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The Home Front Volume II


page 1297


This is not a bibliography of the subject nor a complete list of the material studied. It sets out the sources actually quoted or embedded in the text and cited in footnotes.


Official unpublished sources:

Much relevant material from government files and also some from overseas is quoted in the War History Narratives and files of documents prepared by the War History Branch of the Department of Internal Affairs, primarily for use in writing the official histories of the Second World War. This material is now lodged in the War History Records (WAII, series 10) at the National Archives, Wellington. Those narratives and files used were:

Number Title Author
114 Aliens Administration, 1939–45
113 The Americans in NZ Lissington, P., and B. Angus
5 Censorship of the Press Witheford, H.
9 Defaulters and Conscientious Objectors (File) Blaikie. C.H.
1 Department of Agriculture. Councils of Primary Production Ross, A. A.
14 Education Department Rigg, E. M.
15 Emergency Precautions Scheme Rigg, E. M.
125 Home Guard (answer to questionnaire about HG commanders)
51 Manpower for Industry 1939–43 McGlynn, M. B.
49 Military Manpower 1939–43 McGlynn, M. B.
64 Mines Department Blaikie, C. H.
31 NZ and the War in Europe and War Aims O'Shea. J. D.
52 Notes on Industrial Manpower McGlynn, M. B.
68 Petrol Rationing in NZ, 1939–45 Blaikie, C. H.
69 Police Dept
73 Political Parties and the War (2 vols)
4 Postal and Telegraphic Censorship Lochore, R. A.
28 Pre-war Foreign Policy O'Shea, J. D.page 1298
Number Title Author
71 Pre-War Labour Attitude to War Witheford, H.
53 Some Aspects of Labour Control in War Blaikie, C. H.
106 The Men who Would Not Serve: Defaulters and Detention, 1941–6 Greenberg, L. J.
105 Universities and the War (File)
97 Waterfront Control Commission Pettit, P. M.
98 Women in Industry Angus, B.
99 Women's Land Services Angus, B.
100 Women's War Service, Auxiliary Angus, B.
101 Women War Workers' Hostels Angus, B.

Other files consulted (all in National Archives) were:

on British children IA 146/1, IA 173/1, IA 178/247

on emergency precautions IA 158/238/12, IA 178/—

on censorship of United Kingdom and United States material PM 25/2/1–3

on censorship of books PM 25/2/4–5

on military defaulters PM 83/10/1

Assorted unpublished sources:

Attwood, B. N., ‘Apostles of Peace: the New Zealand League of Nations Union’, research essay, University of Auckland, 1979

Barrington, A. C., MS Papers 439, Alexander Turnbull Library

———, ‘Trials of a Pacifist', script of two radio talks in October 1969, later published as a pamphlet

Burton, Ormond, ‘A Rich Old Man’, typescript autobiography, in MS Papers 438, Alexander Turnbull Library

J. T. Paul Papers, Hocken Library, University of Otago

MS Register of Strikes 1942–4, Head Office, Department of Labour, Wellington

Murphy, W. E., ‘Blamey's and Freyberg's “Charters”; a study in civil-military and Commonwealth relations’, cyclostyled paper Political Science Department, Victoria University of Wellington

Oestreicher, P., ‘They would not Fight; being a Survey of the Position of Conscientious Objectors and Military Defaulters in New Zealand during World War II’, MA thesis, Victoria University College, 1955

Orange, C., ‘A Kind of Equality: Labour and the Maori People 1935–1949’, MA thesis, University of Auckland, 1977

Roberts Papers, Victoria University of Wellington

Scholefield, G. H., ‘Private Diary kept during the war years 5.12.41 to 24.12.42’, Scholefield Collection, MS Papers 212, folder 68 Alexander Turnbull Library

page 1299

United Mine Workers of New Zealand, Minutes of National Council 1939–45, MS, Alexander Turnbull Library

University of New Zealand, Minutes of the Senate 1940–7, Wellington

Walsh, D. B., ‘A Survey of Orchestral Activity in New Zealand’, MA thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 1967

Waterfront Control Commission, ‘Activities of Waterfront Control Commission for year ended 31st March 1943’, cyclostyled [copy in Hare Papers, Victoria University of Wellington]

———‘Report on Organisation and Activities as at 31 March 1944’, cyclostyled [copy in Roberts Papers, Victoria University of Wellington]

