New Collembola from India
Publication of this paper is assisted by a grant from the Victoria University of Wellington Publications Fund
A new monospecific genus and five new species of Collembola from India are described.
The collembola dealt with in this paper were collected in India by Dr. T. Clay of the British Museum, Natural History. Holotype and paratype specimens are deposited in the British Museum, Natural History, London; paratypes of some species are also held in the author's collection and these are indicated in the text.
Family: Setanuridae Salmon, 1964
Mandibles and maxillae both present and toothed. Mandible without molar area, but typified by large projecting plate-like group of teeth. Ocelli eight to each side. PAO and furcula absent. Unguiculus absent or vestigial as a small mound of cuticular granules. Anal spines present. Setae mainly simple but some may be both finely serrate and finely clavate. Clavate tenent hairs present on tibiotarsi. Ant. IV with apical retractile knob and several types of sensory rods. Cuticle finely granulate and finely tuberculate.
Type species for the genus Spinanurida mandibulata n.sp.
This new genus is closely related to Setanurida, known at present only from East Africa, differing from this genus mainly through the presence of anal spines and the rather unusual morphology of the mandible. The toothlike projection on the mandible which consists of three teeth is very much more prominent than the large group of three basal teeth present on the mandible of Setanurida. The maxilla is very similar in morphology to that of Setanurida (Fig. 4).
Spinanurida mandibulata n.g. et n.sp.
Colour: Creamy-white sparsely overlaid with scattered dark blue pigment granules.
Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short simple curved setae, with longer, tapering, finely serrated setae posteriorly, the latter often with a small apical swelling. Long slender simple setae on the antennae and occasionally on the head and legs.
Figs. 1-9, Spinanurida mandibulata n.g. et sp. Fig. 1, Hind foot. Fig. 2, Hind foot inner margin showing tenent hairs. Fig. 3, Ants. II, III, IV. Fig. 4, Maxilla head. Fig. 5, Head of mandible. Fig. 6, Genital aperture. Fig. 7, Sense organ Ant. III. Fig. 8, Abd. VI showing anal spines and setae. Fig. 9, Ocelli Figs 1 6 and 7 Scale A; Figs. 2, 8 and 9, Scale B; Figs. 3, 4 and 5, Scale C.
Foot: Claw relatively very small, finely granulate, particularly on the inner margin and without any teeth. Unguiculus absent or represented by a tiny granulated swelling. Claw without basal seta, but a very stout almost spine-like seta arises on the tibiotarsus, just above the base of the claw. Two long clavate tenent hairs on the outer edge of each tibiotarsus and three shorter clavate tenent hairs on the inner edge, two being in line further from the claw base than the single one (Fig. 1).
Furcula and tenaculum absent.
Paratype in author's collection.
Locality: Lachen, Sikkim, 9000′ altitude in moss, leaf litter of a pine wood. Lachung, Sikkim, 8610′ altitude in moss and undergrowth of a pine wood.
Family: Neanuridae Salmon, 1964
Genus: Pronura Del. Deb., 1953
Pronura indiana n.sp.
Colour: Body and legs white.
Clothing: Sparsely clothed with short simple setae, longer posteriorly and on the antennae; occasional longer setae laterally on the body and legs. Integument finely granulate and finely tuberculate, but without bosses of any kind.
Figs. 10-16, Pronura indiana n.sp. Fig. 10, Sense organ Ant. III. Fig. 11, Apex Ant. IV. Fig. 12, Mouth parts in situ. Fig. 13. Mandible. Fig. 14, Maxilla. Fig. 15, Hind foot. Fig. 16, Ocelli. Figs. 10, 11, 12 and 15, Scale A; Figs. 13 and 14, Scale B; Fig. 16, Scale C. Mand. = mandible; Max. = maxilla; Max. palp. = maxillary palp; Cut. Tub. = cuticular tubercle.
Legs: The claw is simple, sickle-shaped, without any teeth, and with a short basal seta to each side of claw base.
Localities: Lachung, Sikkim, 8610′ altitude in moss on rotten tree trunks in pine wood; Sibsager, Assam, 350′ altitude amongst earth and roots in evergreen forest.
Family: Tomoceridae Börner, 1913
Genus: Tomocerus Nicolet, 1841
Tomocerus serratospinus n.sp.
Colour: Deep brown to grey-brown, paler on legs and furcula.
Clothing: Of typical fluted scales and occasional simple setae especially on antennae legs and furcula. Only Ants. I and II with scales. Ants. III and IV with whorls of short slender simple setae. Furcula with serrated spines and comb-like serrated setae.
Body: Length to 2.3 mm. Ants. III and IV completely fused and approximately five times longer than Ant. II. Ocelli subequal, six to each side.
Legs: The claw has a pair of large inner teeth about one-fifth down, a row of five smaller internal teeth and a pair of large external basal teeth. The clavate tenent hair shorter than claw, with the clavate portion winged as shown in Fig. 17. Unguiculus lanceolate with an almost straight outer lamella and a spine on the inner edge.
Furcula: Mucro clothed with simple setae and with a small apical tooth, a large subapical tooth, three large median conical teeth and five or six small lateral teeth.
