‘Guardians and Wards’ : (A study of the origins, causes, and the first two years of the Mau in Western Samoa.)
(a) Official All the files listed below can be found in the National Archives, Wellington, New Zealand.
|1/7||Garrison: Samoa 1919-20.|
|8||Legislative Council, 1919-44.|
|12||Information gained by Dr Pomare 1914-21.|
|13||Report on Samoan Affairs, Mr Gray 1920-21.|
|16||Petition from Residents (Dec. 1915)|
|7/8||Native Dept., Annual and Quarterly Reports.|
|18||Criticism of the Samoan Administration, 1920-27.|
|20||Administrator's Malaga, 1920-41.|
|21||Commission of Inquiry into the Causes of High Prices, 1920-21.|
|23||Re Prime Minister's Visit, 1921; Governor-General's Visit, 1922, etc.|
|23/1||Citizens' Meeting re Prime Minister's Visit, 1922.|
|23/2||Mr Gray's visit to Samoa, 1922.|
|23/3||Correspondence with Secretary while on Tour, 1921-22.|
|23/16||Proposed Enquiry into Samoan Affairs, 1930.|
|23/19||The Lauati Mau, 1908-09 (re German Archieves, copied by Inspector Braisby, 1933.)|
|27||Information for Prime Minister, 1920-21.|
|28||Internal Economy, 1921.|
|29/1||Visit of Minister External Affairs, 1921 etc.page 120|
|32||Report by Colonel Tate on Administration, 1923.|
|33||Monthly Dispatches from Administrator, 1923-24.|
|35||Visit of Administrator to New Zealand.|
|42||Private Notes by General Richardson on Samoa, 1927.|
|48/1||Visit to Samoa: Berendson and Verschaffelt, 1933.|
|49||Visit to Samoa: Berendson and Verschaffelt, 1928.|
|49/1||Newspaper Comments on Berendson-Verschaffelt.|
|58)||These files contain the numerous (and varied) petitions -|
|60)||From individuals and groups - either to the New Zealand|
|62)||Government or to the League of Nations.|
|1||Re the Administration.|
|9||Reports on Samoan Affairs, 1919-29.|
|10||Dr Schultz - Copy of a private diary etc.|
|1||Handwritten letters from Administrator Richardson to Nixon Westwood. Apia Public Library.|
|2||Papers and letters on Samoa History, collected by Nixon Westwood. Documents range from private correspondence to government files, reports, and the 1921 Petition to George V. Apia Public Library. (Extremely valuable material).|
|1||Claims Arbitration - Case Presented on Behalf of His Majesty's Government. A copy in Apia Public Library. (This document is page 121 extremely helpful in studying the events of 1898, 1899).|
|2||British Military Occupation of Samoa, 1915-1924. A Collection of official documents - reprinted mainly by the ‘Samoa Times’. Apia Public Library.|
|3||British Colonial Policy in Relation to New Zealand 1871–1902. Documents from Colonial Office Papers in the Public Record Office. Transcribed and edited by D. K. Fieldhouse, Dept. of History, Canterbury University, Volume II.|
|4||Journal of the New Zealand House of Representatives, 1923.|
|5||New Zealand Statutes, 1921, 1923.|
|6||New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, Vols. 200 and 201.|
|7||Papers relating to the South Sea Islands. Presented to Both Houses of the General Assembly, by Command of His Excellency, Wellington, 1874.|
|8||Report of the Royal Commission, 1927. (This is the most important collection of printed material on the first two years of the Mau, 1926-27. Apart from the Report itself, it contains the evidence brought before the Commission and a large collection of documents).|
|9||Western Samoa: Reprint of Ordinances and Regulations 1920-1959. Apia Public Library.|
|1||‘Samoa Herald’, 1931-1935.|
|2||‘Samoa Guardian’, 1929-1934.|
|3||‘Samoa Times’, 1915-1930.|
|4||‘Samoanische Zeitung’, 1901-1914.|
|5||‘Western Samoa Gazette’, N1-94, 1920-1936.|
|6||‘Western Samoa Mail’, 1936-1941.|
[All the above newspapers are to be found in the Apia Public Library. Valuable clippings of articles written on Samoa by Fijian, Australian, and New Zealand newspapers can be found in the official files mentioned in Section I.]
