Headquarters: a brief outline of the activities of headquarters of the third division and the 8th and 14th Brigades during their service in the Pacific
II — The Sections Attached
The Sections Attached
Intelligence Section.—The intelligence section during the life of 8th Brigade saw many changes in its personnel and in the type of work it was called on to do. On the formation of the unit all the members of the section, with the exception of Second-Lieutenant K. E. Louden (later Captain Louden, MC), were new to I work and during the stay in Fiji much valuable training was done. Here two native boys from the Fiji Defence Force were attached to the section and introduced to the rudiments of intelligence work and size 13 boots, the latter certainly blistering their feet in no mean manner.
One reconnaissance which will live in the minds of the participants was the overland trip from Vatukarasa, Sovi Bay, to Nausori, a distance of some 100 miles. Although the trip was page 53a very pleasant one, the going was extremely difficult and meant moving in stream beds for miles, and using rafts made of bamboo and held together with vines for carrying packs and rifles when it was necessary for the party to swim. After three days out boots began to fall to pieces and it was necessary when the party reached the village of Namaumau to pull out down the Navua River to the main road and refit before continuing the trip. The second stage turned out much easier and the country much flatter and more closely populated with villages, where the natives showered hospitality on the passing troops in the form of fruit, poultry and the native beverage, kava, a drink which courtesy demanded had to be partaken of as a token of friendship. Much night work was done by the section while stationed at Suva, when the Japanese attack seemed imminent and the curfew was imposed, tracking down offenders of the blackout regulations.
It was while in Fiji that Sergeant D. V. Stunner left the section to join the 8th Brigade Commandos and Sergeant F. R. Orwin, who was the only original member of the section to remain with it throughout its existence, was appointed intelligence sergeant. After the brigade returned to New Zealand from Fiji more new personnel joined the section including Sergeant W. A. Cowan and Corporal K. Bradley. The Kaimais proved a good training ground for the I section and both before and after the manoeuvre several weeks were spent in the bush on reconnaissance work.
In New Caledonia much intensive training was carried out and many experiments with rations fell to the lot of this department. The most vivid in memory undoubtedly is the one with the American D chocolate ration. It was intended that the party should cross the island from Népoui to Ponérihouen and return via a track to Poya, taking for food only the rich emergency chocolate, to test its sustaining qualities. At first the party found the diet in the solid and drinking forms quite palatable; but after several days all were showing signs of fatigue and sickness. On arrival at the opposite coast all but the officer called off the experiment and enjoyed a hearty meal at a French home and purchased stores for the return journey. On the way back the officer, too, succumbed to the temptation of more satisfying and attractive victuals. Shortly after the arrival of the 34th and 36th page 54Battalions in New Caledonia Captain J. L. Berry of the 34th battalion relieved Captain Louden as intelligence officer, the latter going to the 36th Battalion as a company commander. It was while holding this appointment that he was awarded the MC at Treasury.
As a result of experience gained in exercises and in anticipation of the scope of work that the I section had to do in jungle warfare, the establishment was increased by the addition of two lance-corporals, N. F. Gilkison and B. C. McKenzie joining the section to make a total strength of six. Captain Berry's stay with the section was terminated by illness while at Guadalcanal and he was replaced by Lieutenant H. G, West some days prior to departing for the assault on the Treasuries. The period spent at Guadalcanal, although short, was a very interesting one. Many reconnaissances through old battlefields and preparations for the occupation of the Treasury Group kept the section fully occupied. As very little firsthand information was available it was decided to send a reconnaissance party to Mono Island some days prior to the final orders being given. Accordingly, on 19 October 1943, Sergeant W. A. Cowan, accompanied by Sergeant-Major Frank Wickham, school-teacher at Falamai prior to the Japanese occupation, and Sergeant Ilala, the latter two both being members of the British Solomon Islands Defence Force, and Corporal Nash of the Australian intelligence service were successfully landed near Malsi. Two American airmen who had been hidden from the Japs and succoured by friendly natives, together with several natives who had volunteered to act as guides when the allied occupation commenced, came back and gave valuable information regarding the enemy's strength and dispositions.