Spines of dens both large and small strongly serrated, each spine arising from a cup shaped process as shown in Fig. 19. Many strongly serrated comb-like setae and numerous long, simple setae on each dens. Dental formula from base to apex of dens 3-4, I/3-4, I, 0-1, I, varying on the dens of opposite sides. Normally the basal 3-4 are doubled with two rows side by side, the others are in a single row.
Locality: Lachen, Sikkim, 9500′ altitude under stones in open ground; Lachen, 8950′ altitude in moss and pine needles.
Tomocerus petalospinus n.sp.
Colour: Deep brown to greyish brown.
Clothing: Long plain setae and many strongly fluted scales.
Body: Length up to 4.5 mm. Ants. III and IV more or less fused with Ant. IV shorter than Ant. III as 5:7 and the combined length four times as long as Ant. II. Ants. III and IV strongly annulated, with whorls of setae; Ants. I and II scaled. On the apex of the mesotergum is a cluster of stiff bristle-like setae, very finely ciliated.page 45
Figs. 17-19, Tomocerus serratospinus. Fig. 17, Hind foot. Fig. 18 Mucro and apex of dens with serrate seta. Fig. 19. Dental spine. Figs. 20-23, Tomoceros petalospinus n.sp. Fig. 20, Mucro and apex of dens. Fig. 21, Hind foot. Fig. 22, Large dental spine. Fig. 23, Small dental spine. Figs. 24-28, Papillomurus transequatoria n.sp. Fig. 24, Hind foot. Fig. 25, Apex Ant. IV. Fig. 26, Mucro and apex of dens Fig 27 Serrated seta from posterior of body. Fig. 28, Anterior ocelli and PAO. Figs. 17, 18, 20, 21, 22 and 23, Scale A; Figs. 19, 25 and 28, Scale B; Fig. 24, Scale C; Figs. 26 and 27, Scale D.
Legs: Claw has one pair of strong basal teeth followed by five inner teeth in a row. Two very strong outer lateral basal teeth, almost pseudonychia-like, reach from the base to almost one-third down the claw. Eompodial appendage lanceolate and four-winged, slightly over one-half length of the claw, with a very stout basal tooth on the outer wing. Tenent hair slightly shorter than claw, fluted, with a winged and clavate tip.
Furcula: The manubrium and dens related as 25:41. Mucro clothed with simple setae and having a small apical tooth, a large pre-apical tooth, seven large median teeth and ten fairly large lateral teeth (Fig. 20). The dens bearing both large and small basally petaloid spines as shown in figs. 23 and 26. These spines are quite distinct in structure from those of any other species of Tomocerus with the petaloid structures forming a ring around the base of each spine. The dental formula cannot be given as some spines were missing from the type specimen and their insertions could not be seen clearly amongst the dense clothing of setae.
Locality: Lachung, Sikkim, 8610′ altitude, among moss on rotten tree trunks in pine wood.
Remarks: Described from the Holotype this species belongs to the Tomoceros minor group but differs in the respects elucidated.
Family: Isotomidae Börner, 1913
Subfamily: Isotominae Schaeffer, 1896
Genus: Papillomurus Salmon, 1941
Papillomurus transequatoria n.sp.
Colour: In alcohol trunk bluish to purplish brown or grayish brown overlain with fine blue and rose coloured pigment granules. Head grey brown with a purple spot on the vertex, and two light bluish pigment bands extending towards the posterior margins of the ocellar fields to form a V mark with an intense purple base. Ocellar fields deep bluish black. Antennae pale ochreous with pale purplish pigment towards the apex of segments I, II and III. Ant. IV pale purplish brown. Legs and furcula pale ochreous without further pigment.
Clothing: Densely clothed with short simple setae sometimes faintly serrated towards their tips, and occasionally mostly around the posterior longer slender setae with a few serrations along their entire length. Setae of the antennae, legs and furcula, all moderately long and simple. Setae of the body, and of the basal segments of the legs, the antennae and the furcula, all arising from small papillae.
Body: Length, 1.47 mm. Antennae subequal to head in length, four segmented with the segments related as 53:33:30:17. Ant. IV with apical dome, stout stiff apical sense rod and numerous curved sense rods interspersed among the setae. Ant. III with many similar slender sense rods. Abds. III and IV related as 6:7. Ocelli eight to each side, six large subequal and two much smaller. PAO elliptical, equal to the diameter of an adjacent ocellus and with lateral lamellae as in Fig. 28. Rami of tenaculum each with four barbs, the corpus with a transverse basal row of three simple setae.
Legs: Claw with two strong exterior lateral teeth about half way down and one small inner tooth about two-thirds down. Base of claw finely granulate, unguiculus page 47 about half as long as claw, lanceolate with three broad lamellae. Front feet with two slender clavate tenent hairs one slightly longer than the other. Middle feet and hind feet each with three slender clavate tenent hairs, the middle hair longer and stouter than the two lateral hairs, the longer middle hair not quite as long as the claw. A short basal seta to each side of claw.
