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The Official History of the New Zealand Rifle Brigade

Chapter XVIII. From Crevecoeur to le Quesnoy. (The Battle of Le Cateau and the Battle of the Selle River.)

Chapter XVIII. From Crevecoeur to le Quesnoy. (The Battle of Le Cateau and the Battle of the Selle River.)

Part 1.—Lesdain and Beyond, October 8th.

Object of the Battle of Le Cateau—Front of attack—New Zealand Division engaged—New Zealand Rifle Brigade takes Lesdain and advances beyond—2nd Brigade captures Esnes—General success—Cambrai entered.

With the object of compelling the enemy to evacuate Cambrai, the Third and Fourth Armies on October 8th attacked on a front stretching seventeen miles southwards from the southern outskirts of the town. On the right, again, the French troops extended the line of attack as far south as St. Quentin, while, still farther south, the French and Americans attacked east of the Meuse and in Champagne. The action on the British front is known as the Battle of Le Cateau, and marks the commencement of the fighting in open country.

On the IVth Corps' front the 2nd Brigade and the New Zealand Rifle Brigade attacked in conjunction with the 37th Division on the right and the 3rd Division on the left. The task of the New Zealand Division was to establish itself just west of Esnes, and on the Esnes—La Targette Road to the north of the village. This meant a thrust to a depth of over 4,000 yards on a front of 3,500 yards, and would constitute the longest advance under a barrage the New Zealanders had yet made.

Crevecoeur is only about four and a half miles almost due south of Cambrai; and as the main object of the attack was to turn the enemy's position at Cambrai, the general direction of the advance was now to bend slightly north of east.

Our Brigade held a small salient, the most easterly point of the whole British front, round the eastern outskirts of page 405Crevecoeur, and had the village of Lesdain immediately opposite its right flank. The attacking battalions were the 4th, 1st and 2nd, in that order from the right, and the assault of Lesdain thus fell to the 4th Battalion. The advance of the 2nd Brigade was planned to overlap, some distance east of Lesdain, the frontage of the 4th Battalion, which thereafter was to confine itself to mopping up the area in and about Lesdain, as well at some 1,500 yards of the deep valley to the eastwards, through which flowed the Torrent of Esnes, and on the completion of this task was to assemble as battalion in support. The 3rd Battalion was to reduce its front line garrison to one company during the night, and immediately after zero, when the troops of the 3rd Division and the 2nd Battalion would have passed through the line, this company was to rejoin its unit in Brigade reserve.

A field-gun barrage was provided, to move forward by lifts of 100 yards every four minutes, to the Seranvillers trench-line forming the first objective some 2,000 yards ahead, beyond which it was to pause for half an hour and then advance again by similar lifts every three minutes to the final objective. This barrage was strengthened by the fire of the 32 guns of the Auckland and Wellington Machine Gun Companies; and heavy artillery would bombard selected points. After assisting in the opening barrage, four Stokes mortars were to go forward with the attacking troops, two with the 1st Battalion and two with the 2nd. To each of these units, also, eight guns of the Otago Machine Gun Company were attached, and the remaining sections of this company were directed to follow to positions from which covering fire could be directed to protect the flanks of each objective when taken. Four tanks from the 12th Tank Battalion were detailed to assist the 4th Battalion in the mopping-up of Lesdain. The 3rd Division was to have similar assistance in dealing with Seranvillers.

Our opening barrage-fire commenced at 4.30 a.m. The attacking battalions were in their assembly positions long before this time, and to avoid the enemy shelling which in response was expected to fall most heavily on Crevecoeur, they had got well forward of the village. Owing to the rapidity of the previous advance, our own artillery had not been able to com-page 406plete their dispositions and ranging in sufficient time to ensure that accuracy of fire which had characterized their covering work in previous engagements, and the short-shooting of one or two guns caused some slight confusion amongst the waiting troops. The first lift came four minutes later, and the three battalions advanced to the attack.