While this reconnaissance was in progress the remainder of the section was very busy making maps, interpreting aerial photos and making sand models of the group in order to familiarize unit commanders and other officers with the terrain. Twenty-four hours prior to the.assault landing Sergeant Cowan and a party of native scouts and three members of the 29th Battalion again landed on Mono in the vicinity of Malsi. An observation post was established inland in order to keep track of the Japanese as they withdrew from Falamai, and also to cut the telephone line from the Jap observation post known to be at Laifa Point. An interesting sidelight on this episode takes us to brigade head-page 55quarters aboard the Stringham. Sergeant Cowan had sent back, by the PT boat which had conveyed him and his party, a message which contained the sentence 'NO increase in enemy strength.' By some unfortunate accident and to the alarm of the brigade commander this message reached the Stringham without the word 'NO.' It was for Sergeant Cowan's work on these two landings prior to the occupation that he was awarded the DCM.
The action period was a very busy time for the section and the full benefit was felt of the numerous exercises and manoeuvres during the static period. After the occupation was completed, map making reconnaissance, compilation of information and intelligence summaries kept personnel occupied. In December 1943 Corporal Bradley, who was evacuated on account of sickness, was replaced by Corporal K. J. Dunnet and on 1 April (there is no significance in the date) Captain West was struck by a falling tree, necessitating his removal to hospital in New Caledonia. Shortly after this Captain Louden rejoined the section.
Not the least of the tasks of the section was the satisfying of mess secretaries, concert producers and sports organisers, whose demands for menus and programmes continually taxed the ingenuity and sometimes the patience of the draughtmen. Whatever the job, the section, except on one or two occasions such as when it reported American Mitchells having bombed Blanche Harbour, produced the right answer.
The Transport Section.—-When the headquarters was formed in Fiji Lieutenant A. Siddall was appointed transport officer and he continued until the force returned to New Zealand. There was only a limited amount of transport available in those early days, but this did not mean there was less to be done. The vehicles then in use were not of recent or standard models and it was not an easy matter to keep them up to pitch.
Prior to the departure from New Zealand to New Caledonia Captain O. G. Davey took over the section, and the scope of its work broadened with the new four and six-wheel drive vehicles which had come into general use. Hill climbing and sand crossing experiments were carried out and the capabilities of the jeeps and trucks tested. There were, of course, diversions from the normal tasks of the transport section. The transport officer was used as an unloading officer at Treasury. The office truck, which page 56was fitted with a winch, was used in the tree-felling activities of the defence platoon. The section took its turn in the fox-holes round headquarters and on one occasion Private 'Bill' Tacon was called on to drive an antiquated hay mower to cut the Dubois memorial airfield, near Bouloupari, on which the brigade group ceremonial parade was held. Privates E. S. Kidd and 'Joe' Black were members of the Tui concert party, and after duty contributed to the lighter side of army life.
During the rest period in New Caledonia the transport section was the only part of the headquarters which was called on for any serious work, the personnel being loaned to base headquarters for convoy duty to Nouméa. This job was not undertaken with much relish, for it was many months since journeys of more than a few miles had been undertaken. At the end of this tour of duty, however, as always, they took pride in their dusty faces and tired eyes.
The Defence Platoon.—Mention has already been made of the activities of the defence platoon at various periods in our story, but this brief review would not be complete without reference to other aspects of the life and work of the unit. Since our period of contact with the enemy can be reckoned in days, the task of defence implied in the name belies the true function of the platoon. Rather was it an employment platoon called on for the thousand and one jobs behind the scenes, the essential but neither spectacular nor exciting tasks which have to be done in the maintenance of a camp. For most it was a boring round cheerfully accepted in the knowledge that every part of it was a contribution to the general welfare of the headquarters as a whole.
There were, of course, purple patches when special work or training had to be done, breaking the monotony and providing new topics of conversation and new food for argument. As a matter of interest a war diary entry of 17 June 1943 is quoted:— 'Visit of General Freyberg, who inspected and complimented the guard of honour drawn from the defence platoon.' On the training and operational side there was the exercise at Florida, near Tulagi, which was held to familiarise the units with LCIs and APDs which were to be used in the Treasury landing. The defence platoon was the only part of the headquarters which was able to take part in this rehearsal, the claim of the other per-page 57sonnel on headquarters that they were too busy and too important to be spared being frigidly ignored.