|Buck, P:||Vikings of the Sunrise. Whitcombe & Tombs, Wellington. 1958.|
|Burton, J. W.:||Modern Missions in the South Pacific. Livingston Press. London. 1949.|
|Brown, George:||George Brown D. D. Pioneer Missionary and Explorer, an Autobiography. Hodder & Stoughton. London.|
|Churchill, L. D.:||Samoa Uma. New York. 1902.|
|Commack, F. M. & Saito, S.:||Pacific Island Bibliography. Scarecrow Press. New York. 1962.|
|Drew, H. T. B. (Lieut):||The War Effort of New Zealand. Whitcomber & Tombs. 1923.|
|Fletcher, C. B.:||The Problem of the Pacific. Heinemann. London. 1918.|
|Fox, J. & Cumberland, K. B.:||Western Samoa, Land, Life and Agriculture in Tropical Polynesia. Whitcombe & Tombs. New Zealand. 1962.|
|Grattan, C. H.:||The South-west Pacific Since 1900. University of Michigan. 1963.|
|Grattan, C. H.:||The South-west Pacific to 1900. University of Michigan. 1963.|
|Henry, Father:||Tala Tu'ufa' asolo o Samoa. Translated from English to Samoan by K. T. Faleto'ese. Cyclostyled Copy. Apia Public Library.|
|Horne, C. S.:||The Story of the L. M. S. L. M. S. 1908.|
|Keesing, F. M.:||Elite Communication in Samoa. Stanford University Press. 1956.|
|Keesing, F. M.:||Modern Samoa. Allen & Unwin. London. 1934.|
|Keesing, F. M.:||Native Peoples of the Pacific World. New York. 1946.|
|Keesing, F. M.:||The South Seas in the Modern World. New York. 1941.|
|Kramer, A.:||The Samoan Islands (2 Volumes). Apia. 1942.|
|Kramer, A.:||Salamasina. Translated from German to English by Brother Herman, 1949. Published by Marist Brothers, Pago Pago, American Samoa. 1958.|
|Mander, L. A.:||Some Dependent Peoples of the South Seas. Macmillan Co., New York. 1954.|
|Masterman, S.:||The Origins of International Rivalry in Samoa, 1843-1884. Allen & Unwin. London. 1934.|
|Maudslay, A. P.:||Life in the Pacific Fifty Years Ago. Routledge. London. 1930.|
|McArthur, W.:||The Population of the Pacific Islands (Parts III and IV). Cyclostyled Copy. Apia Public Library.|
|Mead, M.:||New Lives for Old. Victor Collancz. London. 1956.|
|Mead, M.:||The Coming of Age in Samoa. Pelican Books. London. 1943.|
|Morrell, W. P.:||Britain in the Pacific Islands. Oxford Press. London. 1960.|
|O'Farrell, P. J.:||Harry Holland. Militant Socialist. Australia. National University. Canberra. 1964.page 123|
|O le Tusi||Fa'alupega o Samoa. Samoan Church (L. M. S.) 1958.|
|Pitt-Rivers, G. H. L.:||The Clash of Culture and the Contact of Races. Routledge. London. 1927.|
|Robson, R. W.:||Queen Emma. Pacific Publications. Sydney. 1965.|
|Ross, A.:||New Zealand Aspirations in the Pacific in the Nineteenth Century. Oxford Press. O. U. P. 1964.|
|Scholefield, G. H.:||A Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Wellington. 1940. (2 Volumes)|
|Sharp, A.:||Ancient Voyagers in Polynesia. Paul's Arcade. Auckland. 1963.|
|Sharp, A.:||The Discovery of the Pacific. Oxford Press. London. 1960.|
|Stanner, W. E. H.:||The South Seas in Transition. Australia Pub. Coy. Sydney. 1953.|
|Stevenson, R. L.:||A Footnote to History. New York. 1892.|
|Stevenson, R. L.:||The South Seas Letters from Samoa etc. Volume 3. Davos Press. New York. 1906.|
|Stuebel, C.:||Selections from Samoan Texts. Translated from the Samoan by Brother Herman. Cyclostyled Copy. Apia Public Library. Stuebel was German Consul 1884-1894.|
|Taylor, C. R. H.:||A Pacific Bibliography. Polynesian Society. Wellington. 1951.|
|Turner, A.:||Nineteen Years in Polynesia. London. 1861.|
|Ward, J. M.:||British Policy in the South Pacific. 1786-1893. Australia. Pub. Coy. Sydney. 1947.|
|Watson, R. M.:||A History of Samoa.|
|West, F.:||Political Advancement in the South Pacific. Oxford Press. London. 1961.|
|Williamson, R. W.:||The Social and Political Systems of Central Polynesia. Cambridge University Press. 1924. (3 Volumes)|
|Davidson, J.:||The Mau. Seminar paper. Dept., of Pacific History. Australian National University. Canberra. 1964.|
|Gill, J. T.:||The Administration of Major General Richardson in Western Samoa 1923–1928. Thesis for M. A. Victoria University. Wellington.|
|Ma'ia'i, F.:||A Study of the Developing Patterns of Education and the Factors influencing that Development in New Zealand's Pacific Dependencies. Thesis for M. A. Victoria University. Wellington. 1957.|
|Martin, J.:||Representative Institutions in Western Samoa. Thesis for M. A. Victoria University. Wellington.|
|Pisa, I.:||Articles on Samoan Pre-History. Typewritten. School Publications, Apia.|
|Watters, R. F.:||The Geography of Samoa about 1800. A Study in Historical Geography. Thesis for PH.D. University of London. 1956.page 124|
|Westwood, N.:||A handwritten article on the Mau. Written in 1936. Copy in Apia Public Library. (Westwood knew Richardson as a friend. He also knew men such as Tate, Nelson, and Afamasaga.)|
1The stepping stones of the god Tagaloa.