In the 4th Battalion's sector, "C" Company (Capt. D. W. McClurg), moving in touch with 2nd Canterbury, captured the strongly-held factory buildings and dump on the boundary just in front of the starting-line, and then passed on, pushing the enemy from the network of railway sidings immediately beyond. At this early stage of the advance there occurred an incident exemplifying the value of close co-operation between the flanks of different bodies of troops. During the sharp fighting about the Factory, it was observed that the Canterbury men were suffering heavily from the sustained firing of a machine-gun posted on the slope beyond the buildings. Lance-Corporal Davidson, of the 4th Battalion, marked down the position, and, with three of his section, worked round to the rear of the post and rushed it, captured the garrison, and effectually removed an obstacle which had threatened seriously to impede our neighbours' progress, but from which we ourselves had experienced no great inconvenience.

The forward movement continued steadily until the western outskirts of Lesdain were reached. From this point one platoon moved along the southern edge of the village and took up a position on the east of it. A second followed half-way and held the southern edge, while a third, when these had been firmly established, passed along the northern fringe, cleared out the Chateau position, and faced the south. At the prearranged moment all three platoons entered the village simultaneously and proceeded to mop it up. This task was speedily accomplished and many prisoners were taken, especially from the strong dug-outs at the cross-roads on the far side. Amongst the spoils were six minenwerfer and two anti-tank rifles. "B" Company (Capt. B. McLeod), on the left, keeping pace with the barrage, had already passed along the north of the village, had cleared part of its outskirts, and was engaged in dealing with the enemy in the valley of the Torrent of Esnes. The platoons of this company had difficult country to work over, page 407and met with considerable resistance throughout their advance. The whole of the battalion's task was, however, completed in good time, and in all 324 prisoners, including 19 officers, were sent back. From this comparatively small area no fewer than thirty machine-guns were taken.

In the centre of the Brigade sector the 1st Battalion had a frontage of 1,000 yards. For the capture of the first objective, "A" Company (Capt. N. L. Macky) and "D" Company (2nd Lieut. C. A. Spriggs) were detailed, the former on the right tad the latter on the left. "B" Company (Lieut. H. J. Thompson) would follow in support, and "C" (Lieut. H. A. Ellingham) in reserve, and then pass on to the assault of the second objective. Immediately opposite the right company was the strong enemy position about the Old Mill of Lesdain, which our patrols had vainly attempted to storm on the 5th; but it was subjected to a hurricane bombardment by our Stokes mortars during the four minutes devoted to the opening barrage fire, and this was followed up so swiftly by the leading platoons that both the Mill and the posts along the road running north from it were cleared at a stride. That danger zone passed, the companies advanced steadily eastward up the broad whale-back spur towards the Seranvillers Trench. A succession of sunken roads lying across our line of advance, and held by the enemy, had to be taken, but the checks, though frequent, were never seriously prolonged. As so often happens, the advancing troops moving in the dim light of dawn had overlooked a concealed enemy post, and from this nest machine-gun fire was opened upon our men as they passed. Sergeant R. J. Sinclair, following his company with the head-quarters section, rushed the position single-handed, killed the crew and captured the gun. When abreast of Lesdain the right flank was threatened by heavy fire from the edge of the cliff. To this point Sergeant P. A. Thompson led a small party, but was for a time held up by the intensity of the fire. The sergeant and Rifleman A. E. Strong, covered by the fire of the remainder, worked round the flank, shot the crew and captured the gun, which was now turned on parties of the enemy observed moving in the valley. This flank met with trouble again from a strong-point in a quarry further east. Corporal C. A. Rowe, taking a party of six men, rushed the quarry, page 408
Order of Battle—Lesdain and Beyond, October 8, 1918

Order of Battle—Lesdain and Beyond, October 8, 1918

page 409killed a number of the garrison, and took twenty prisoners. The advanced troops of the battalion were now steadily approaching the first objective, and as the barrage, by no means regular or intense, passed beyond this, machine-guns opened up on our men from various points in the trench. The leading sections crept up close to the wire, which was broad and strong, though fortunately breached in several places. Through these gaps an entry was forced, and bombing sections, working right and left, eventually cleared up the trench.

