga-ti-maru. When we were at Whakatiwai Kati-Te-Wherowhero came from the north while I was there with Te Kooti of the Nga-ti-puru, and ten others.page (199)
These ten had a narrow escape, for we were there, arranging a "taua" (war party) to go against Waikato. Te Rauroha saved them, when Te Rauroha had taken them away we rushed down and took all their property which was accepted by us as a peacemaking.
Tukara is near Tama-here on the way from Te Uira, and the place where our canoes were.
I was not in the fight at Taumatawiwi but in some other fights before that and at Kari-aruhe which was about 18 months before Taumatawiwi.
The Kaiaruhe battle was to avenge the death of some of the Waikato's.page (200)
I belong to Nga-ti-paoa and Nga-ti-tamatea. I know the Aroha.
The Aroha land belongs to Nga-ti-maru and Hau-raki tribes. They have had it for many generations. The chiefs who conquered it were first - Te Ruinga, second - Te Paporo and Te Pukeko and Kato-hau and the chiefs of Hau-raki. I can trace my descent from: