The “Tory” Arrival at Pito-one—The Purchase of Port Nicholson.
“A sturdy ship of English Oak, with spars and rigging taunt—
She bravely battled out the storms with canvas spread to vaunt
The perils of that long sea-voyage—while mothered in her hold
Were precious souls, all British born adventurous and bold.
F. Marryatt Norris, 1928.
The selection of an exploring ship was made, and the pioneer ship “Tory,” a vessel of 400 tons, was bought and prepared for the voyage. She was armed with eight guns and smalls arms for all the ship's company; filled with the necessary stores and provision, and goods for barter with the New Zealanders, and manned with a strong and select crew. The ship was commanded by Captain Edmund Mein Chaffers, R.N., who had been acting master of H.M.S. “Beagle.” The passengers were Colonel Wakefield, the Company's agent; Edward Jerningham Wakefield, his nephew and acting secretary; Dr. Ernest Dieffenbach naturalist to the Company; Mr. Charles Heaphy, Company's draughtsman; Mr. John Dorset, who had been promised the appointment of Colonial Surgeon; Nayti, a New Zealand native, to act as interpreter; Mr. Richard Lowry, the chief mate; and Mr. Geo. F. Robinson, the surgeon of the ship.
In the steerage were Robert Doddrey storekeeper and additional interpreter; the second and third mates, and Colonel Wakefield's servant; besides the steward and his cabin boy. Petty officers and foremast hands, among whom were a New Zealander and a native of the Marquesas Islands, made up the total muster roll to 35 souls.
The high land of New Zealand was seen on the 16th August, 1839, about noon.
During the voyage a weekly manuscript newspaper and a debating society were established, and vocabularies of the Maori, or New Zealand, language were also constituted from Nayti's dictation, while lessons in English were given to him. Jerningham Wakefield, in his book, “Adventure in New Zealand,” pp. 49–65, describes thus the “Tory's” entry into Port Nicholson harbour: “We had got on board Barrett (a whaler), and his wife (Rangi) and children, with several attendant natives of both sexes, who formed a sort of colony in our ample 'tween decks. Dicky had long been too fat and heavy to go out himself in the whale boats, and left the affairs of the station in the hands of a clerk during his absence (from Te Awaiti.) We also took over a steady trader named Smith, who knew the natives well, and was to be left in charge at Port Nicholson, should we succeed in purchasing it.page 15
“On the 20th September, 1839, piloted by Dicky Barrett, we advanced up the channel, and were boarded by two canoes containing the two principal chiefs of the tribe living on shore.
“One of mature years,” writes Wakefield, “named Te Puni, advanced with much dignity of manner to greet Barrett as an old friend, and was joined by his nephew, Wharepouri, a fine commanding man of about thirty-five. They were both nearly related to Mrs. Barrett, and had been Dicky's companions in the dangerous wars of Taranaki. The old man was as famous for his wisdom in council as for his former deeds of war. Wharepouri exercised the more immediate direction of the tribe, having acquired a more modern reputation by recent warlike exploits, by his attractive eloquence, and by his perfection in the native accomplishments of canoe and house making, and marshalling his followers in the field.”… . “Te Puni enquired the motive of our visit and expressed the most marked satisfaction on hearing that we wished to buy the place. Wharepouri also expressed his willingness to sell the land, and his desire of seeing white men come to live upon it.”
“The two chiefs passed the night on board.… “They acknowledged that they would be heartily glad to renounce war and cannibalism.” “In the morning of the 21st September, 1839, the two chiefs told Colonel Wakefield to go and look at the land and see how he liked it.”… “A chief named Amahau was appointed to take him up the river (Hutt), and they started, with Barrett and some natives, in a small canoe.
“Several of us landed at a large village opposite our anchorage and witnessed the ceremony of crying over Te Rangi, whom many of her relations had not seen for five years.
“The village lay, as its Maori name (Pito-one, or ‘End of the Sand’) implied, at the western end of the sandy beach,* which is two miles long. The main river falls into the sea at the eastern end, and is called the Heretaunga.
“A merry brawling stream called the Korokoro or “throat” flows between the village and the Western hills. The valley seems to preserve an average width of two miles to a considerable distance, bounded on either side by wooded hills from 300 to 400 feet in height. It was covered with high forest to within a mile and a half of the beach, when swamps full of flax, and a belt of sand hummocks intervened.
“The tangi, or crying, continued for a long period. The resident natives raised the most discordant whining lamentations streaming at the eyes, nose and mouth, and lacerating every part of their bodies with sharp cockle shells until the blood flowed.
“The native visitors seemed anything but comfortable. They had forgotten the art of producing tears at will, and had a decided objection to spoiling their fine clothes, donned for the occasion, by any blood letting.”