The 2nd Battalion had a frontage of only 500 yards at the commencement of the advance, though this widened somewhat near the first objective. It had more difficult country to work over, however, with scattered trench elements between the roads and on the flank. It advanced with "B" Company (Lieut. H. B. Pattrick) leading, "D" Company (2nd Lieut. R. O. C. Marks) following in close support to watch the left flank and to assist the forward line where required. "A" Company (Lieut. M. D. Smith) and "C" (Capt. W. C. I. Sumner) were detailed for the capture of the second objective, with "D" on the flank as before. The Northumberland Fusiliers were to be in touch to the first objective, and the Suffolks to the second. Throughout the first advance several checks were experienced, but all were of short duration. One machine-gun post was attacked from the flank by Rifleman A. E. Forsyth, who, with a Lewis gun, forced the enemy to retire over the open, thus exposing them to the fire of the remainder of his section, by whom they were all shot down. At another point, as the leading troops approached the first objective, intense machine-gun fire swept down the valley running up towards Seranvillers, causing many casualties on the left. Corporal S. J. Sapsford, a Lewis gunner, located the enemy guns, two of which were seen to be in action. Calling upon two other Lewis gun teams to follow him, he dashed across the open to a commanding position, and still under fire, directed the three guns upon the enemy post, which was speedily and effectually silenced. A short length of double trench lying directly across the advance and a little distance from the objective held up the line completely for a time; but the situation was smartly cleared up through some clever work on the part of Sergeant T. O'Neill, now in charge of a platoon in the place of his offi-page 410cer, who had fallen. Quickly grasping the situation, he made the dispositions for the sections of his platoon, brought both Lewis guns into effective action, and then personally led a bombing section against the flank of the position, killed several of the enemy holding it, and caused the rest to surrender. The troops on the left were thus enabled to get forward, and, aided by sections sent up from the support company as the front widened, they entered the trench forming the first objective. The right, however, was still held up by a strongly-held section of the trench from which machine-guns were firing forward upon the 2nd Battalion and also enfilading the 1st. This hornet's nest was dealt with by a bombing party led from the flank by Sergeant H. L. Moyle of the 2nd Battalion, who, by his furious attack, compelled the surrender of forty Germans with several machine-guns. The whole of the first objective was now in our hands, and touch was gained with the troops on the left. For the moment, the 4th Battalion's line ran back from the right of the 1st Battalion at right-angles, and joined up with that of 2nd Canterbury some little distance to the east of Lesdain.

It was now 5.30 a.m., and while the protective barrage rested just beyond the trench, the 1st and 2nd Battalions completed their dispositions for the next advance towards the final objective some 1,500 yards ahead. This was the tree-lined highway running from Esnes in a north-westerly direction to Cambrai. It rose steeply from Esnes to the Mill on the crest, and then dropped beyond down a longer and gentler slope to La Targette on the eastern outskirts of Seranvillers. As before, a number of intersecting roads and trench elements lay between us and our goal; and while, during the advance, the left would be in touch with the 3rd Division, the right would be exposed and unsupported; for, as will be remembered, the left of 2nd Canterbury's temporary line was, according to plan, by Lesdain, 1,500 yards west of us.

