Event K042 Glacial History of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet at Allan Hills
Antarctica New Zealand 1999/2000
ANTARCTICA NEW ZEALAND REPORT NO 2: LOGISTIC REPORT
Note: this document reports on the activities of two coincident studies conducted under the K042 event. Where necessary for clarity, details and comments for the two studies will be presented separately.
This project is a detailed study of ancient glacial deposits termed the Sinus Group at Allan Hills, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. The Sirius Group is a collection of Neogene deposits that crop out at high elevations (mostly >1500 m) throughout the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). Allan Hills occupies a low point in the TAM, making the site more susceptible to overriding by the EAIS during minor ice volume fluctuations. The aim of this project is to show whether the Sirius Group was deposited by valley glacier or continental ice sheet, by wet- or dry-based glacial ice, by a single depositional event or several overriding events and to determine paleoflow direction.
This past field season ran from mid-November 1999 to mid-January 2000 at Allan Hills during which time field mapping of early glacial deposits was continued from last season. The Sirius Group takes the form of seven patches of thin debris with a total area of 2 km2. From these, eight outcrops were selected for detailed description and sampling. The collected data include: orientations of 300 stones, 270 linear glacial abrasions and 90 planar deformational structures. In addition, 37 rock samples were collected for laboratory analysis. Sample processing has not yet begun but evidence indicates wet-based glacial deposition. Although the number of advances is not yet known, the work thus far suggests flow from the southwest and west. The presence of a cirque incised into a surface capped with Sirius deposits on the south side of Trudge Valley reveals a later phase of local temperate ice before the present cold ice sheet formed.
Univ. of Amsterdam
|1)||Build upon research carried out by Hiemstra and van der Meer (1999) in their field report for the Netherlands Centre for Geo-ecological research titled: Neogene Glacial History of the Allan Hills, South Victoria Land, Antarctica. This would include quantification of Sirius related glacio-tectonic bedrock deformation structures and further descriptions and sketches.|
|2)||Collect spatially and stratigraphically variable Sirius diamict samples for analyses by micromorphology. Wherever these micromorphology samples are taken, a small sample will also be taken for bulk texture analysis. Determine whether this is possible with a University of Amsterdam hand held drill or by simply removing a block of diamict using a chisel and geological hammer.|
|3)||Describe, sketch and quantify glacio-tectonic deformation of bedrock related to a recent advance of the Manhaul glacier. Collect spatially variable samples of Manhaul glacial diamict associated with the glacio-tectonic deformed bedrock for analysis by micromorphology. Wherever these micromorphology samples are taken, a small sample will also be taken for bulk texture analysis.|
|4)||Collect samples of 'sublimation till' from the snout of Taylor glacier and Suess glacier, Taylor Valley for analysis by micromorphology.|
|5)||Collect samples from the debris-laden basal layer of Taylor glacier itself for micromorphology analysis.|
|6)||Determine the practicality of undertaking pre-impregnation of unconsolidated sediments in the Antarctic field, with daily temperatures considerably below zero.|
With the application process;
No suggestions for improvements.
With Antarctica New Zealand staff;
The efforts of Paul Woodgate in helping us during the preparatory stages of our expedition are greatly appreciated.
Provision of maps and aerial photographs;
All maps and aerial photographs were obtained the previous season from outside sources. However, the material obtained is rather lacking. Given the increase in activity in and around Allan Hills we feel that there should be good quality maps of all of Allan Hills at a scale of 1:10 000.
To the Preseason Information.
No suggestions for improvements.
To Medicals, documentation and flights to Antarctica.
Medicals were conducted at an on-campus clinic by a general practitioner. No suggestions for improvements. Our flight south from Christchurch was delayed two days because of poor weather at McMurdo. We were nicely looked after at the Rusley Inn and enjoyed our stay there. The three hour delay notices for the flights were frustrating but that can't be helped. We were grateful to receive the use of a van for an afternoon to allow us to explore the outer environs of Christchurch.
We transported one kerosene heater and one large wooden box containing: four empty wooden rock boxes and one 10 kg box of paper readings, maps and airphotos.
Univ. of Amsterdam
A hand held drill and handle bars were transported by air to Antarctica New Zealand, Christchurch from the University of Amsterdam. They were labelled for the attention of Paul Woodgate. There were no problems transporting the cargo and it arrived at Scott Base in ample time for the field season.