“We found abundance of pigeons, and returned laden to the Pa.”… “We found also one solitary white man, named Joe Robinson, living in a village near the mouth of the river, having taken a native wife from the tribe. We saw proof of his industry and ingenuity in the shape of a boat, the planks for which he had cut with a handsaw; and he had made all the nails himself out of iron hoops. The boat earned many a pound in later times by trading round the coast.…”
Fig. 10—Wharepouri, Cousin to Te Puni. The Ship Tory in the Offing. Figs. 9 and 10 are reproductions of photos by Mr. Hapi Love, Junior, from the Original Paintings by Mr. C. D. Barraud (1861) hanging in Mr. Hapi Love's Maori Hall in his house (Taumata) on Korokoro Hill, Pito-one.
Fig. 11—Maori War Canoe. This canoe, named “Waiapu,” originally came from the Whanganui river, and was placed in the Dominion Museum. It was formerly used for fishing purposes, but was fitted up as a War Canoe and manned by descendants of the great Maori Chiefs (to demonstrate the Pito-one Natives proceeding to meet the ship Tory in 1839) at the Pageant held during the Prince of Wales visit to Wellington in 1920 (see Dominion Museum Bulletin No. 7, pages 121 and 81). Mr. Hapi Love has named some of the crew, they, reading from left to right, are: 1, Hapi Love, descendant of Jacky Love; 5. Wi Neera (Porirua), descendant of Te Rauparaha; 8. Kainaki (Taranaki); 13. Geo. Love.
“Wharepouri introduced the matter of the sale, which a chief named Puakawa (Pu-whakaawe) or “Bitter Milk Thistle” rose and opposed with great energy. He spoke for an hour. On the 24th, the discussion was renewed at Pito-one; many chiefs being present from other settlements. After the serious discussion had closed, some of the warlike chiefs amused us, and themselves, by sham fighting, and their exercise with the spear and tomahawk. One, named Kaihaia (Kaeaea), diverted us much by his active menacing gestures and hideous grimaces of defiance; leaping about like a monkey, and bringing a long pointed wooden spear within an inch of our bodies; then retreating with a roar of laughter every time he saw us shrink from the thrust. He was called Taringakuri or Dog's Ear, and professed great hatred for Te Rauparaha, whose name he frequently shouted out as he brandished his hatchet against thin air.”… “On the 25th the goods which Colonel Wakefield intended to give the natives for their land, were got upon deck, in the presence of about a hundred natives. Except incessant chattering, they offered no obstruction or inconvenience to this process. On the 26th, the chiefs came on board accompanied by their sons, and examined and approved of the quality and quantity of the stuff, and on September the 27th, 1839, the distribution on the deck of the goods commenced.”
“Wharepouri superintended it with much formality. A handsome young chief named Wi Tako, who was related to Mrs. Barrett, received the share of his father, the chief of Pipitea and Kumutoto, and he arrayed himself in a good suit of clothes selected from the heap. Old ‘Dog's-ear’ received the share for his settlement, which is called Kai-whara-whara; Te Puni received that for Pito-one; Wharepouri took charge of the Ngauranga portion and despatched a share which had been made purposely smaller to the Pa Te Aro, where a tributary tribe called the Taranaki had its habitation. The sixth share was assigned to Puakawa and his followers.”…. “I had prepared a deed according to Colonel Wakefield's instructions.”… . “The boundaries and native names being inserted from Wharepouri's dictation, it was brought on deck and laid on the capstan. As I read it through, sentence by sentence, in English, Barrett interpreted into Maori.”… “The chiefs then came up in succession to the capstan in order to make their marks. As each one's name was called, I wrote it down and held the pen whilst he made a mark opposite. They all brought their sons with them, to bind the transaction and to prove that they looked forward to the future.
“The boats were then sent away with the goods for the settlements, the chief of each accompanying them and undertaking to distribute them at his own place.
* Locality of Te Puni Street, Pito-one.
The Purchase of Wellington.
“The first deed of purchase, dated 27th September, 1839, defines the boundary of the land purchased from the natives which included considerably more than Wellington City and suburban area.page 18
Fig. 12—Bird's-eye View of Port Nicholson, New Zealand, drawn and lithographed by T. Allom, from Charts and Drawings made during Colonel Wakefield's survey in 1840, and the property of the N.Z. Coy. Reference numbers are: 1. Pito-one beach; 2. Heretaunga or Hutt river; 3. Nga-uranga; 4. Kaiwhara-whara; 5. Somes Island; 6. Lowry Bay; 7. Pipitea point; 8. Lambton Harbour and site of the Town of Wellington; 9. Oriental Bay; 10. Point Jerningham; 11. Point Halswell; 12. Ward Island: 13. Evans Bay; 14. Para Lake (Burnham Water, now Miramar Tennis Courts); 15. Karaka Bay and Seatoun; 16. Muritai; 17. Lyall Bay; 18. Breaker Bay; 19. Palmer Head; 20. Barrett's Reef; 21. Chaffer's Passage; 22. Pencarrow Head.
“The consideration given was: 100 red blankets, 100 muskets. 2 tierces of tobacco, 48 iron pots, 2 cases of soap, 15 following pieces, 21 kegs of gunpowder, 1 cask of ball cartridges, 1 keg of lead slabs, 100 cartouche boxes, 100 tomahawks, 40 pipe tomahawks, 1 case of pipes, 2 dozen spades, 50 steel axes, 1,200 fish-hooks. 12 bullet moulds, 12 dozen shirts, 20 jackets, 20 pairs of trousers, 60 red nightcaps, 300 yards of cotton duck, 200 yards of calico, 100 yards of check, 2 dozen pocket handkerchiefs, 2 dozen slates and 200 pencils, 10 dozen looking-glasses, 10 dozen pocket knives, 10 dozen pairs of scissors, 1 dozen pairs of shoes, 1 dozen umbrellas, 1 dozen hats, 2 pounds of beads, 100 yards of ribbon, 1 gross of jew's harps, 1 dozen razors, 10 dozen dressing combs, 6 dozen hoes, 2 suits of superfine clothes, 1 dozen shaving boxes and brushes, 2 dozen adzes and 1 dozen sticks of sealing wax.”
An article in the Journal of the Early Settlers Association, May, 1913 (Vol. 1, No. 2, p. 58), deals at length with the first purchase of the New Zealand Land Company (Whanga-nui-a-Tara>.* or Port Nicholson), and gives the signatures of the chiefs as follows:—Matangi, Te Puni, Puakawa, Te Kaeaea alias Taringa-kuri, Kariwa, Kawia, Tuarua, Wi Tako, Tingatoro, Tuati, Wakarudi, Emau, Atuawe Ra, Warihi, Te Wharepouri.
“Next morning” (the 30th), Wakefield continues, “we observed the natives gathering from all parts of the harbour. Canoes and parties on foot, glittering with their lately acquired red blankets and muskets, were all closing in upon the place of rendezvous. Fresh smokes rose every moment on shore as a new oven was prepared for the feast; and Wharepouri and the other chiefs who had slept on board, went on shore early to make the necessary preparations, accompanied by our carpenter, who was to superintend the erection of a small tree which the natives had procured for the purpose, as a flagstaff, close to the Pito-one Pa. In the afternoon, on a signal from the shore, we landed in our boats with all the cabin party, and all the sailors that could be spared, to take part in the rejoicings. We were joyfully received by the assemblage, which consisted of about three hundred men, women and children. Of these, two hundred were men, and had armed themselves with the hundred and twenty muskets they had received from us, spears, tomahawks, pointed sticks, stone and wooden clubs, etc. Even a dozen umbrellas figured in the ranks.”… .“Every one was dressed in some of the new clothes; their heads were neatly arranged, and ornamented with feathers of the albatross or huia; handsome mats hung in unison with the gay petticoats of the women and the new blankets of the warriors; the latter were bedizened with waistcoats and shirts, and belted with cartouche-boxes and shot-belts.”… “A universal spirit of hilarity prevailed among the excited multitude.”
“As we landed, Colonel Wakefield ordered the New Zealand flag to be hoisted at the staff, and the same was done at the main of the “Tory,” which saluted with twenty-one guns, to the great delight of the natives at the noise and smoke.”
“Wharepouri took his station at the head of one of the parties into which the fighting men were divided: “Dog's Ear” having marshalled the other at a little distance.page 20
“Wharepouri was dressed in a large hussar cloak belonging to my uncle, to which he had taken a fancy, and brandished a handsome greenstone mere. His party having seated themselves in ranks, he suddenly rose from the ground and leaped high into the air with a tremendous yell. He was instantly imitated by his party, who sprang out of their clothes as if by magic, and left them in bundles on the ground. They then joined in a measured guttural song recited by their chief, keeping exact time by leaping high at each louder intonation, brandishing their weapons with the right hand, and slapping the thigh with the left as they came heavily upon the ground.
“The war song warmed as it proceeded; though still in perfect unison, they yelled louder and louder, and leaped higher and higher, brandished their weapons more fiercely, and dropped with the smack on the thigh more heavily as they proceeded, till the final spring was accompanied by a concluding whoop which seemed to penetrate one's marrow. After this preparatory stimulant, the two parties ran down to the beach and took up positions facing each other at about two hundred yards distance. They then repeated the dance, and at its conclusion the two parties passed each other at full speed, firing their guns as they ran, and took up a fresh position nearer to each other.