Now the barrage lifted and the advance was resumed. The 1st Battalion's companies had become somewhat intermingled, but they pressed steadily up the spur, the centre line of their advance leading directly towards the Mill on the sky-line. For the most part the enemy's resistance was easily overcome; the Mill was enveloped, and this position, as well as the greater page 411part of the objective along the road, fell speedily into our hands. Most of the casualties sustained were caused by machine-gun fire from the flanks, particularly from Esnes, which lay close to our right, and from which those of our sections clearing the banks and tracks and sunken roads on the steep southern slope were clearly visible and within short range. On the right of the objective the enemy had a strongly-wired trench system projecting from the village and looping across the road. Three machine-guns firing from this temporarily held up the right flank. Here Rifleman M. J. Mulvaney, who was in charge of a Lewis gun section, set to work to relieve the situation. Taking up a position on a point of vantage, he opened fire to cover a flanking movement, thus drawing fire upon himself. Marking down the nearest gun and watching his opportunity he succeeded in killing the crew. Soon afterwards he silenced the second gun in the same way, and then forced the crew of the third to take cover. Now, without a moment's hesitation, he dropped his gun, seized a rifle, and with one of his men dashed forward into the trench. A few minutes' exercise with the bayonet sufficed to complete his work, and the remainder of the garrison of the trench surrendered. The 1st Battalion was thus in possession of the whole of its allotted section of the objective. Consolidation was at once proceeded with, and a defensive flank formed facing the north-west of Esnes till the 2nd Brigade troops should come up.

While the digging was proceeding, the left forward company of the battalion was shelled by a German battery of field guns which were firing at short range from their position in a sunken road just beyond the objective. 2nd Lieut. A. L. McCormick was the only officer left, and, under stress of the accurate shelling, some of his men fell back. McCormick thereupon personally led parties of Lewis gunners forward to attack the battery from a flank. They engaged the field-gun crews at point blank range, but were driven back, and McCormick rallied his men for a second attempt. In this they were supported by Corporal F. R. Cormack, who had reorganized the men driven back from the trench, and who, under cover of Lewis gun fire directed at the battery from the front, was bringing them forward again. The attention of the Germans page 412being thus momentarily distracted, Corporal L. G. McLean, in charge of one of the teams working under the lieutenant, dashed from cover, raked the German gunners, and occupied the battery position till consolidation was completed. The officer in command of the battery scuttled off to the rear, but he was promptly run to earth and brought back.

The advance of the 2nd Battalion on its broadening front had been equally successful, but the troops had suffered some-what heavy casualties from machine-guns sweeping the open slopes about Seranvillers. Rifleman S. Fatt, a Lewis gunner, who with his team had been detailed to establish close liaison with the troops of the 3rd Division on the left during the two advances, had a remarkable series of adventures with successive enemy machine-gun positions. Two field-guns abandoned by the enemy were passed midway between the two objectives. Further casualties occurred as the 2nd Battalion companies crossed the sky-line on the spur behind the La Targette Road, for here they formed a good mark for the battery presently silenced by 2nd Lieut. McCormick and his Lewis gunners. However, all but the extreme left of the battalion's objective was taken without serious delay. On this flank two of "D" Company's sections under the command of Corporal F. L. Cross and Rifleman W. A. Mackinder, respectively, met with considerable resistance and were held up by a machine-gun post. The two leaders, working in co-operation, handled the position skilfully. One held the front while the other took his men to a flank, and, closing in, they cleared the position with a dashing rush, taking twenty prisoners and two machineguns. This completed the advance, the whole line being in our possession shortly after 8.30 a.m. By this time the 2nd Canterbury troops had gained touch on our right and were looking down on Esnes from the high ground close to the north-western edge of the village.