Excellent support provided by 'Cargo Chris' in shipping field samples from Scott Base to Christchurch, New Zealand.
We did not experience any problems related to packaging, transport of chemicals, compressed gases, excess hand baggage etc.
|Prof. Peter Barrett||(supervisor for Holme and Atkins - Victoria University of Wellington)|
|Philip Holme||(PhD student, principal investigator (for P. Barrett) - Victoria University of Wellington)|
|Jeremy Mitchell||(MSc student, field assistant to Holme - Victoria University of Wellington)|
|Cliff Atkins||(PhD student - Victoria University of Wellington)|
|Dr. Stephen Hicock||(co-supervisor for Holme - University of Western Ontario)|
|Prof. Jaap van der Meer||(supervisor to Lloyd-Davies - University of Amsterdam)|
|Mark Lloyd-Davies||(PhD student - University of Amsterdam)|
5 Preparations for the Field
Reception, planning for your event and liaison where appropriate;
When we first got off the plane upon arriving in Antarctica we were quickly rushed into vehicles and not permitted more than two minutes to look around and absorb the environment. This was regrettable because for three of us it was our first time and it is a significant moment for any new arrival. Other than that everything was acceptable.
Availability and condition of equipment received by your event Any work required by your party to make the equipment serviceable should be noted;
All equipment supplied by Antarctica New Zealand was received in good working order.
Field training and field party equipment 'shakedown' journey (if applicable);
Field training (AFT) was very applicable to our event and most members benefited considerably from the training. One of our members was highly skilled in outdoor survival craft so the training was nothing new to him. No equipment 'shakedown' was required.
Delays at Scott Base, whatever the cause.
There were no delays at Scott Base prior to our being transported to the field. Our flight south from Christchurch was delayed two days due to poor weather at McMurdo.
If you feel that any service was poorly carried out by support staff at Scott Base, please make a note but include a positive recommendation for improvement of this service.
Services carried out by support staff at Scott Base were fully satisfactory. The staff at Scott Base were always helpful and would often work beyond the scope of their job to see us right.
6 Field Transport
No vehicles were used.
Discuss the success or otherwise of all aircraft, helicopter or other operations supporting your event
Most helicopter operations conducted in support of our event were completely satisfactory. The only exception to this was the delay caused by the crash of the 3-Squadron helicopter. This unfortunate event resulted in a one week delay in transporting two event members to our field site and the relocation of another member to a different event.
Univ. of Amsterdam
The helicopter crash which took place nearly jeopardised my field season at Taylor Valley, which, if that had been the case, would have been both frustrating and potentially detrimental to my PhD. Regardless the crash had it's hidden benefits, as I needed to page break work very hard for three days so to produce a week's worth of research (as I originally planned to do). Having achieved this in three days, I had an unexpected two days in Taylor Valley owed to poor weather. This provided me the opportunity to visit and sample from Suess glacier.
All other helicopter operations were fine. I would like Antarctica New Zealand to encourage pilots who are dropping off events at a field site for the first time to shut down whilst the members orientate themselves and test the radio equipment. K042 were fine, but I hear it is not always consistent practise.
Describe the containerisation of cargo, total flight weights, special handling of dangerous cargo, (eg motor toboggan, fuel tanks) and pre-planning meetings.
Cargo for our helo flights was largely contained in individual boxes and packs. No special handling of cargo was necessary because the only dangerous cargo we had was fuel which was stored in the tail section of the helo except for 60 L drums. Total flight weights (estimated from weights given in the ANZ field manual and probably accurate to within 150 lbs.) are as follows: (Note: this list does not include a flight which came in after Helo 4 to supply cargo which was mistakenly not included on Helo 4.)
- Helo 1 (20/11/99 - Insertion), aircraft - Bell 212, approx. weight 1600 lbs.
- Helo 2 (06/12/99 - resupply 1), aircraft - Bell 212, approx. weight 1300 lbs.
- Helo 3 (14/12/99 - resupply 2), aircraft - Bell 212, approx. weight 1470 lbs.
- Helo 4 (18/12/99 - resupply 3), aircraft - Bell 212, approx. weight 1200 lbs.