At Treasury a number of important patrols and observation post duties were entrusted to the platoon, in addition to the job at the forward report centre which has already been referred to. These patrols took them to the smaller Wilson and Watson Islands and the more remote corners of Stirling Island. In this respect the platoon took its full share of the serious part of the job. Frequent moves had made the platoon expert at camp erection and it never took long for such meagre amenities as were available to be installed. An interesting diversion was provided by the call for lumbermen to clear the camp at Stirling, the call 'Timber' ringing out as each giant mahogany received the final blow from the axeman.
The platoon had its share of the lighter side and initiated a number of well remembered functions. One of these was held on 29 July 1943 at Bouloupari when Lieutenant Lang was fare-welled on his departure to New Zealand and Lieutenant Fitness was welcomed back as commander of the unit. A short time after this the platoon sergeant-major, Warrant-Officer Tremaine, who had been saving his beer ration for some time, announced his attainment of parenthood and the recreation hut was again the scene of much merriment. These are only two of a number of official and unofficial functions, indoor and outdoor, which brightened the off duty hours.
Although the unit was required to find a place for a number of men who were detailed for other permanent jobs on headquarters, it could always find among its members someone to give the advice on or solution for the various problems which arose. From plumbing to bushfelling, from language interpretation to picture theatre operating, there was always someone who had the knowledge or experience to meet the occasion.
Section Signals.—While it is not entirely true, as the signallers generally claim, that a headquarters is built round the signal office, there can be no doubt that J section of the Divisonal Signals played a very important part in all branches of the life and work of the headquarters. When the headquarters was formed in Fiji the section was under Captain (later Major) K. Wilson, and Second—Lieutenant (later Captain) G. M. Parkhouse, the latter officer remaining with the section until December 1943 by which page 58time he had been longer on headquarters than any other officer. With Lieutenant P. L. Gowland, an original member of the section as an NCO, these officers and their successors, Captain Garters and Lieutenant G. O'Hara and Second-Lieutenant Korte, and other members of the section, made considerable contributions not only on exercises and operations but in recreation, the provision of extra camp amenities such as electric light and the servicing of radio sets.
The equipment available in the early days, and during the training periods in New Zealand and New Caledonia, was of ancient vintage and did not permit the section to display its true worth, although there were rare occasions when the exchange would answer on the first ringing. New wireless sets and other equipment were issued in Guadalcanal and tests there were most heartening.
For the Treasury operation the section was divided, providing a forward report centre on Mono, the situation of which has been referred to elsewhere, while the main part of the section landed on Stirling with brigade headquarters, settling in near the shore at Purple 3 beach. For the linesmen in the section under Sergeant Godbold, the succeeding months were nothing short of hectic, enemy bombers, allied bulldozers and, in the camp area, the merry men of the defence platoon, seeming to conspire to break and entangle every telephone line erected through the jungle. Gradually, however, as location of roads and runways became fixed and enemy bombing ceased, Captain Garters, who was signals officer for the island, put in hand the erection of a pole line with nearly 50 trunk lines, and a specially prepared underwater cable was laid between Stirling Island and Falamai. This work completed, members of the section were able to give a little time to the building of canoes and rafts for the better enjoyment of off duty hours. On returning to New Caledonia the section rejoined the remainder of Divisional Signals and a long and happy association was ended.
Ordnance.—In Fiji the ordnance detachment consisted of only Second-Lieutenant (later Major) E. J. R. Signal as ordnance mechanical engineer, but when the brigade arrived in New Caledonia further ordnance personnel were attached to the headquarters. Warrant-Officer 1st Class A. K. Bristow arrived as ordnance warrant-officer and he was followed shortly after by page 59Captain A. E. Tilly (who replaced Second-Lieutenant Signal as ordnance mechanical engineer), his clerk and two armourer sergeants. All these personnel remained with the headquarters through the busy periods in New Caledonia and Guadalcanal when the brigade was being equipped for the Treasury action. During those periods headquarters was able to take advantage of their services in assisting with the administration of the domestic side, such duties as official photographer and regimental and mess fund secretaryships falling to their lot.