“A small reinforcement was now brought up from Puakawa's village at the mouth of the river to one of the parties, and we were much surprised to see at the head of it Richard Davis, the missionary teacher, dressed in warlike costume, and his head bedecked with the huia feathers.”… “They now for a third time went through the Peruperu, or ‘war dance,’ but dispensed with the sham fighting, as the day was nearing its end.”
“A haka was now performed by about one hundred and fifty men and women. They seated themselves in ranks in one of the courtyards of the Pa, stripped to the waist. An old chieftainess, who moved along the ranks with regular steps brandishing an ornamental spear in time to her movements, now recited the first verse of a song in a monotonous dirge-like measure. This was joined in by the others, who also kept time by quivering their hands and arms, nodding their heads and bending their bodies in accordance with each emphasis and pause. These songs are often made impromptu on various subjects, but those selected for the present occasion were principally ancient legends. At the conclusion of the haka, we were served from the ‘umu’ or Maori oven, with the joints of a pig, which had been sacrificed for the occasion.”… “This disposition continued unabated during the three days more that we remained at this place.”
“Dr. Dieffenbach and Mr. Heaphy engaged some native guides one day to go and look for some birds called huia, which were said to abound in this part of the country.
“They crossed the mouth of the Heretaunga River and ascended a steep ridge of the eastern hills. Among the forests on the top they remained ensconced in the foliage while the natives attracted the birds by imitating the peculiar whistle from which it takes the name of huia. They shot only two or three, which had followed the decoy almost on to the barrels of their guns.”
The “Tory” left Port Nicholson for Port Underwood on the 4th November, 1839.
Fig. 14—Britannia (Pito-one) 1840, from a sketch drawn by Capt. W. Mein-Smith, R.A., taken from the Korokoro Hill. Tents and Houses are on the Beach, and Emigrant Ships near Somes Island.
Fig. 15—Te Puni's Pa. Pito-one. Showing Colonel Wakefield's Quarters and the Chapel. The bell used for calling the worshippers was presented by Bishop Selwyn, and sometimes was rung by him before the services. It is in the possession of Mrs. Hapi Love, O.B.E., a descendant of Te Puni.
After calling at several places the “Tory” set sail for Kaipara on the 16th December, 1839, and anchored in ten fathoms outside the entrance of that harbour on the 18th. The following morning Dr. Dorset, who was left in charge of affairs during the Colonel's absence up north, announced that the ship was aground, so the usual methods to get her off were taken, but in vain. Captain Chaffers and his crew exerted themselves unceasingly; five guns, three or four anchors and cables, a deck load of spare spars and several other heavy articles were cast over; some heavy mill stones and paving flags were hoisted from the hold and rolled overboard. One of them was carelessly sent through the best whale-boat, which lay at the gangway.
She was hove down on a sandbank at the first spring tide, and the necessary repairs proceeded with. Colonel Wakefield then proceeded overland to the Bay of Islands in order to charter a small vessel to take him to Port Hardy, to meet the first fleets of Emigrant ships.
In the meantime the barque “Cuba,” 273 tons, arrived on January 3rd, 1840 (Captain Newcombe). The passengers were:—Captain W. Mein Smith, R.A.; Messrs. R. D. Hanson, Carrington, R. Park, Stokes, and K. Bethune.
Wakefield in his narrative writes:— “About the middle of January, 1840, the “Guide,” originally a Calcutta pilot brig, of about 150 tons burden, and swarming with cockroaches, arrived, bringing letters from Colonel Wakefield to Dr. Dorset.
Instructions were given to charter the “Guide,” proceed to Taranaki and bring Barrett and Dr. Dieffenbach to Port Nicholson, and if they reached the latter place before the Colonel, they were to get the natives to build plenty of temporary huts in readiness for the emigrants.
On the 20th, just as it fell dark, they rounded Cape Terawhiti with a freshening breeze from the north-west. A fine moon, peeping every now and then through the driving scud, lighted them on their way, and by daylight on the 21st they were beating up within Port Nicholson close to Somes Island.
Some large vessels were at anchor between the island and the main, and white tents and new reed houses along the line of the beach at the foot of the Hutt Valley could be seen as they anchored north of Somes Island, close to a newly arrived emigrant ship. Two others, apparently discharged, also lay in the anchorage. “Landing opposite Pitoone,” states Jerningham Wakefield, “I was delighted to meet Colonel Wakefield, safe and well. He was accompanied by Captain Mein Smith of the Royal Artillery, to whom he introduced me as the Surveyor General of the New Zealand Land Company. We were also greeted by several other gentlemen, whose tents or huts were pitched in the neighbourhood.”
* The spelling of the names as corrected by Stowell are used. Vide Journal of Early Settlers, Vol. 1, p. 3.