- Helo 5 (20/01/00 - partial pullout), aircraft - Bell 212, approx. weight 1600 lbs.
- Helo 6 (21/01/00 - final pullout), aircraft - Bell 212, approx. weight 1600 lbs.
As appropriate, detail the suitability of any skiways used. Clearly mark these on your report map and provide GPS coordinates where possible.
No skiways were used.
No ships were used except to transport rock samples to New Zealand at the close of the season.
7 Event Diary
Describe your field activities and movements in a concise day-by-day diary form, including main activities, where the party stayed (hut, description of camp site) and if members are at different locations. (Note this and numbers at each location) Record general comments relating to weather, route finding problems, dangerous icefalls or crevasse fields (mark on map also), suitable camp sites, surface conditions encountered etc. Briefly outline your efforts to accomplish the aims of your science programme.
Allan Hills 1999/2000 Events log for P. Holme
Note: event diaries for other event members were not available at this time. Every night, all event members stayed at the Main Camp except where noted. No icefalls or crevasse fields were encountered because our event was based on a nunatak and our research was geological so we travelled on rock almost the whole time.
|01||20/11/99||camp||insertion and camp setup|
|03||22/11/99||Triangle||recce south to the Triangle area|
|04||23/11/99||Northwest Platform||recce west across Northwest Platform and up onto west edge of Allan Hills. Found section with good stratigraphic contactspage break|
|05||24/11/99||Boulder Ridge||recce east to Boulder Ridge|
|06||25/11/99||Echo Gully||looked for Hiemstra's sections and found excellent section|
|07||26/11/99||helped Mark look for Hiemstra's sections|
|08||27/11/99||did write-up summary of preceding events|
|09||28/11/99||Sec 01||worked on Section 01|
|10||29/11/99||Sec 01||worked on Section 01|
|11||30/11/99||Sec 01||worked on Section 01|
|12||01/12/99||Manhaul snout to northeast platform||recce along Manhaul snout and out to northeast platform|
|13||02/12/99||just south of the Northwest Platform||recce – found potential section|
|14||03/12/99||Northwest Platform||recce, outcrop investigation|
|15||04/12/99||camp||sore knee – did paperwork|
|16||05/12/99||Northwest Platform||section 03|
|17||06/12/99||Northwest Platform||section 03|
|19||08/12/99||Triangle, Boulder Ridge||recce|
|22||11/12/99||Lake valley, Trudge valley||recce|
|23||12/12/99||south to the Rim||recce – looking for Sirius Group|
|25||14/12/99||along Manhaul snout to Lake valley||recce|
|26||15/12/99||central Allan Hills south of the central dyke||GPS measurements of the southern limit of the Beacon butter|
|27||16/12/99||Echo gully, Trudge valley||recce and GPS measurements of outcrops and striated surfaces|
|28||17/12/99||South limb||recce, looking for Sirius Group deposits|
|30||19/12/99||Camp valley||section 03|
|31||20/12/99||Camp valley||section 03|
|32||21/12/99||Camp valley||section 03|
|33||22/12/99||Camp valley||section 03|
|34||23/12/99||Camp valley||section 03|
|35||24/12/99||Camp valley and contra ridge||recce|
|38||27/12/99||Northwest Platform, Camp valley, contra ridge||outcrop tour|
|40||29/12/99||contra ridge||section 04|
|41||30/12/99||central and southern Allan Hills (north of the Rim)||recce and sampling|
|42||31/12/99||contra ridge||section 04|
|43||01/01/00||camp||New Year's Day|
|44||02/01/00||contra ridge||section 05|
|45||03/01/00||contra ridge||outcrop investigation|
|46||04/01/00||Trudge valley||Beta camp setup|
|47||05/01/00||north flank of Trudge valley||mapping|
|49||07/01/00||floor and south ridge of Trudge valley||recce|
|50||08/01/00||south ridge of Trudge valley||recce|
|51||09/01/00||south ridge of Trudge valley||recce|
|52||10/01/00||south rim of gully (SE gully) in southeast corner of Trudge valley||section 06page break|
|53||11/01/00||gully (Echo gully) In southwest corner of Trudge valley||section 07, outcrop investigation|
|54||12/01/00||Echo gully||section 07, outcrop investigation|
|55||13/01/00||Echo gully||section 07, outcrop investigation|
|56||14/01/00||SE gully||section 06, outcrop investigation|
|57||15/01/00||north flank of Trudge valley||recce and section 08 outcrop investigation|
|59||17/01/00||north flank of Trudge valley||mapping and section 08 outcrop description|
|60||18/01/00||north flank of Trudge valley||mapping and section 08 outcrop description|
|61||19/01/00||Echo gully||section 07 outcrop description|
|62||20/01/00||Echo gully/Beta camp||section 07 and breakdown/pullout of Beta camp|
|63||21/01/00||camp/Scott Base||pullout of Alpha camp and return to Scott Base|
8 Event Map
Append a detailed sketch map to show vehicle routes, aircraft landing sites, dangerous areas, depots and camp sites etc. Highlight any inaccuracies on existing topographical maps and provide GPS coordinates where possible.