Wellington Nursery Play Centre, Records 1941–45, National Archives, Wellington

Young Maori Conference, Auckland 1939, ‘Report of Young Maori Conference held at Auckland University College, May 22nd–May 26th, 1939’, cyclostyled, Victoria University of Wellington


Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives [A to J] 1938–48

Documents relating to New Zealand's Participation in the Second World War 1939–45, 3 vols, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs 1949, 1951, 1963

Kay, Robin, Chronology: New Zealand in the War 1939–1946, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1963

———(ed), Documents on New Zealand External Relations, vol I, The Australian–New Zealand Agreement 1944, Historical Publications Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1972

NZ Department of Agriculture,* Primary Production in New Zealand 1944, 1945, 1946, 1957, Wellington

NZ Department of Statistics, Annual Statistical Report on Trade and Shipping of the Dominion of New Zealand 1939, Part II, Wellington, 1940

New Zealand Official Year-book 1940–51

New Zealand Parliamentary Debates [NZPD] 1939–45

Statutory Regulations 1939–45; being the Regulations issued under TheRegulations Act 1936, Wellington1940–6

page 1300


Newspapers were a main source. The daily papers of the four main centres were used throughout: New Zealand Herald, Auckland Star (Auckland); Dominion, Evening Post (Wellington); Press, Christ- church Star–Sun (Christchurch); Otago Daily Times, Evening Star (Dunedin). To widen understanding, some larger provincial papers which were available in the General Assembly Library were consulted from time to time: Gisborne Herald, Grey River Argus, Grey- mouth Evening Star, Hawera Star, Hawke's Bay Daily Mail, Hawke's Bay Herald–Tribune, Napier Daily Telegraph, Nelson Evening Mail Oamaru Mail, Palmerston North Times, Patea and Waverley Press, Southland Daily News, Southland Times, Taranaki Daily News, Tar- anaki Herald, Timaru Herald, Wanganui Herald. Reports of particular incidents were sometimes available, often as clippings and therefore without pagination, from other local papers: Akaroa Mail, Bay of Plenty Beacon, Dannevirke Evening News, Hauraki Plains Gazette, Manawatu Times, North Auckland Times, Rotorua Morning Post, Taihape Times, Taumarunui Press, Thames Star, Waikato Times Wairarapa Times–Age, Wairoa Star, similarly some overseas clippings from News Chronicle, London Herald, The Times.

Weekly papers and general periodicals were useful, notably the New Zealand Listener, Standard, Tomorrow and Truth, also In Print, New Zealand Free Lance, New Zealand Observer, People's Voice, Workers' Weekly. Periodicals from the four main churches gave their points of view: the Anglican Church Chronicle and Official Gazette for the Diocese of Wellington, Church News (Christchurch) and Year Book of the Diocese of Auckland; the New Zealand Methodist Times; The Outlook of the Presbyterians; the Roman Catholic New Zealand Tablet and Zealandia. Similarly, trade unionists' attitudes were available in The Borer (later Union Record) of the carpenters and in the waterside workers' New Zealand Transport Worker, the Farmers' Union in Point Blank and Straight Furrow. The New Zealand Christian Pacifist Society had its cyclostyled Bulletin. University students spoke in their students' association publications: Auckland's Craccum and Kiwi, Wellington's Smad, Salient and Spike; Canterbury's Canta; Otago's Critic. The New Zealand Woman's Weekly had its insight.

Other periodicals used were:


Baker, J. V. T., The New Zealand People at War, War Economy, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1965

Baxter, Archibald, We Will Not Cease, Autobiography of a Conscientious Objector, 2nd ed, Christchurch, Caxton Press, 1968

Beaglehole, J. C., Victoria University College: an essay towards a history, Wellington, New Zealand University Press, 1949

Bellinger, Conrad, Grog's own Country; the story of liquor licensing in New Zealand, 2nd ed, Auckland, Minerva, 1967

Breward, Ian, Godless Schools? A study in Protestant reactions to the Education Act of 1877, Christchurch, Presbyterian Bookroom, 1967 [ie 1968]

Brown, Bruce, The Rise of New Zealand Labour; a History of the New Zealand Labour Party from 1916 to 1940, Wellington, Price Milburn, 1962

Burton, Ormond, In Prison, Wellington, Reed, 1945

Calder, Angus, The People's War: Britain 1939–45, London, Jonathan Cape, 1969

Campbell, A. E., Educating New Zealand, Wellington, Department of Internal Affairs, 1941