As soon as the barrage had died down sufficiently, each battalion sent forward reconnoitring patrols to maintain touch with the enemy; but strong hostile machine-gun fire from the ridge above Longsart seemed to indicate that the expected rapid retirement had not yet commenced. Indeed, we were to have convincing evidence of enemy activity nearer home, for before the "D" Company men, on the left of the 2nd Battalion, page 413had got well started with their digging-in, their position was threatened by two tanks that came lumbering down the road leading straight to our line from Wambaix. They proved to be two of our old female tanks* that had been repaired and painted by the Germans. There now ensued an exciting fight between these two tanks and a German field gun on the one hand, and a New Zealand Lewis gun section on the other. For Rifleman R. C. Ramsay, of the 2nd Battalion, had gone out along the Wambaix Road in advance of our line to engage with his Lewis gun an isolated enemy field gun firing from a position south of the village. Despite the approach of the tanks, Ramsay continued firing on the field gun until he had silenced it, and then turned his attention to the tanks, which were now within 150 yards of the position held by his section. Steadfastly holding their ground, he and his men kept up a steady fire upon these moving fortresses, but the odds were doubly against him, for, safe behind the stout steel plates, the German crews were returning his fire with their captured Lewis guns. At this critical moment two of our own male tanks came upon the scene from Seranvillers. Moving up to the Cambrai Road, they shelled the enemy tanks at close range and completely disabled both in quick succession. Not a few of our men have reason to remember 2nd Lieuts. H. H. Sherratt and F. Clarke, of "C" Company, 12th Battalion, Tank Corps, for their prompt support on this morning of October 8th.

The situation beyond our left flank was still somewhat obscure, and we had not established touch with the 3rd Division. Moreover, machine-gun fire was falling upon our left rear. To secure definite information as to the situation on this quarter, Corporal J. C. Dibble, of the 2nd Battalion Scouts, was sent off with three men in the direction of Seranvillers. He eventually pushed on into the village itself, searched the roads and houses, and finally marked down enemy posts still clinging to the north-eastern outskirts. He then located the two right posts of the 3rd Division, reported to them the results of his investigations, and returned to his own battalion headquarters with the information gained.

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At 9.30 a.m. the 2nd Brigade troops advanced from their second objective 700 yards west of Esnes, and without much difficulty captured that village. Exploitation patrols now moved forward from the whole Divisional front and cleared up the country as far eastward as the "Green Dotted Line" beyond which, in accordance with orders for the day, no further advance was permitted. This line ran north-west midway between Esnes and Haucourt, and about 1,200 yards east of the Cambrai Road. Here we had to halt until the artillery, now rapidly moving forward, got into such positions as would enable them effectively to cover a further advance next day.

The whole operation had been most successful. Our Brigade had advanced nearly three miles, and had captured seven 77 mm. guns, a howitzer, 89 machine-guns, the usual proportion of trench-mortars, and nearly 900 prisoners.

The casualties in both the forward battalions had been somewhat severe, especially in the 1st Battalion, whose list of wounded included its commanding officer and adjutant. As soon as the first objective had been taken, Lieut.-Col. Allen moved his headquarters forward from Crevecoeur to the captured line. Passing on to note the progress of the final stages of the second advance, he was in time to witness McCormick's contest with the field-guns. Satisfied that all was well in the new line, he presently returned to his advanced headquarters. Shells were falling about this position and a move was being discussed, when a burst of high explosive disabled the greater portion of his party. The adjutant, Capt. E. Baxter, M.C., an officer of exceptional ability and with a long period of distinguished service in various capacities to his credit, was mortally wounded. While attending to the comfort of Capt. Baxter, Lieut.-Col. Allen was himself wounded, but, though suffering severely from his own injury, he remained at his post personally superintending the evacuation of the casualties, and only consented to go out when the day's operation was completed. He was temporarily succeeded in the command by Capt. E. A. Harding, but returned from the casualty clearingstation next day with his arm in a sling.

During the afternoon the enemy began to feel back cautiously to ascertain the position of our line, and patrol encounters were frequent. At about 5 p.m. he launched a strong page 415counter-attack against the Division on our left. As the left flank of the Germans moved across from Wambaix towards Seranvillers they came into full view from our line. The machine-gun section attached to us took full advantage of the excellent targets offering, as they had done during the advance earlier in the day when they sighted the enemy's batteries within good range, and our advanced artillery also joined in the shooting. The enemy was successful in occupying part of Seranvillers, and our left flank had to be refused accordingly. Two hours later our neighbours recovered their lost ground, and the line thereafter remained stable.