1999-2000 Field season Allan Hills Weather Reports. (See note below.)
Note: Weather measurements were taken only on those days when helo visits were expected. Regular records were not kept.
|Date||Time (24h)||Te mp °C||Wind Spd (Kts)||Wind Dir.||Cloud Cover||Cloud Ht. (m)||Visibility (m)||Sfc Def'n||Horiz Def'n||Weather|
|30/12/99||0830||−16||10 gust 20||S||2/8||high||6000||good||good|
|01/12/99||0830||−17||15 gust 30||S||0/8||unlim.||>10000||good||good|
|01/12/99||2030||−18||10 gust 25||S||0/8||unlim.||>10000||fair||good|
|06/12/99||?||−12||3 gust 4||ESE||8/8||>2000||>10000||good||good|
|13/12/99||0745||−14||4 gust 5||S||8/8||1000||1000||poor||poor|
|14/12/99||0700||−14||4 gust 7||NW||2/8||4000||8000||good||good|
|14/12/99||0900||−14||10 gust 12||W||1/8||>4000||8000||good||good|
|27/12/99||0700||−11||1 gust 4||NW||6/8||>2000||8000||good||good|
|27/12/99||0900||−10||3 gust 5||NW||7/8||2000||>10000||fair||good|
|28/12/99||0700||−12||8 gust 12||SW||2/8||>3000||8000||good||good|
|28/12/99||1000||−10||10 gust 12||SW||3/8||>2000||8000||good||good|
The weather at Allan Hills during the 1999-2000 season did not overly hinder our party movements and decisions. Given the geological nature of our work, the only significant restricting weather condition was wind. The average wind speed over the entire field season was approximately 8-12 knots, but daily conditions fluctuated considerably about this mean, with the strongest winds exceeding 50 knots (the maximum limit readable by our anemometer). On windy days (25 knots gusting 30 knots) it became quite uncomfortable to remain standing at an outcrop for more than an hour even when wearing full ECW gear because our hands got cold. Nosewiper mitts were not useful because they were too cumbersome. During extreme weather conditions event members simply pursued tasks which were less susceptible. For the first couple of weeks the temperature was commonly −21 to −17°C. It gradually warmed to daily averages in the −12 to −8 °C range around Christmas and New Year's before slowly decreasing to −16 to −12°C by the time we left on January 21, 2000.
Particular note should be made here about weather conditions in Trudge Valley. It is windier there than Camp Valley and in its eastern half, the dominant wind direction is easterly, not southerly as it is in the rest of Allan Hills. This had a significant impact on the activities of the inhabitant(s) of Beta Camp, located there from Jan 4 − 20, 2000. This information should be passed on to subsequent parties that intend to camp in Trudge Valley.
10 Accidents, incidents or hazards
No accidents or incidents occurred to K042 event members during the 1999-2000 field season.
11 Field Equipment
The quality, suitability and performance of field clothing issued to you by Antarctica New Zealand;
In general the suitability and performance of the field clothing issued to us by ANZ were excellent. Our fieldsite is at 1600 m elevation and experiences high winds. The clothing supplied to us enabled us work well in the field despite these conditions.
One nosewiper mitt was lost during high winds, and one leather glove was misplaced (P. Cleary was notified of these losses upon our return to Scott Base). The clothing we returned endured reasonable wear and tear during our field season and will be useable again next season.
One recommendation would be that 'wind stopper' gloves (not nose wipers, but ones which allow dexterity) are made available for those persons working on or near the polar plateau.