Canterbury University College Students' Association, University Reform; a Report by a Committee of the Canterbury University College Students' Association, Christchurch, printed at Raven Press, 1946

Chappell, N. M., New Zealand Banker's Hundred; a History of the Bank of New Zealand 1861–1961, Wellington, Bank of New Zealand, 1961

Comforts for Men in the Armed Forces, National Patriotic Fund Board, Wellington, Thomas Avery, New Plymouth, 1940

Condliffe, J. B., The Welfare State in New Zealand, London, Allen and Unwin, 1959

page 1302

Curnow, Allen (selected), A Book of New Zealand Verse 1923–45, Christchurch, Caxton Press, 1945

———(selected with introduction and notes by) The Penguin Book of New Zealand Verse, Penguin Books, 1960

Dalton, Hugh, The Fateful Years, Memoirs 1931–1945, London, Frederick Muller, 1957

Davin, D. M., Crete, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1953

Deakin, F. W., The Brutal Friendship; Mussolini, Hitler and the Fall of Italian Fascism, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1962

Eade, Charles (ed), War Speeches of the Right Hon. Winston S. Churchill: The Dawn of Liberation; The Unrelenting Struggle; The End of the Beginning, London, Cassell, 1945, 1946, 1946

Efford, Lincoln, Penalties on Conscience; an Examination of the defaulters' detention system in New Zealand, Christchurch, Caxton Press, 1945

Elliott, William Yandell, and H. Duncan Hall (eds), The British Commonwealth at War, New York, Knopf, 1943

Federation of Labour (New Zealand), Joint Statement on War Policy by the National Council of the Federation of Labour and the National Executive of the New Zealand Labour Party, Wellington, Standard Press, 1940

Feiling, Keith, The Life of Neville Chamberlain, London, Macmillan, 1946

Feis, Herbert, The Road to Pearl Harbor; the Coming of the War between the United States and Japan, Princeton, New Jersey, 1950

Firth, Cedric, State Housing in New Zealand, Wellington, Ministry of Works, 1945

Fleming, Peter, Invasion 1940; an account of the German Preparations and the British Countermeasures, London, Rupert Hart-Davis, 1957

Galloway, S., Better Baking, Wellington, Imperial Chemical Industries NZ Ltd [194?]

Gill, G. Herman, Royal Australian Navy 1942–1945, Canberra, Australian War Memorial, 1968

Gillespie, Oliver A., The Pacific, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1952

Gillison, Douglas, Royal Australian Air Force 1939–1942, Canberra, Australian War Memorial, 1962

Gordon, Ian A. (ed), New Zealand New Writing, nos 1–4, Wellington, NZ Progressive Publishing Society, 1942–5

Hall, D. O. W., Women at War, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1948

Hambleton, Keith (ed), Concord of Sweet Sounds: the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra at 30; a Scrap-book of Memories from Thirty Years of Musicmaking, Wellington, Concert Department, Broadcasting Corporation of New Zealand, 1977

page 1303

Hare, A. E. C., Labour in New Zealand 1942: Annual Report of the Research Fellow in Social Relations in Industry; Labour in New Zealand 1943: Second Annual Report…; Labour in New Zealand 1944: Third Annual Report…, Wellington, Victoria University College, 1942–4

——— Report on Industrial Relations in New Zealand, Wellington, Whitcombe and Tombs for Victoria University College; London, J. M. Dent & Sons, 1946

——— Works Councils in New Zealand, Wellington, Victoria University College, 1943

Harvey, Norman B., Any old Dollars, Mister?, Auckland and Hamilton, Paul's Book Arcade, 1964

Hearnshaw, L. S., Hours of Work in War Time, Wellington, NZ Progressive Publishing Society, 1942

Holland, H. E., Armageddon or Calvary: the Conscientious Objectors of New Zealand and “The process of their Conversion”, Wellington, H. E. Holland, 1919

Howe, C., Schola Cantorum, Wellington, New Zealand, 1936–1950; Fifteen Years of Musical Adventuring, Wellington, printed by Wright & Carman, 1951

‘Humanist’ [Wignall, S.], C.O.'s and the Community… This Concerns You, Auckland, Auckland Service Printery, 1945

Hurst, Maurice, Music and the Stage in New Zealand; a Century of Entertainment 1840–1943, Auckland, Wellington, Charles Begg and Co Ltd, 1944

Jenkins, D. & S., Social Attitudes in the New Zealand School Journal, Wellington, NZ Council of Educational Research, 1939