* Briefly, the distinction between the female and the male tank lay in the fact that the former was provided with machine-guns only, while the latter had in addition two six-pounder Hotehkiss quick-firing guns.

Part 2.—the Advance to the Selle River.

Advance continued, October 9th—The Guards, the 2nd Brigade, and the 3rd Battalion to the Cambrai Railway—3rd Battalion patrols to Fontaine-au-Pire—General success—Cambrai taken—Pressure continued, October 10th—1st and 2nd Brigades to the Selle—Immediate result of the Battle of Le Gateau—Effects farther north—Ostend and Lille taken.

On October 9th the whole advance was continued. Our 3rd Battalion, attacking in conjunction with the 2nd Brigade on the right and the Guards' Division on the left, had for its objective a section of the St. Quentin-Busigny-Cambrai Railway. The advance, starting at 5.20 a.m., proceeded with practically no oppositon, and outposts were established well beyond the objective. Patrols from the 3rd Battalion were finally checked on the outskirts of Fontaine-au-Pire, while those of the Guards were held up at Estourmel. A cavalry patrol passed through the new line at 10 a.m. with the object of exploiting the gains of the infantry, but was driven back by machine-gun fire pouring from Fontaine.

The 3rd Battalion now became attached to the 2nd Brigade, which took over responsibility for the whole front of the Division. It was relieved during the night, however, and returned to Brigade.

Elsewhere also the advance had been a complete success. The close defences of Cambrai had been partially broken by the Canadians and the 57th Division on the 8th, and on the fol-page 416lowing day the town fell and the British troops passed on to a line three miles to the east of it. We were now within two miles of the important centre of Le Cateau.

Progress continued on October 10th, the enemy's resistance stiffening as he reached the Selle River* in his retreat. It soon became evident that he intended to stand behind the general line of the Selle, and, save for minor operations, the fight was broken off while communications were improved and other preparations completed for an assault in strength.

The 1st and 2nd Brigades took part in the advance of the 10th. The latter, passing beyond Beauvois and Caudry, captured the railway running north to Quievy. The 1st then leap-frogged through the 2nd and advanced to the Selle, some of the troops actually securing a footing on the farther side of the stream, just south of Solesmes. The 1st Brigade continued its pressure here till the 12th October, when the New Zealand front was taken over by the 42nd Division.

The immediate result of the Battle of Le Cateau was the capture of the important lateral double line of railway running from St. Quentin through Busigny to Cambrai. The toll of prisoners taken amounted to 12,000, and the captures included no fewer than 250 guns. Incidentally, the enemy's withdrawal before Lens was hastened, and by October 13th British troops had reached the western suburbs of Douai. Similarly, under this pressure from the north, combined with local French attacks, the enemy was forced to evacuate his positions in the Laon salient, and by the same date Laon itself had fallen to the French.

The effects of the advance in the Cambrai sector were also being felt on the Flanders front, where the enemy was being constantly pressed. Here, on the whole front from Comines to Dixmude, he was attacked in strength on October 14th by the forces, British, Belgian and French, under the command of the King of the Belgians; and so successful was the attack that by October 17th Ostend was captured and three days later the northern flank of the Allied line rested on the Dutch fron- page break
Lieut.–Col. R. C. Allen, D.S.O.

Lieut.–Col. R. C. Allen, D.S.O.

Major G. W. Cockroft.Face p. 116.

Major G. W. Cockroft.Face p. 116.

page break
Towing a Captured Tank.

Towing a Captured Tank.

A Ruined Factory—smashed, not bombarded.

