Lore and history of the South Island Maori
The Ngai Tahu, owing to dissension with the kindred tribe Ngati Kahungunu of the Wairarapa, crossed over Cook Strait; and took up their abode with the Rangitane, Ngai Tara, and Ngati Mamoe, dwelling in the Marlborough Sounds. The big migration known as Heke a Puraho nui took place under a chief Puraho about 1670A.D. The Ngai Tahu settled at the following places:—Kaihinu, a peninsula in Tory Channel near Moioio Island; Totaranui (Ship's Cove) in Queen Charlotte Sound; Mahekipawa at the south end of Pelorus Sound; Te Hoiere at the head of Pelorus Sound; and Anakiwa at the south end of Queen Charlotte Sound. Later the Ngai Tahu Tribe had a pa called Otekaue at the mouth of the Wairau River. The original name of the Wairau River was Motu kawa. The Rangitane Tribe had a pa on the Wairau River named Kowhai and its chief was Te Ruaoneone. The Maoris of Pelorus Sound affirm that prior to their arrival the inhabitants were a small dark-skinned race, who cultivated land and lived peacefully in pit dwellings on hillsides. On water they used only very small canoes.
Coming to early European times Ngarawa was the leading chief of the Marlborough Sounds; Te Wetu was chief at the Wairau and Pakihure at Pelorus. Pas existed at Grovetown, Tuamarina and Gibsontown. Kaikoura Whakatau who signed the Treaty of Waitangi held sway along the Kaikoura coastline, had two wives and was killed by a fall from a horse at the Amuri Bluff in 1869. He was the grandfather of Mrs Beaton of Oaro who during the period 1924 to 1930 furnished the bulk of the Marlborough history now being written. She was a rangitira wahine, proud of her Maori blood, so much so that when she submitted to be photographed, she disdained to wear a pakeha garment.
The first breach the Ngai Tahu Tribe had with the Ngai Tara was occasioned by the latter slaying and cooking a member of the former tribe and serving him up as a juicy joint for his Ngai Tahu kinsmen. The Ngai Tahu retaliated by digging up Te Ao Marere from his grave and cooking him. The Ngai Tara Tribe set an ambush and managed to slay Puraho and his daughter, but his fellow Ngai Tahu chief Manawa escaped. The Ngai Tahu on the loss of their principal chief abandoned the vicinity of Moioio Island and moved away page 19to Otekaue and Te Pukatei near White's Bay. Firmly established at the Wairau the Ngai Tahu determined to have full revenge on the Rangitane and Ngai Tara Tribes, and it was not long before the Ngati Mamoe claimed their warlike attentions also. The Ngai Tahu Tribe, however, did not always have matters their own way as the Rangitane defeated them in battle at Rua taniwha which is two miles up the Wairau River and also at Hikurangi near Renwick township.
Te Huataki, a warrior chief of the Rangitane is said to have married the two daughters of Tiotio, the chief tohunga of the Ngai Tahu. Their names were Rakai te kura and Mahinga tahi. Marriage relationships did not however cement friendships. The first conflict the Ngai Tahu had with the Ngati Mamoe took place on a spot between the Ure River and Kekerangu, and this fight is known as the battle of Tetewhai. A Ngati Mamoe chief named Kana te pu Mamo came all the way from Stewart Island to participate, but he was slain by the famous Ngai Tahu chief Te Rakai tau wheke.
The reason for the Ngai Tahu Tribe migrating to the South Island can largely be laid at the door of Te Rakai tau wheke as he had slain Tapu a chief of the Ngati Kahungunu Tribe in revenge for an insult. After the Ngai Tahu victory at Tetewhai peace reigned for a period with the Ngati Mamoe. Fighting with the Ngai Tara and Rangitane was frequent. Maru, the son of Manawa the Ngai Tahu leading chief, was of a merciful disposition, and his many acts of clemency offended quite a large section of his own tribe. On one occasion he saved the life of the Ngai Tara chief Rapa a te Kuri, and he married Hinemaka, a Ngai Tara lady of rank, to save her from the ovens when Kurateau Pa was captured. Rakai te kura, a daughter of Maru, was betrothed to the chief Te Rangitauhanga, but the lady had her own views on the matter and became the wife of Tuaheke instead. Te Rangiwhakaputa (better known in Canterbury as Te Raki whakaputa) the father of the jilted one vented his rage on Maru, the girl's father. Maru avoided quarrel and journeyed south to Omihi and dwelt with his Ngati Mamoe relation Tukiauau. However the Ngai Tahu tribe found it very expedient to recall Maru. Maru figures in Southern Marlborough story, his nobility of character once more to the forefront. It was through Maru's leniency to his enemies that a chief Waitai journeyed to Otago and Southland to slay the peaceful Waitaha and Ngati Mamoe folk there. In a fight near White's Bay the Ngai Tahu in alliance with the Ngati Mamoe defeated the Rangitane Tribe.