2Kramer cited by Stanner, The South Seas in Transition, P.262
3Keesing cited by Stanner, ibid
4Cited by McArthur, ‘Population of the Pacific Islands’ (Parts III and IV), P.154
5According to the old people cannibalism coincided with these periods of famine and warfare.
6Gill, ‘The Administration of Major General Richardson’, M.A. Thesis, Victoria University, P.2.
7‘Malo’ - the party holding the power (for the time being).
∗When converted to christianity he became Malietoa Tavita after David in the Bible.
8Sympathy for Tamafaiga in folk history is non-existent. His one captivating memory was his ambition to get a 100 wives. He missed by one.
9Sylvia Masterman, ‘The Origins of International Rivalry in Samoa, 1854-1884’, 1934. P.25.
10R.F. Watters, ‘The Geography of Samoa about 1840’. A study in Historical Geography - unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University London, 1956 P.147.
12 Report of Royal Commission, 1927, P.xv
14Gilson, cited by McArthur, ‘Population of the Pacific Islands (Parts III and IV), P.152.
16‘Samoa Guardian’, 7 November 1929. P.3-4.
17Ex1/3 Report from Robin to Minister External Affairs, 27 February, 1920.
18Ex1/27 Memo from Tate to Minister External Affairs, 3 January, 1921.
19My own grandmother, who is 92, has vivid memories of this Epidemic. She claims that there was a widespread belief amongst the Samoans, even as far back as Sapapali'i (Savaii), her birthplace, that the N.Z. ‘Malo’ had introduced the Epidemic. Some people believed that N.Z. had done so deliberately.
20Ex1/32 Report on Native Affairs by Tate, March, 1923.
21From talks with Saveaali'i Ioane.
22J. Davidson, The Mau: an unpublished seminar paper, Dept. of Pacific History, A.N.U., 1964, P.1
23Gilson, cited by McArthur, Population of the Pacific Islands, P.154.
24The phrase is Dr. Solf's. Samoanische Zeitung Newspaper, 24 April, 1909, P.8
25Samoanische Zeitung Newspaper, 20 February, 1909, P. 7. A reprint of an article which appeared in the ‘Auckland Star’.
26Samoanische Zeitung Newspaper, 24 May, 1909 P.7
27Scholefield, Dictionary of N.Z. Biography, Vol. II, P.502.
28New Zealand Statutes, 1921. P.41-102.
29Ex1/27 Memo from Tate to Minister External Affairs, 3 January, 1921.
30Scholefield, Dictionary of N.Z. Biography, Vol. II, P.370.
31Nixon Westwood, an unpublished, handwritten article on the Mau, Apia Public Library. This man was Richardson's friend.
32Ex1/27. Memo from Tate to Minister, 31 January, 1921.
33Curr, later one of the Mau leaders, was one of these men.
34Report of Royal Commission, 1927 P.459
35European-part-European discontent in a later section.
36Ex1/27. Memo from Tate to Minister, 31 January, 1921.
37Nixon Westwood, unpublished article on the Mau.
38Ex1/31/2 Newspaper clippings - ‘Star’ (Auckland), 17 August, 1922.
39In 1921, £100,000 was borrowed from New Zealand.
40R. L. Stevenson, Footnote to History, P.20.
42Ex1/29/1 Letter from Minister External Affairs, E. P. Lee, to Citizens' Committee, 19 August, 1921.
43Keesing, F. M. Modern Samoa, P.450-474.
44The voluminous records of New Zealand Administration in Samoa bears this out.
45Ex1/23. Memo from Tate to Secretary External Affairs, 28 February, 1922.
46Ex1/29/1 Petition to Minister External Affairs, E.P. Lee, 5 July, 1921.
47Ex1/23 Memo from Tate to Sec. Ext. Affairs, 1 March, 1922.
48J. D. Salinger, ‘Hapworth 16, 1924’, New Yorker, 19 June, 1964.
49Ex1/23/1 Copy of a speech by Westbrook, 18 July, 1922.