Jensen, Owen, The NZBC Symphony Orchestra, Wellington, Reed, 1966

Keesing's Contemporary Archives (London), vol V, 1943–6

King, Michael, Te Puea, A Biography, Auckland, Hodder and Stoughton, 1977

Kirby, S. Woodburn, History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series, The War Against Japan: vol I, The Loss of Singapore; vol II, India's Most Dangerous Hour, vol IV, The Reconquest of Burma, London, HMSO, 1957, 1958, 1965

Labour Party (New Zealand), New Zealand Labour Movement, Statement on War Policy by a Joint Conference of the Executives of the New Zealand Labour Party and the New Zealand Federation of Labour, Wellington… 21st February 1940, Wellington, Standard Press, 1940

Lee, John A., Money Power for the People, Labour's Way Out, Auckland, Grey Lynn Branch of the New Zealand Labour Party, 1937

——— Simple on a Soap-box, Auckland, Collins, 1963

——— Socialism in New Zealand, London, T. Werner Laurie, 1938

page 1304

Lehmann, John, The Whispering Gallery; Autobiography I, London, Longmans, 1955

Lissington, M. P., New Zealand and the United States 1840–1944, Wellington, Historical Publications Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1972

Lochner, Louis P. (ed), The Goebbels Diaries, London, Hamish Hamilton, 1948

Lochore, R. A., From Europe to New Zealand; an Account of our Continental European Settlers, Wellington, Reed in conjunction with the New Zealand Institute of International Affairs, 1951

McClymont, W. G., To Greece, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1959

McEldowney, W. J., The New Zealand Library Association 1910– 1960 and its Part in New Zealand Library Development, Wellington, New Zealand Library Association, 1962

McGibbon, I. C., Blue-Water Rationale, The Naval Defence of New Zealand 1914–1942, Wellington, Historical Publications Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1981

McKinney, J. B., Medical Units of 2NZEF in Middle East and Italy, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1952

McLeod, Roderick, and Denis Kelly (eds), The Ironside Diaries, 1937–1940, London, Constable, 1962

McLintock, A. H. (ed), An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, 3 vols, Wellington, Government Printer, 1966

[Melrose, T. H.], Sound the Tocsin; Japanese Menace, Hamilton, Waikato Times, 1942

Michel, Henri, The Second World War, London, Andre Deutsch, 1975

Morison, Samuel Eliot, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II: vol III, The Rising Sun in the Pacific, 1931– April 1942; Coral Sea, Midway and Submarine Actions, May 1942– August 1942; vol V, The Struggle for Guadalcanal, August 1942– February 1943, London, Oxford University Press, 1948, 1949, 1949

Morton, Louis, US Army in World War II: The War in the Pacific. Strategy and Command: the First Two Years, Washington, Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept of the Army, 1962

Mowat, Charles Loch, Britain between the Wars 1918–1940, London, Methuen, 1956

Murphy, W. E., ‘Crete: New Zealand Command Failures’, Comment, December 1967, no 33

Nash, Walter, Financial Power in New Zealand; the case for a State Bank, Wellington, NZ Worker Co., 1925

NZ Department of Defence, Conscientious Objectors. Field Punishment, Wellington, Government Printer, 1918

page 1305

NZ Department of Internal Affairs, Historical Branch, Introduction to New Zealand, Wellington, printed by Whitcombe and Tombs, 1945

NZ Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Industrial Psychology Division, Industrial Absenteeism Report No. 1, Wellington, 1943 (for private circulation only)

NZ National Service Department, War Gases, Decontamination and Protection Measures, Wellington, 1942

NZ Prime Minister's Department, Director of Publicity, New Zealand at War; Marching to Victory, Wellington, Director of Publicity, 1943

——— New Zealand's War Effort; Two Years' Achievements, Wellington, Director of Publicity, 1941

NZ Red Cross Society, Wellington Sub-Centre, The Red Cross Wartime Rationing Cookery Book, Wellington, 1944

NZ Rehabilitation Department, Buy, Build or Rent: Housing Assistance for the Ex-Serviceman, Wellington, Rehabilitation Department, 1946

——— Training for a Job: Facilities Available Under Rehabilitation, Wellington, Rehabilitation Department, 1945

NZ Waterside Workers Industrial Union of Workers, Order of Waterfront Control Commission, June 6th, 1940, Wellington, Standard Press, 1940