The nature of the action at Treasury was such that very few vehicles could be taken forward and as a result it was possible to appoint the ordnance mechanical engineer to duties such as unloading officer and beach commander, Captain Tilly being used in this capacity on numerous occasions prior to his return to New Zealand in December 1943. As the brigade group became remote from the advanced ordnance depot at Guadalcanal a reserve of clothing and other stores was taken forward in the later echelons and two storemen were attached to headquarters to assist Sergeant-Major Bristow in the distribution of these stores. A tarpaulin-covered store was erected on Stirling Island and, as far as possible, units' indents were met from holdings there. This store and staff had a narrow escape when a Jap bomb burst close by, peppering the area with shrapnel. Corporal Fitzgerald, the only casualty on headquarters as a result of enemy action, received a minor wound and was later evacuated. On the departure of Captain Tilley, Captain R. St. J. Keenan joined headquarters, and when Sergeant-Major Bristow returned to Headquarters Divisional Ordnance his place was taken by Warrant-Officer 1 st Class E. C. Rollo. Both these replacements remained until the headquarters dissolved.
The Provost Section,—There was only one occasion on which the Third Division as a whole was engaged in an exercise. For this, 'The Battle of the Kaimai Ranges,' a provost section was attached to 8th Brigade Headquarters, remaining until the curtain rolled down in July 1944. Although like most other units the section was under strength, it was given on this occasion and subsequently in New Caledonia traffic control tasks which required each man to prove his skill and endurance to the utmost. When the brigade was in the Népoui Valley the strength of the section was increased and, tinder Sergeant D. W. Beyer, the page 60detachment was called on to patrol the main road from Poya to Koné, which included the Plaine des Gaiacs stretch—the dustiest and most unpleasant on the island. Refuse dumps, important intersections, and the Népoui wharf absorbed men for point duty and there were few idle hours. This period was but an introduction to more onerous duties in the Bouloupari area where road patrols were in three directions from the headquarters. One of these was the control of the one-way road to Thio, on which a control gate was established. Point duty during convoy movements, at sports gatherings and on brigade exercises, and a special picket in La Foa where disturbances had been reported were among the other duties which fell to this section's lot. Despite the thousands of miles on complaining motor cycles on roads which alternated blinding dust and greasy mud the section suffered no serious accidents and it was with regret that it was learned that no transport would be taken to the forward area, as the men had become expert riders.
The section contributed to the achievements of headquarters in the field of sport, Privates 'Bill' More and 'Ossie' Osborne being prominent. The honours won by Con Crowley are a source of pride to this section as well as to the defence platoon, for he was a member of the provost for some considerable time. Lack of mobility was balanced by lack of roads in the forward area, but the section found employment in picketing of water points and road junctions, checking of the observance of all important malarial control measures, the control of beaches and theatre areas and the escorting and care of prisoners. Beach and unloading area control, from the time of the first landing when members of the section were among the first ashore (claiming a brace of Japs who dared remain near the beach) to the days when liberty ships drew alongside, the pontoon dock, was the main job at Treasury. A careful check was made of all trucks engaged in the unloading ensuring a continual supply of trucks at the ships' side, and the correct delivery of the various types of cargo. The section was later provided with a jeep and with additional US personnel attached, Sergeant Beyer became responsible for traffic control by day and night, and was frequently called on to search for stolen vehicles. It is understood that when the section left New Caledonia it was in some doubt as to its future employment, but there can be no question that its time page 61was not only fully taken up, but employed in an exacting and interesting manner.
ASC.—When headquarters was formed in Fiji the supply officer was Second-Lieutenant (later Major) A. Lamont, and he continued in that capacity until appointed to command an ASC company in July 1943. During this period the ASC section became as noted for the quantity of its personal impedimenta as for its ability to produce the odd tin of strawberry jam at the right moment, and a ready answer to the complaint or criticism of the husky infanteer. The following entry in the war diary of 19 December 1942 is quoted as a record of the section's achievement in another direction:—'Brigade Headquarters Derby, Captain A. Lamont v. Lieutenant S. H. Naismith, resulted in a spirited tussle and saw Captain Lamont breast the tape one yard ahead of Lieutenant Naismith. The victory was duly celebrated at midday mess when Captain Lamont, on the command of the brigadier, was decorated with the Order of the Red Poppy, First Class.' Captain T. R. Edgerly, who succeeded Major Lamont, joined headquarters just prior to departure from New Caledonia and carried on until the headquarters dissolved.