The performance and design of tents, technical climbing equipment, kitchen gear and sledges,
We were issued Polar tents, Olympus tents and an Endura tent. The Polar tents were excellent (and quite new). I would not be content to live at our fieldsite in any other tent. One of our event members slept in an Olympus tent and found it to be a very noisy due to it flapping in the wind even though it was oriented correctly with respect to the prevailing wind direction and dug down 40 cm into the snow with a snow wall built to protect it. We had the Endura tent for only a few days, but really appreciated its roominess compared to Polar tents. It is not an easy tent to erect.
Of all of this gear, only one crampon and two rubber seals for the thermoses failed during the field season.
The 20 person day ration box system; detail suggestions to improve the packaging of items or improve palatability and calorific value. Comment on Scott Base diet;
The 20 person day ration box system provides good food and good nutrition and we do not have any major problems with it. It should be noted however that many of the Bumper Bars were up to two years over their expiry dates and did not taste very good. In addition, we suggest the following changes: increase the number of Raro packages in each box by 50%, decrease the amount of margarine in each box – we used about 10% of what was given to us, decrease the number of soup packages in each box.
With regard to Scott Base, the diet there was great. Andrew was a fantastic chef and I hope he's there again next year. Chris was a pretty good cook too.
In all cases fully explain any modification made by you to this equipment during the season. Indicate the general condition of items returned to Scott Base and report any lost equipment
Positive suggestions are encouraged for improvement to all equipment
12 Radio Communications
|i||Report on the suitability and effectiveness of the radio equipment issued to you at Scott Base. Comment on battery power, condition of aerials and utilisation of solar panels.|
We had two separate radio setups: an HF unit to communicate with Scott Base and two handheld VHF units for communicating line-of-sight amongst ourselves. We were supplied with a double 12 V battery to power the HF radio and we found the 'B' battery to be much more reliable than the 'A' battery. When using the 'A' battery our radio would often cut out (lose all power) during a radio sked and we would have to quickly switch to page break battery 'B'. The VHF units worked quite well. The solar panels kept the batteries well charged. During the last couple of weeks a wind storm broke the wire part of our HF aerial (without snapping the plastic casing) causing increased difficulty in contacting Scott Base. We didn't know the aerial was broken until we dismantled the camp at the end of the season.
We feel that a very useful addition to the radio kit would be an inexpensive voltmeter so that we can tell how well our batteries are charged. This would be especially useful for the VHF batteries because their charges last for such a short time.
|ii||Report on reception/transmission conditions and suitability of radio sked timing. Note particularly any periods during your field trip, or regions you visited, where radio reception was especially bad or unexpectedly good. Comment on conditions where repeater stations were used.|
In general our communications with Scott Base were loud and clear. We feel that it is not necessary to sked with Scott Base every 12 hours and feel that a sked every 24 hours would suffice.
|iii||Comment on Scott Base's general efficiency during radio skeds in providing details of forthcoming field movements (eg helicopters), weather forecasts, resupply, or news service.|
Scott Base's general efficiency in providing information during skeds was fine. We very much appreciated the relaxed and chatty approach of two radio operators, Matt and Stephen. We were in the field for quite a while and it was really nice to be able to talk to someone on the radio and have them read the headlines and the sports news to us. We also thought it was great that they would read jokes to us as well. It put us in good spirits.
We found that there were some considerable miscommunications between us and the Operations Manager, Peter Cleary, with regard to helo lift capabilities and cargo. An example was when four of our event members were returned to Scott Base. We had previously confirmed with Peter that while the helo was at our field site we would use it to fly to the top of a nearby peak (Mt. Brooke) to investigate findings from a previous group. Peter advised us that the helo could only take four persons and no cargo to the peak because of the elevation. Once the helo arrived, the pilots assured us that they could take the four persons and the full amount of retro cargo (approx. 800 lbs) to the top of the peak and then continue on to Scott Base without a problem. Had we known this we could have left the cargo and taken six persons up instead. We realise the position of Antarctica New Zealand and the Operations Manager in dealing with field party safety, but feel that Peter is overly and restrictively cautious in allowing the movements of persons in the field with regard to air transport.
|iv||Remember that you are strongly encouraged to keep a detailed radio log while in the field, in particular if you are a deep field party. The log is to be given to the Operations Manager when returning your radio at Scott Base. Such a log can become a vital and lifesaving source of information in the event of a Search & Rescue operation and can become an important LEGAL document.|
We wish to point out that at no point during our orientation at Scott Base were we recommended to keep a detailed radio log while in the field.
