Extract from a Despatch from Governor Sir G. F. Bowen, G.C.M.G., to his Grace the Duke of Buckingham.
My Lord Duke,—
In continuation of my previous despatches respecting the present condition of the Maoris, I have the honour to transmit herewith a map, showing the distribution of the several Native tribes in New Zealand. With trifling exceptions, they are all resident in the Northern Island. I annex a nominal list of these clans, and of the principal chiefs, together with a statement of the estimated number of each tribe at the present time, and of its attitude, whether loyal or hostile to the Government, with other explanatory remarks….
It will be perceived that the total Maori population is estimated now, in 1868, at 38,517; of which number all except from 1,500 to 2,000 reside in the Northern Island. Ten years ago, in 1858, a Government census returned the total Maori population at 56,049; twenty years ago, in 1848; the Maoris were estimated at about 100,000.
The causes which have contributed to produce this rapid and deplorable decay have been discussed at length by several writers of ability and local experience. I would refer more particularly to the works of Mr. Fox, formerly Prime Minister of this colony; and of Dr. A. S. Thompson, who was resident in New Zealand for many years as surgeon to the 58th Regiment. Mr. Fox shows that the gradual disappearance of the Maoris is not to be attributed in any large degree to their intercourse with Europeans, for "that, for the most part, has led to the adoption of better food, better dwellings; better general habits of life." … "The one great cause has been, and is, their utter disregard of all those social and sanitary conditions which are essential to the continuing vitality of the human race. This cause was in existence long before there was a European in the Islands, and there is little doubt that the race was on the decrease when Cook first landed there." Dr. Thompson observes: "The extinction of aboriginal races has been often caused by evil treatment. The bauds of the early settlers in America, the West Indies, Tasmania, Australia, and Africa, are not clean from this imputation; but, as far as the story of New Zealand has yet been unrolled, the pioneers of civilization and the majority of English, Irish, and Scotch settlers in the Islands have, with some few exceptions, acted towards the Natives in a spirit of Christianity unknown to the Saxon colonists in Ireland, the Norman invaders of England, or the Spanish conquerors of America."
It is to be hoped that the general restoration of peace, and the prohibition of intertribal wars; the gradual individualization of property in land now held in common; the progress of trade and friendly intercourse between the European settlers and the Maoris; the increasing use of animal food and wheaten flour; the schools, hospitals, roads, and other institutions by means of which the Colonial Government is endeavouring to promote the civilization of the Natives, will all contribute to arrest the further decay of the surviving remnant of a most interesting race.
I have, &c.,
G. F. Bowen.
His Grace the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos.
List of Maori Tribes and Chiefs.
Rarawa—2,761. Friendly. Leading men: Puhipi te Ripi, Wi Tana Papahia. Te Anga, Te Morenga, Tehu te Tai, Paraone Ngaruhe, Tipene te Taha.
Ngapuhi—5,804. Friendly. Leading men: Tamati Waka Nehe (a thorough friend all his life to the pakeha—one of those to whom it is owing that Heke's rebellion in 1845-46 was quelled), Rangatira Moetara, Aperahama te Taonui, Arama Karaka Pi, Mohi Tawhai, Papahurihia, Hira Mura, Piripi Korohgohi, Hare Wirikake, Hemi Marupo, Kingi W. Tareha, Maihi Kawiti, Huirua, Kingi Hori Kira, Te Tirarau, Parata Mate.
Ngatiwhatua—709. Friendly. Leading men: Te Otene Pura, Paraone Ngaweke, Paikea, Apihai te Kawau, Te Hemara Tauhia.
Ngatimaru—3,670. Partly friendly, partly hostile. A considerable number professed Hauhaus. Leading men: Haora Tipa, Te Taniwha Kitahi, Ropata te Arakai, Ngakapa W., Taraia, Te Hirakake, Te Moananui.page 186
Ngaiterangi —1,198. Partly friendly, partly hostile. A considerable number professed Hauhaus. Leading men: Hori Tupaea, Hamiora Tu, Wiremu Parera, Hohepa Hikataia, Enoka te Whanake, Te Kuka, Maihi Pohepohe, R. te Hiahia, Te Ranapia.
Waieato, etc.— 2,279.* Partly friendly, partly hostile. A considerable number professed Hauhaus. Leading men: Ta Kerei te Rau, Tamati Ngapora (Matutaera's principal political adviser), Wi te Wheoro, Te Hakiriwhi, Te Pakaroa, Tamihana Tunui, Aihepene Kaihau, Hori Tauroa, Heta Tauranga (W. Thompson's son-in-law), Matutaera Potatau (the so-called Maori King), Waikato te Tawhana, Nini Kukutai.
Ngatimaniapoto— 2,000. All hostile. Leading men: Rewi Maniapoto, Tikaokao, Te Tapihana Tiriwa (taken prisoner at Rangiriri). These three chiefs are and have been active and resolute opponents of the Government.