At Treasury, the section became responsible for the distribution of rations to all personnel on the island, there being altogether about 40 'breaks.' Special problems were encountered with the distribution of icecream (which is a normal US issue in the tropics) and an endeavour was made to make it available to as many New Zealand units as possible. The US units which had the facilities for making icecream cooperated well and made their machinery available for the units not so fortunately placed. Fresh food, brought occasionally by small refrigeration ships called YPs (familiarly 'Yippees'), had to be distributed quickly and certain personnel, notably the aircrews, were provided with special extras. These matters, together with the paper work involved in lease lend transactions, kept the ASC section fully occupied until the return to New Caledonia where, in common with the rest of headquarters, it enjoyed many leisure hours.
AEWS.—Lieutenant J. L. Hewland, brigade education officer, joined headquarters in May 1943 and assumed the duties of organising study, sport and entertainment in the whole of the Bouloupari area. As the advantages offered by the Army Educa-page 62tional Welfare Service study courses became more widely known the number of men availing themselves of them increased.
Rugby, soccer and hockey competitions were carried on during the stay at Bouloupari and a number of boxing and wrestling tournaments were held, at one of which the New Zealand heavyweight, Tom Heeney, acted as referee. Here, too, the AEWS officer was able to arrange an excellent film service, and the theatre at the brigade headquarters camp at Bouloupari was often crowded to capacity.
Until it became possible for lectures and study courses to be arranged at Treasury, the AEWS officer was used for liaison and patrol duties, but as soon as conditions permitted the section became responsible for the distribution of films and magazines made available by the US Special Service Department. There were in all 16 theatres on the island, some of which had permanently installed machines, the remainder being serviced by a mobile unit. Although frequently interrupted by air raids, during which the crowd would disperse until the all clear, films were our main source of entertainment.
Study courses, study and discussion groups and clubs (such as the Young Farmers' Club) continued as before, the number of personnel taking study courses at one time being one-third of the brigade group. The troops became so film conscious that on the return to New Caledonia three picture theatres sprang up in quick time and extra films were made available. The time devoted to sport, the interest in visiting lecturers and artists, the continuance of the study courses and the institution of a hobby hut made it necessary for additional staff to be provided; and the work of the section was in full swing until the greater portion of the brigade returned to New Zealand.
Postal.—It was not until the brigade reached Bouloupari that a postal section under Corporal Murphy (later Sergeant Murphy, BEM) was attached to headquarters to handle the mail of all units in that area, a mail which, with the regular arrival of parcels, assumed huge proportions. The post office was located in a small bure on the road into brigade headquarters and each unit delivered and collected mail daily. The desirability for prompt service is recognised by none better than the postal unit itself and it is true to say that the postal section attached to brigade headquarters lived up to this realisation at all times. page 63Even while at Efate in the New Hebrides a mail was sent ashore for transmission by the US organisation. May the appreciation of all ranks of the postal service be here recorded.
Mails arrived regularly at Treasury and, with few exceptions, in good condition. Indeed the further units were from New Zealand the better the service seemed to become. During the stay at Treasury the postal section had several moves, on one occasion the result of damage caused by shrapnel, finally setting up in brigade headquarters area. Wednesday and Sunday were regular mail days, and the letters arrived almost to the minute. As distributors of pleasure and happiness, the members of the section shared the joy of those whose mail was good, meeting the disappointed with a cheery 'Better luck next time.'
Graves Registration Unit.—As the brigade was to become, as it were, independent of the remainder of the division, it was necessary to ensure that personnel of this unit were in the first echelon. Accordingly a small section under Sergeant A. G. Hill was attached at Guadalcanal and remained until departure from Treasury. This section carried out the task of laying out and caring for the cemetery at Falamai, which contained in all some 40 New Zealand and 20 American graves. Arrangements were made for a pen drawing of the cemetery to be photographed and prints were made available to units desiring to send copies to the next of kin of the fallen.
It was probably by some strange accident that this unit also became responsible for maintenance of supplies of stationery. As with some of the other services at Treasury this became an 'island' responsibility and extensive supplies of American as well as New Zealand stationery were stocked. Whether for this reason, or because of the excellent selection of 'pin ups' displayed in the store, there seemed always to be a queue of 'customers' awaiting attention.
The Lighter Side.—Most of the things that a soldier remembers and is pleased to talk about have their beginnings in a football match, a race meeting, a concert, or some other episode or function wherein the ordinary round has for a brief period been forgotten. The work of the Tui concert party under Corporal David Reid, the organised sport under various committees, the activities of the recreation hut in which Padre J. C. Pierce took page 64such a keen interest and other similar diversions therefore proved of immense value.