We feel that as part of the orientation it would be very beneficial to have a briefing from the Comms Operators to orient all event members with proper radio procedure. Although we did not experience any significant difficulties during our field season, all our knowledge relating to this came from the field manual. The meeting would also serve the purpose of allowing field event members to get to know the Comms Ops since they are the only outside people that we will have any contact with for the next couple of months.
13 Scott Base and Arrival Heights Laboratory Facilitiespage break
We did not use any of the Scott Base or Arrival Heights laboratory facilities.
14 Refuge and Research Huts
We did not occupy any United States or New Zealand (or any other) refuge or research huts.
15 Environmental Impact
Information from this section helps us to assess the environmental (including cumulative) impacts and overall environmental performance of New Zealand's activities each year. This reporting is a requirement of the legislation which implements the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty in New Zealand. It also forms the basis for annual input into Antarctica New Zealand's environmental database. Please be as specific as possible. For locations occupied, provide the site or protected area name, and GPS coordinates or map references where appropriate.
|i.||From your event diary, please summarise for each site visit made:
If possible, please provide a map of the sites visited, particularly for any rarely visited sites which may not be in the database. For field camps, indicate whether an existing campsite was used.
|1)||Site 1: location - Camp Valley (76°41′42″ S, 159°39′36″ E); occupied -20/11/99 to 21/01/00; total days – 63; maximum personnel – 7; total person-days - 217; activities - geological mapping, outcrop description and rock sampling.|
|2)||Site 2: location - Trudge Valley (Beta camp) (approx. 76°42′18″ S, 159°47′24″ E); occupied - 4/01/00 – 20/01/00; total days – 17; maximum personnel – 2; total person-days – 20; activities - geological mapping, outcrop description and rock sampling.|
For any protected areas visited (including historic huts), provide details of:
No protected areas were visited.
Detail any interference with terrestrial, freshwater or marine plants or animals or animal parts (e.g. shells, bones, feathers etc). For each site and/or species sampled or disturbed, provide:
No animals or animal parts were sampled or disturbed.
|iv.||Detail any collection of geological material (including meteorites, ventifacts, fossils or sub-fossils) or soil. For each sample (or group of samples) taken describe the location, specimen type and quantity in kg.|
40 samples in total were taken.
|Location||# of samples||Type||Total mass (kg)page break|
|outcrop in Camp valley||3||rock||8|
|outcrop on platform northwest of Camp valley||2||rock||5|
|outcrop on platform west of Camp valley||2||rock||5|
|outcrop in Camp valley||2||rock||5|
|outcrop on ridge on west side of central Allan Hills||1||rock||3|
|outcrops in south central Allan Hills||4||rock||10|
|outcrop on ridge on west side of central Allan Hills||4||rock||10|
|outcrop on lower north flank of Trudge valley||1||rock||3|
|south end of Trudge valley floor||1||rock||3|
|floor of valley at edge of ice cliff imm. south of Trudge valley||3||rock||8|
|outcrop on rim of gully in southeast corner of Trudge valley||3||rock||8|
|outcrop in gully in southwest corner of Trudge valley||2||rock||5|
|outcrop on rim of gully in southeast corner of Trudge valley||4||rock||10|
|outcrop on north flank of Trudge valley||4||rock||10|
|small outcrop in cirque on south flank of Trudge valley||1||rock||3|
|outcrop in gully in southwest corner of Trudge valley||3||rock||8|
Univ. of Amsterdam
All samples taken, both from the Allan Hills and Taylor Valley, were thought to be glacial diamicts. The combined weight was 259 lbs. The table below lists the majority of samples taken in the Allan Hills only and their respective triangulation (an in some cases GPS) result. Cairns were placed at all these sights. A more complete table will be available upon request.page break page break
|v.||For each chemical (including radionucleides) taken to Antarctica, provide details of the chemical form and quantity and locations of use. Include details of use of fuel, paints, solvents etc in the field. If unused chemicals were not returned to New Zealand, provide details of location and quantities of material released or stored.|
No chemicals or radionucleides were taken to Antarctica.
|vi.||Detail any use of explosives in Antarctica, including:
No explosives were used in Antarctica.