Ngatiawa— 1,293.† Mostly friendly. A considerable number professed Hauhaus. Leading men: Honiana te Puni (the E Puni of the New Zealand Company's reports: to this chief's influence it was mainly owing that the war in the Wellington Province in 1846 was brought to a close; he has been a firm and faithful friend of the pakeha from the very first), Ropiha Moturoa, Ihaia Porutu, Wi Tako Ngatata, Wikitoa Taringakuri (supposed to be one of the oldest living chiefs), W. Kingi te Rangitake (William King of the Waitara war), Te Teira Manuka (the chief seller of the Waitara Block in 1860), Mahau, Poharama, Pirika Mahutu, Ropoama te One (of Marlborough), W. K. te Puoho (of Nelson).
Taranaki —400.‡ Partly friendly. A considerable number professed Hauhaus. Leading men: W. Kingi Matakatea, Mohi Taranaki, Hemi Parai, R. Ngarongomate, Porikapa.
Ngatiruanui— 750.§ Partly friendly. A considerable number professed Hauhaus. Leading men: Hone Pihama (a returned rebel, and since his return a most active and trustworthy friend), Hone Wiremu, Ngatairakaunui, W. Hukanui, Natanahira Nga Hina, Tito te Hanataua, Nga Waka Taurua, Titokowaru, Toi, Ahipene Marangai (friendly all through the war).
Ngarauru— 400. Mostly returned reiels. Leading men: Aperahama Tamaiparea, Te Kepa Heuheu.
Whanganui— 1,427. Friendly. Leading men: Hori Kingi te Anaua, Te Mawae, Mete Kingi Paetahi, Kepa Rangihiwjnui, Kawana Paipai, Tamati Puna, Haimona te Aoterangi (these seven chiefs distinguished themselves in the battles of Moutoa and Ohoutahi), Pehi Turoa (rebel).
Ngatiapa —325. Friendly. Leading men: Aperahama Tipae, Hunia te Hakeke, Mohi Mahi, Wi Mokomoko.
Rangitane —250.‖ Friendly. Leading men: Te Huru te Hairo, Te Peiti te Aweawe, Hoani Meihana te Rangiotu, Hirawanu Kai Mokopuna.
Muaupoko —125. Friendly. Leading men: Noa te Whata, Maru te Rangimairehau. (Rangitane and Muaupoko are really sub-tribes of Ngatikahungunu, though they are spoken of as distinct tribes.)
Ngatikahungunu —2,952. Friendly. Leading men: Tareha, Te Hapuku, Ihaka Whaanga, Karaitiana, Renata Kawepo, Ngairo, Te Manihera Rangitakaiwaho, Paora te Apatu.
Te Aeawa —1,951.** Friendly. Leading men: Henare Pukuatua, Paora te Amohau, Petirate Pukuatua, Temuera, Arama Karaka, Te Matangi, Te Pokiha Taranui, Matene te Huaki, Te Mapu, Hori te Haupapa, Rewi Tereanuku, W. Maihi te Rangikaheke, Wiremu Rupa, Wiremu Katene, W. Kepa te Rangipuawhe, Te Wikiriwhi.
Ngatiawa —659. Mostly friendly at present. Leading men: Opanui, Hohaia Matatihokia, Hori Tunui.
Whakatohea —573. Partly friendly, partly hostile. A considerable number professed Hauhaus. Leading men: Rangimatanuku, Witeria Taawhi.
Ngaitai. Chief: W. K. Tutehuarangi.
Whanau o Apanui. Leading men: Tatona Ngatawa, Hamiora Reweti.
Te urewera— 500. In active rebellion. Leading men: Harehare, Hamiora Takurua, Te Hiko o te Rangi.
Ngatiraukawa —1,071.†† Partly friendly, partly hostile. A considerable number professed Hauhaus. Leading men: Aperahama te Huruhuru, Nepia Taratoa, Noa te Rauhihi, Matene te Whiwhi, Te Kooro te One, Tamihana te Rauparaha.
Ngaitawarere— 300. Leading men: Matenga, Te Hata.
Rongowhakaata— 1,000. Partly friendly, partly hostile. A considerable number professed Hauhaus. Leading men: Hirini te Kani, Raharuhi Rukupo, Henare Potae, Te Paratene Turangi.
Ngatiporou —4,500.‡‡ Partly friendly, partly hostile. A considerable number professed Hauhaus. Leading men: Wiki te Matehe, Mokena Kohere, Iharaira te Houkamau, Tai Ngaruru.
Approximate total population in the Northern Island, including such members of northern tribes as are resident in the Province of Nelson, such as Ngatiawa, Rangitane, Ngatitoa,
|Ngaitahu and-Ngatimamoe. Leading men: Pita te- Hori, Matiaha Tiramorehu, Honi Topi Patuke||1,500|
|Approximate total population||38,517|
* These numbers are based upon returns furnished to the Native Office by the Resident Magistrates in the several districts comprising the Waikato territory, but only show the number at present residing in the District of Waiuku, Waikato, and Raglan.
† This number includes also such of the Ngatiawa and Ngatitama as are resident in the "Wellington and Nelson Provinces.
‡ Including also such of the Taranaki as are resident in the Wellington Province.
§ Including also such of the Ngatiruanui as are resident in the Wellington Province.
‖ Including such of the Eangitane as are resident in the Middle Island.
** This is probably an under-estimate of the Arawa.
†† This number includes the Ngatitoa who have intermarried almost completely into the Ngatiraukawa. Also such of Ngatitoa as are resident in the Nelson Province.
‡‡ Including prisoners at the Chatham Islands.