Nicolson, Harold, Diaries and Letters 1939–1945, edited by Nigel Nicolson, Collins, Fontana Books, 1970

Olssen, Erik, John A. Lee, Dunedin, University of Otago Press, 1977

Overacker, Louise, ‘The New Zealand Labor Party’, American Political Science Review, vol XLIX, no 1, September 1955

Payton-Smith, D. J., Oil: a Study of War-time Policy and Administration, London, HMSO, 1971

Playfair, I. S. O., History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series, The Mediterranean and the Middle East, vol II, The Germans Come to the Help of their Ally (1941), London, HMSO, 1956

[Richards, Alun Morgan], What Are We Fighting For? An Analysis of War Causes and Aims, Christchurch, NZ Christian Pacifist Society, 1939

Riches, E. J., ‘Agricultural Planning and Farm Wages in New Zealand’, International Labour Review, vol 35, no 3, March 1937

Roskill, S. W., History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series, The War at Sea 1939–1945, vol 1, The Defensive, London, HMSO, 1954

Ross, A. A., et al, Wartime Agriculture in Australia and New Zealand, California, Stanford University Press, 1954

Ross, J. M. S., Royal New Zealand Air Force, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1955

page 1306

Schroeder, Paul W., The Axis Alliance and Japanese–American Relations 1941, Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, 1958

Scott, S. W., Rebel in a Wrong Cause, Auckland, Collins, 1960

Self-Help Wartime Cooking Suggestions: how to get the Most out of your Rations, Wellington, Self-Help Co-operative Ltd, [1944]

Sinclair, H. I., Population: New Zealand's Problem, Dunedin, Gordon and Gotch, 1944

Sontag, Raymond James, and James Stuart Beddis (eds), Nazi–Soviet Relations 1939–1941: Documents from the Archives of the German Foreign Office, Washington, Department of State, 1948

Soper, F. G., ‘Chemistry in New Zealand’, Journal of NZ Institute of Chemistry, vol 39, no 4, November 1975

Stout, T. D. M., Medical Services in New Zealand and the Pacific, In Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force and with Prisoners of War, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1958

——— New Zealand Medical Services in Middle East and Italy, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1956

———- War Surgery and Medicine, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1954

Stretching the Meat Ration in New Zea/and: 150 Ways to make yourCoupons go Further, Wellington, NZ Dairy Exporter and Farm Home Journal, [1944]

Sutch, W. B., Poverty and Progress in New Zealand, Wellington, Modern Books, 1941

Sutherland, I. L. G. (ed), The Maori People Today: a General Survey, Wellington, New Zealand Institute of International Affairs and New Zealand Council for Educational Research, 1940

Taylor, A. J. P., English History 1914–45, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1965

Thompson, H. L., New Zealanders with the Royal Air Force, vol I, European Theatre, September 1939–December 1942, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1953

Turner, E. S., The Phoney War on the Home Front, London, Michael Joseph, 1961

United Mine Workers of New Zealand, Rules and Constitution of the United Mine Workers of New Zealand, reprinted 1943 and including amendments up to that date

Urquart, H. R., Men and Marbles, Auckland, H. R. Urquart, 1917

——— The Searchlight on R.S.A.'s and C.O.'s, Auckland, Times Printing Works, 1945

Wanganui Education Board, Report on Character Training and Citizenship, Wanganui Herald, 1944

page 1307

Wellington Housing and Accommodation Committee, Wellington's Disgrace; in the Shadow of the Slums… a Civic Responsibility, Wellington, 1943

Wellington Ladies Christian Association, Alexandra Home, Wellington, 1957

Werth, Alexander, Russia at War 1941–1945, London, Pan Books, 1965

Wheeler-Bennett, John W., The Wreck of Reparations: being the Political Background of the Lausanne Agreement 1932, London, Allen and Unwin, 1933

Wood, F. L. W., New Zealand in Crisis, May 1938–August 1939, Wellington, New Zealand Institute of International Affairs, 1939

———The New Zealand People at War, Political and External Affairs, Wellington, War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1958

——— This New Zealand, Hamilton, Paul's Book Arcade, 1946 [first published in USA as Understanding New Zealand]

Woods, N. S., Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration in New Zealand, Wellington, Government Printer, 1963

Wright, A. C, and S. P. Newcombe, Bands of the World, Evanston, Illinois, USA, Instrumentalist Co, 1970

page 1308

* Nomenclature of government departments follows Bagnall