The Tui concert party was first formed in Fiji, and Corporal Reid was brought to headquarters as organiser and producer. By writing many of his own sketches and rhymes and borrowing artists from various units Corporal Reid was able to produce several good shows in Fiji and again at Cambridge when the division was back in New Zealand. While in New Caledonia the party was augmented and arrangements were made for it to tour all units in the Bouloupari area. With the show which had been so successful during this tour, visits were made to the large open air theatre at Tontouta when some 3,000 American troops gave the party a tremendous reception. A visit was also paid to the 4th General Hospital and in addition to an evening performance items were given in the wards.
The party gave its fiftieth performance at Guadalcanal in what was called The Regent theatre. This was a natural amphitheatre and a huge crowd kept the players going to the exhaustion of themselves and their repertoires. All the familiar songs with words written by or specially for the party were revived. At Treasury, partly because films were so plentiful, there was not the call nor the facilities for the live shows. However, a programme was arranged for Christmas Eve, including items by US servicemen, and later a concert was arranged in conjunction with the band of the 198th AAA and CA Regiment. This was given in various parts of the island, on several occasions going on through teeming tropical rains, with men and vehicles squelching through the surrounding mud to reach the 'stalls.' Lighting was sometimes crude and always difficult, stages were small, but somehow the party always managed.
Brigadier R. A. Row, DSO and bar, who commanded the 8th Brigade in Fiji after the original force had been expanded. Later he took the brigade into action in the Treasury Islands Below: Brigadier F. L. Hunt, QBE, who commanded the brigade for a brief period in Fiji during the temporary absence of Brigadier Row
Brigadier L. G. Goss, first commander of the newly constituted 8th Brigade in Fiji in 1942. He later took command in the Treasuries and brought brigade back to New Zealand
Stirling Island, Blanche Harbour and part of Mono Island as they appeared during the Japanese occupation. The notes were added from photo interpretation and information obtained from natives and American airmen who had hidden in the jungle. The only cleared area was at Falamai Point where the principal landing was made. This air photograph was taken on 19 September 1943. Below is the same area taken on 24 March 1944. The airstrip was 7,000 feet long and 350 feet wide. When this photograph was taken nearly 200 aeroplanes were stationed on the airstrip. Brigade Headquarters was situated on the harbour shore of the large bay on the left of Stirling Island
Cricket was indulged in during only three short periods—in Cambridge, where a number of friendly games and enjoyable teas were provided by St. Peter's School, in Treasury and again in New Caledonia. There were only two games at Treasury, one between brigade headquarters officers and the officers of the 4th Motor Transport Company, and the other between the officers and other ranks of the headquarters. Matting over coral and a rough coral outfield are not conducive to high class cricket. The first game was won by brigade headquarters officers, but in the second game they spent most of the afternoon searching for the ball in the surrounding jungle. Back in New Caledonia headquarters combined with the machine gun company to provide the fourth team in the competition. It remained fourth throughout. Boxing enthusiasts were proud of Private C. J. Crowley, of the defence platoon, who won the heavy-weight championship for the Bouloupari area. He was owned, trained and backed by headquarters, as was Private C J. Penny, our wrestling representative at home and in tournaments abroad.
One of the most interesting and enjoyable evenings at Bouloupari was that on which the race meeting was held. A floodlit course, colourfully attired jockeys, the inimitable 'Pancho' as clerk of the course and Private F. E. Scanlan, the impersonator of the Tui concert party, to give a running commentary, spelt good entertainment. Another meeting was held on the shores of Blanche Harbour, on this occasion money being extracted from the spectators by means of fines for various breaches of the club's rules as well as by the usual method. At this meeting the brigadier's horse—Job-at-last, by Patience out of Reshuffle— was a popular starter.page 66
We became very tenakoit conscious at. Treasury and both officers and men found that the game provided a welcome diversion at the end of each day. While the outdoor games flourished and held our attention there were indoor diversions as well to help pass the hours between sundown and lights out. The 'Rec' hut was always popular with its table tennis, chess, draughts and the ever-present 'tea-a-penny and the biscuits in.' In the background (generally) were such places as 'Dan's Den (for Players and Stayers) ', but even if it were known for what purpose these dives were created, it is doubtful whether such information could be disclosed. One has a suspicion that the 'sheriff' was off duty during business hours. All these institutions contributed much to the personality and well-being of the headquarters.