50The records of the N. Z. Administration in Western Samoa, alone, are full of these complaints.
51A fuller discussion of this myth can be found in Stanner's, The South Seas in Transition, P. 305-312.
52Some of these songs can be found in Kramer, Volume II.
53In chapter VI.
54, 55Ex1/23/6 Memo from Governor-General Ferguson to Minister External Affairs re His visit to Samoa in 1926.
56A discussion of Richardson's background can be found in Book Two. Chapter III.
57A brief history of the ‘Fono’ can be found in the Report of Royal Commission, 1927, P. lvii and lviii. A detailed discussion of the growth, of representative institutions in Western Samoa can be found in John Martins M. A. Thesis, Representative Institutions in Western Samoa, Victoria University, Wellington.
58Samoa Amendment Act, 1923. New Zealand Statutes, 1923, P. 105-106.
59A lengthy list of Regulations passed by Fono can be found in Report of Royal Commission, 1927, P.li
60The Police Force numbered only 34 (4 white, 30 Samoan).
61N.Z.P.D. Vol. 200, P 991; Vol 201, P 260-261.
62Samoan Legislative Council, Order 1923. Gazette W.61, September, 1923.
63Samoa Times, 18 March, 1925, P 5.
∗ The most authoritative study of Richardson's Administration is Gill's M.A. Thesis, The Administration of General Richardson in Western Samoa. Victoria University.
64Report of Royal Commission, 1927, p xxi
65Ibid p xxii
66About 140 Europeans and 150 Samoans. The Samoans were mainly from and around Apia. Report of Royal Commission, Inspector Braisby. P lix-lx
67Afamasaga Lagolago had a special grievance here: Richardson had taken away his Afamasaga title.
68The President of the L.D.S. Mission was the only speaker who supported prohibition.
69Nelson claimed, in his Petition to the League of Nations, that in October 1926, after the appointment of the Citizens' Committee, a number of Samoan chiefs came to him and asked that they should participate in the Committee; he told them that the Committee could not be enlarged. So a Samoan sub-committee was formed. ‘This sub-committee rapidly grew’. Report of Royal Commission - Pxxiii - ‘This supporting Committee evidently became numerically very large and it is said that it contained Representatives from every Faipule district’.
70Report of Royal Commission, 1927, p 422
72But now unemployed because of Richardson.
73Ex1/59. Clause 40, Nelson's Petition to League of Nations.
75Report of Royal Commission, 1927, Pxxiv. In June 1927 - pure Samoans numbered 38,624. ‘It is certain that somewhere in the region of about one half of the adult members of Samoa were Mau adherents.’
76The phrase is Richardson's, but I have lost the reference.
77Reports on this meeting are to be found in ‘Samoa Times', 17 June, 22 July, 1927. Also in the Report of Royal Commission, Nelson's Petition to the League of Nations, and other Mau literature.
78Report of Royal Commission, Pi
79Nelson claimed that this was an attempt by Richardson to ruin him because of his political activities.
80Ifoga - Customary penance paid by an offender to a wronged party. Generally, the wronged party accepted such penance.
81From an eye-witness, who was a troop leader in the ‘Fetu O Samoa’ which accompanied Richardson on this tour.
82In 1927, this committee was made up of old matai's extremely loyal to the Administration. Those men, (Toelupe, Seiuli etc) were closely connected to Malietoa Tanumafili, who was not in the Mau.
83All spheres of village, district and national life were meticulously brought under the control of the Administration through these Ordinances. Regulations concerning latrines were even passed.
84Look at Book I - ‘The Flowering of Discontent’.
85Most of this information, concerning the growth of the firm, can be found in Samoa Times, 23 February, 1918. P 4.
86Nelson's Petition to the League of Nations.
87 and 88Nixon Westwood, unpublished manuscript on the Mau.
89From opinions of some of the men who worked for him.
90Some old people ask the question: ‘Where did the Mau funds go?’
92Scholefield, Dictionary of N.Z. Biography, Vol II, P234
93Richardson received the C.M.G. in 1915; the C.B. in 1917; the C.B.E. in 1919; the Legion d'honneur, and the Belgium Croix de Guerre. In 1926, he won the K.B.E.
94Look at Chapter VIII, Book I.
95A handwritten letter from Richardson to Westwood, dated 26 July, 1927.
96The phrase is Nelson's.
97In a letter to Nixon Westwood, dated 21 April, 1926. Apia Public Library.
98Keesing, Modern Samoa, P177
99Most of the Mau songs, deriding Malietoa Tanumafili for not joining the Mau were songs composed and sung by villages belonging to the Samalietoa grouping.
100nationalism: the desire of a people - expressed in various ways - to govern their own affairs and determine their future relationship with the colonial power.