Detail importation to Antarctica of any animals, plants (including any seeds), micro-organisms or soil, including any inadvertent introductions. Note the name and quantity of the species or substance(s), all the locations they were taken to, and whether they have been returned to New Zealand.
No animals, plants, micro-organisms or soil were imported into Antarctica.page break
List any equipment markers, stakes or cairns installed in the field during your visit If any remain in the field, provide details of the location, size and number of items. Note any plans for their retrieval, including the date they will be removed.
After receiving permission over the radio from Antarctica New Zealand (Emma Waterhouse), we left two 60 L drums of kerosene at our main camp in Camp valley. The drums were strapped together and placed upright in a spill-tray. Neither drum had been opened. The kerosene will be used by our party next year.
Lloyd-Davies erected cairns as he outlined in his sample list above. These cairns will be dismantled at the end of the 2000/2001 season.
Provide details of any other environmental impacts of your activities including disturbance by trampling, sampling, use of vehicles (including aircraft), camp operations (including waste disposal), installation of equipment and buildings and/or cumulative impacts.
Note any incidents which occurred or were observed (e.g. fuel spills, wildlife disturbance, inappropriate vehicle or aircraft use) and what reports or records have been made. If unreported, detail the date, time, location and nature of incident, and any action taken.
We did not experience any fuel spills or any other event which would produce an environmental impact. We pitched our tents on snow patches and removed all equipment with the exception noted above.
|x.||If the activities described above differ from the Preliminary Environmental Evaluation (PEE) completed for this event (and any approved changes), or from the Environmental Authorisation issued to it, explain how and why they differed.|
16 Historic Sites
Detail any visit to a designated 'historic site' in the Ross Dependency and include any general observations about the condition of the site, in particular, note any damage.
We did not have the opportunity to visit any historic sites.
17 Management of Science in the Ross Dependency
Comment on the forward planning of your Antarctic science programme, especially relating to your field of research. Comment on Antarctica New Zealand's ability to cater for your type of work both at Scott Base and in the field.
Our future plans are to return to Allan Hills for the 2000/2001 field season and continue outcrop investigation. We are also hoping to drill and retrieve core of patches of Sirius Group that are not well exposed. We were fully satisfied with the support we received from Antarctica New Zealand both at Scott Base and in the field. Again, we benefited greatly from the willingness of the Scott Base staff to help us far beyond the scope of their specific jobs. We feel it is important for Antarctica New Zealand to fully appreciate this when assessing the success of the New Zealand Antarctic program.
Comment on the involvement of any overseas scientists or students in your event, including the benefits and contribution gained by their participation in your programme.
This event exists because of international cooperation, initially between Swiss and New Zealand researchers, and then later between Holland and New Zealand. With the introduction of Hicock as Holme's Canadian co-supervisor, the international scope of the program was broadened further. This cooperation has brought different and complementary expertise together, greatly enhancing the depth and scope of the science conducted as part of the K042 Event.page break
Finally, identify any areas where management is required to protect areas of outstanding scientific, environmental, aesthetic or wilderness values. Note that you are able to propose any such area for protection under the Environmental Protocol.
During our stay at Allan Hills, we discovered an equipment cache at the east end of Trudge Valley which we believe to have been left behind by a 1972 expedition. We notified Scott Base (Peter Geary) and asked what should be done with it, but no decision was made before we returned to Scott Base in January. The cache consists of three or four wooden boxes (at least one of which contains food), three metal fuel canisters and an old, tatty pair of mountaineering boots. In addition there are many (perhaps twenty) rusty tin cans and other bits of trash tucked under nearby rocks. We suggest that the tin cans and other garbage be cleaned up but that the main cache be left for its historical significance. The site does not detract from the surrounding landscape and is in fact very difficult to spot. We only discovered it when one of our members happened to walk within about 10 m of it. We do not feel that there is any environmental danger from the site either because the fuel containers appeared empty.
18 Antarctic Geographic Place Names
Jaap van der Meer of the University of Amsterdam wishes to propose names for two features at Allan Hills. He will be preparing this proposal himself.