A Ruined Factory—smashed, not bombarded.

page 417tier
. The advances on the northern and on the southern fronts left the flanks of the Lille defences exposed, and these the enemy began to evacuate on October 15th; but he was pressed so hard that he was given no time to complete either the removal of his stores, the destruction of roads and bridges, or the evacuation of the civil population. Douai was taken on the 17th, and Lille on the 18th; and by the evening of October 22nd the Britsh troops had reached the general line of the Escaut from Valenciennes northwards to Avelghem, north-east of Roubaix.

* The Selle River is a small winding stream flowing slightly west of north through Le Cateau, Neuvilly and Solesmes, and joining the Escaut between Cambrai and Valenciennes. Solesmes is about eighteen miles due east of Cambrai.

Part 3.—the Battle of the Selle River.

New Zealand Rifle Brigade in billets at Esnes—A freed town—Inspections—The Prince of Wales—The battle opens, October 17th—Enemy driven from the river, October 20th—Patrols to the Harpies River—The great attack of October 24th—2nd Brigade advances four and a half miles—2nd Brigade advances again to within a mile of Le Quesnoy, October 24th—The New Zealand Rifle Brigade keeps pace in reserve.

The New Zealand Rifle Brigade, after the successful actions of October 8th and 9th, went into billets at Esnes on the 10th. These were real billets in houses, and this was the first time the whole Brigade had occupied such quarters since the preceding February, when we were in the Staple area for training. For the past three months we had been almost constantly on the move, the "bivvy," the dug-out, and occasionally the dilapidated hut, being the extent of our luxuries in the matter of shelter from the elements. We were now in new country almost entirely undamaged by shell-fire. The villages, though deserted, were intact, and stoves and the heavier articles of furniture, and even the precious feather beds, remained in the houses. To the delight of everyone, vegetables in plenty were found growing in the gardens, and we were thus able to provide a welcome addition to the rations which it had been impossible to augment in any way for six weeks past. That the same quarters had been occupied by the German troops was evident from the filth that abounded.

On the afternoon of the 10th, one of our senior officers going forward to reconnoitre the front took the opportunity page 418of visiting Caudry, which had been taken during the morning. He thus describes the town as it appeared immediately after evacuation:—

"Caudry is a large factory-town and had been occupied continuously by the Germans since the Mons retreat, when our British 'Contemptibles' were forced back over this ground. The place had not been knocked about by the Germans until a few days ago, when parties of men were specially detailed to go through the factories and deliberately and methodically smash the machinery with hammers. I saw for myself the results of their activity. Everywhere cog-wheels were shattered, and I could quite understand how half a dozen men could utterly ruin the machinery of a huge factory in one half-day. Even in private houses clocks, ornaments, furniture and windows had, in many cases, received equally thorough attention.

"Between 2,000 and 3,000 inhabitants and refugees, women, children, and old men, were still in the town. The Germans had lived there so long that most of these unfortunates had learned to speak the language. Before the oppressor left he concentrated them all in one street, every house in which he marked with a red cross flag, so that, if we had not harassed him onward, he would have been able to shell the remaining part of the town. All men between the ages of fifteen and sixty had been taken away. At various times during the past four years most of the population had been induced by threats or specious promises to leave the town for employment in munition works or on roads and railways. The people were not starved, for they had succeeded somehow in cultivating their crops and vegetables in order to keep themselves in food. They were delighted to see us. The tricolour was flying from nearly every window, and the people waved their hands, doffed their caps, threw kisses, shook hands, and showed, by smiles and signs and every other possible means of expression, how grateful they were at their deliverance from veritable slavery.