Furcula: Mucro dens 3.2 times longer than manubrium. Dens annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated part of the dens 2-3 times as long as mucro. Mucro indistinctly separated from dens, tridentate, with large apical, slightly longer preapical and large lateral teeth.
Locality: Described from one holotype specimen collected at Lachung, Sikkim, from moss on rotten tree trunk in pine wood at 8610′ altitude.
Genus: Rhodanella Salmon, 1945
Rhodanella plumosa n.sp.
Two specimens, one immature, in Dr. Clay's collection although not conforming entirely to the specifications of this genus do in my opinion come so very close to it that I have placed them in Rhodanella.
Colour: White overlain by pale bluish-violet granulate pigment in dorsal and lateral areas of metathorax and Abds. I-IV.
Clothing: Moderately clothed on the body with long and short very coarsely serrated setae, almost feather-like in some cases especially round the posterior (Fig. 34). Setae of the antennae, legs, furcula mostly simple or only very finely serrated. Those of the ventral surface of body and head shorter and finely serrated.
Body: Length: up to 0.6 mm. Antennae only slightly longer than head as 16:13; the four segments related as 14:20:26:44. Ant. IV with slender both curved and straight sense rods and setae. Apex of Ant. III with a pair of exposed stout curved sense rods each in its own cuticular pocket. Ocelli on black pigment patches, eight to each side, unequal; the anterior pair the largest, the outer posterior two the smallest. PAO small more or less egg-shaped and double outlined, about as long as half the. diameter of the adjacent ocellus. Abds. III and IV subequal in length; Abds. V and VI fused; tenaculum not seen.
Legs: Claw as in Fig. 31 with a pair of small external lateral sub-basal teeth, two strong inner teeth and a short basal seta to each side. Unguiculus granulated, lanceolate, with broad semiciricular inner lamella and broad straight outer lamella. A single long slender non-clavate tenent hair to each foot almost as long as claw.
Furcula: Reaching forward to Abd. II. The manubrium related to the mucrodens as 30:95. Mucro indistinctly separated from dens, small, related to the dens as 91:4, and with three prominent teeth as in Figs. 32-33. Dens annulated and corrugated, the uncorrugated portion about 2.5 times as long as mucro.
Localities: Lachung, Sikkim, 8610′ altitude in moss on pine trunks in pine woods; Imphal, Manipor State in rotting Eichornig.page 48
Family: Entomobryidae Tomosvary, 1882
Subfamily: Entomobryinae Schaeffer, 1896
Genus: Setogaster Salmon, 1951
Setogaster manipuri n.sp.
Colour: Pale yellow with violet pigmented ocellar fields.
Clothing: Of hyaline lightly striated scales and ciliated setae.
Body: Length: ♀ up to 1 mm, ♂ up to 1.3 mm. The antennae annulated on III-IV in female and on IV only in male. Ant. IV with short plain sensory setae, short ciliated setae apically, and longer ciliated setae proximally. Ant. III with longer ciliated setae and occasional long slender plain setae. Ocellar fields each with six large anterior subequal ocelli and two much smaller posterior ones to each side; several short stout ciliated setae arise within each ocellar field. Abd. IV four times longer than Abd. III. Rami of tenaculum each with four barbs.
Legs: Claw lightly but distinctly granulated around base; unguiculus strongly and markedly granulate all over and, in female, lanceolate, with four widely spaced serrations down outer lamella (Fig. 35); in male, truncate, with outer edge finely crennate (Fig. 38). Claw with a pair of strong outer lateral teeth; five inner teeth in male and six inner teeth in female arranged as in Figs. 38 and 35; the proximal pair of teeth in female just beyond half-way down inner edge, and, in male at about half-way down. A slender very faintly clavate tenent hair, shorter than claw, to each foot.
Furcula: Reaching forward to ventral tube. Manubrium and dens subequal in female but the dens slightly longer in male. Dens annulated and corrugated; the mucro with very prominent, slightly curved, double basal spine as in Fig. 36. Lamella serrated, extending across mucro-dens junction to base of sub-apical tooth. Uncorrugatcd portion of dens 2.5-3 times length of mucro.
Locality: Manipur; Moraing, 2600′ altitude; in dead leaves and in grass at edge of a wood.
Types: Holotype and Allotype on separate slides in British Museum Natural History.
Refer to Denis, J. R., Handschin, E., Imms, A. D., Salmon, J. T. in "An Index to the Collembola" Bull. No. 7, Roy. Soc. N.Z. pp 1-651 (3 vols.).
Figs. 29-34, Rhodanella plumosa n.sp. Fig. 29, Sense organ Ant. III. Fig. 30, PAO and ocelli. Fig. 31, Hind foot. Fig. 32, Right mucro from side and apex dens. Fig. 33, Left mucro from above. Fig. 34, Seta from body dorsum. Figs. 35-38 Setogaster manipuri n.sp. Fig. 35, Hind foot ♀. Fig. 36, Mucro. Fig. 37, Ocelli. Fig. 38 Hind foot ♂, granulations on ♂ foot as in ♀. Figs. 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 and 34 Scale A: Figs. 35, 36, 37 and 38, Scale B.