"The roads in and around Caudry had been blown up at all junctions and other important points, this destruction being effected by binding together half a dozen minenwerfer bombs or large shells and exploding them by means of electric batteries. 'Booby-traps' were placed in dug-outs, houses, roads and wells to catch the unwary; but, wisely enough, we now keep German prisoners whom we send to these places first to remove the traps safely or otherwise.…"

The Division being now out of the line, the battalions of the Brigade commenced at once to reorganize and refit, and to carry out recreational and general training. For some page 419reason, our reinforcements were coming forward very slowly, and all units were sadly under strength. On Sunday, October 13th, a Brigade church parade was held. The Corps Commander, General Harper, was present, and after the service presented ribands to twenty-seven recipients of awards recently made. He also spoke in warm terms of the Brigade's good work during the past operations. His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, who was on a visit to the New Zealand Division, inspected the Brigade during training on the 14th, and was shown over the scene of the latest fight.

The repair of roads, railways and other communications on the Le Cateau front was so far advanced as to warrant the recommencement of larger operations on October 17th, on which date the Fourth Army attacked on a ten mile front extending from Le Cateau southwards. The French First Army co-operated by attacking farther south. The enemy was holding his line in great strength, and during the first two days' fighting his resistance was obstinate; but by the end of the 19th the French had driven the enemy across the Sambre Canal as far north as Catillon. From that village the British front followed the course of the Richemont stream to its junction with the Selle, north of Le Cateau.

This operation was followed by an advance at 2 a.m. on the 20th October, when the Third Army launched an attack on the line of the Selle River north of Le Cateau. The resistance offered by the enemy proved very serious. His position, naturally strong, had, during the delay caused by our difficulties in completing communications, been further strengthened by the erection of extensive wire entanglements. The attack succeeded, nevertheless, and the enemy was driven back from the river, British patrols reaching the Harpies River three miles east of Solesmes.

The capture of the Selle positions paved the way for a greater attack with the object of gaining the line Sambre Canal—Mormal Forest—Valenciennes. The major assault was opened at 1.20 a.m. on October 23rd by the Fourth Army, and was extended at a later hour by the Third Army. The New Zealand Division was engaged in this fight.* Led by the 2nd

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Brigade, it passed through the 42nd Division at 8 a.m. The day went well, and the 2nd Brigade made a record advance of four and a half miles. The enemy had strong positions but a faint heart, and, tackled at close quarters, he surrendered freely. Next day, October 24th, the First Army prolonged the front of attack northwards to the Escaut; on our own front the 2nd Brigade attacked again, and by the evening the line had been carried forward another mile and a half, being now within a mile of Le Quesnoy.

In the Selle Battle, thus brought to a victorious close, twenty-four British and two American Divisions, though opposed by thirty-one German Divisions, had made a deep advance and had taken over 20,000 prisoners and 475 guns.

Keeping up with the general advance, the New Zealand Rifle Brigade had moved, on October 19th, to Beauvois, about a mile north-west of Caudry, where it lay in readiness if required for the attack on the 20th. Owing to the great amount of destruction done to railways, roads and bridges, the traffic on the few available avenues was greatly congested. Time after time the railway was blown up by clockwork devices, often as long as a week after the enemy's retirement, and for several days transportation of ammunition and supplies had to be carried out entirely by motor lorries. Railhead was established at Beauvois on October 22nd. On the morning of the 23rd the Brigade went forward again, marching eastward some seven miles to the reserve position on the farther bank of the Selle River, just south of Solesmes. Here the 4th Battalion was attached to the 2nd Brigade as reserve during the day's fighting. The 3rd Battalion joined the 4th in the afternoon, and the two units moved up to Vertigneul, where they were held in readiness for action at half an hour's notice. Movement was now becoming so rapid and extensive that that part of the first line transport carrying ammunition, bombs and tools was ordered up to accompany the respective battalions, and the remainder was brigaded within easy reach. Next morning, following upon the further advance of the 2nd Brigade, another eastward march was made, the 1st and 2nd Battalions moving to Vertigneul and Romeries, and the 3rd and 4th to positions about midway between those villages and Beaudignies.

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* It had been intended to employ the New Zealand Rifle Brigade for this undertaking, but, owing to our numerical weakness, the task was given to the 2nd Brigade.