Comradeship in arms was often a marriage of convenience. The Ngati Mamoe Tribe in canoes met a party of the Ngai Tahu fishing off the coast near Waipapa and slew the chief Tauhiku, his fellow chief Te Kane escaping. Te Rakai tau wheke rallied the Ngai Tahu on the advice of the tohunga page 20Pohatu and turned the tables. The Ngati Mamoe had a pa near Waipapa Point under their chief Paua. A Ngai Tahu chief Aponga lived there with his Ngati Mamoe wives. Finding his loves deceitful in the supplying of food he complained to his seniors at the Wairau. The necessary excuse being found, the Ngai Tahu under Te Rakai tau wheke advanced and captured Waipapa, and its chief Paua was slain by Te Urihira. The attack was made by deviating from the direct route from the Wairau. The war party went up the Kekerangu River, crossed over the Woodbank Stream, and down the Clarence River to the rear of the Waipapa Pa. The Ngai Tahu next attacked the Ngati Mamoe Pa of Matarika. Tuteuretira, a Ngai Tahu dwelling within the pa, deserted his Ngati Mamoe friends and joined in the attack. The Rangitane Tribe later came to the aid of the Ngati Mamoe and "the sea-gulls, woodhens and kiwis feasted on the flesh of the Ngai Tahu dead for many days." This fight is known in history as Paororo (mashed brains) and sometimes as "seagull' food"—Kaikaroro.
The Rangitane returned to the Sounds and the Ngati Mamoe shifted quarters to the bluff above the south bank of the Kahutara River near its mouth. There a strong pa named Peketa was built. With the Clarence River district wholly in Ngai Tahu possession Te Rakai tau wheke proudly remarked "Nothing now moves at Waipapa but Hau makariri." The latter is a never-failing spring.
Kaikoura appears to have passed to the Ngai Tahu without a struggle, and the "mana" fell on the chief Maru. The Ngati Kuia Tribe of the Marlborough Sounds are the representatives to-day of the once powerful Rangitane Tribe. Just before Te Rauparaha and his North Island forces visited destruction on the northern portion of the South Island, namely in the early part of last century, the Ngati Kuia under the chief Te Waihere successfully attacked the Ngai Tahu of Kaikoura, killed the chief Te Koaka and took away a famous jadestone mere named Ohiwa.
Te Rauparaha commenced his South Island campaign on the Rangitane at Hikapu. He slew a chief Patu-one-one at Te Kowhai Pa at the Wairau. This warrior had boasted he would split open Te Rauparaha's head with a fernroot pounder. Rerewaka the chief of Kaikoura said he would cut Te Rauparaha open with a shark's tooth. Te Rauparaha nursed revenge. In due course he arrived off Kaikoura and took Takahanga Pa situated on a terrace on the northern side of Kaikoura Peninsula. The inhabitants were mostly on the beach expecting a friendly visit from southern members of the Ngai Tahu Tribe, and fell an easy prey. Some 1400 persons were either slain or taken prisoners. Rerewaka was slain. His house stood where the Presbyterian Manse now is at Kaikoura.page break page 21
Te Rauparaha had another justification for attacking the Ngai Tahu inasmuch as they had given haven to a "Don Juan" chief named Kekerengu, who had been guilty of adultery with the wife of his kinsman Rangihaeata. According to one account Kekerengu was slain by the Ngai Tahu Tribe later on at a place up the Clarence River. He was looked on as the cause of the misfortune. At the time of his death he is said to have been in possession of an ancient and valuable greenstone mere called "Tawhito whenua". Te Rauparaha's forces moved south to Omihi, which suffered the same fate as Kaikoura, its inhabitants likewise being taken unaware, expecting friendly visitors. Te Rauparaha's visit to Kaiapohia which followed is dealt with in another chapter.
The Ngai Tahu Tribe has every reason to be proud of its later achievements against Te Rauparaha, his Ngati Toa warriors and allied tribes. The successes of the northern forces were attributable to the greater use of pakeha firearms, plus opponents split by internal dissension. Once the Ngai Tahu rallied on an equal basis, Te Rauparaha's fortune left him. Early in 1833 the Ngai Tahu, in six canoes with a force of 350 warriors, moored at Waiharakeke (Flaxburn River), marched to Kapara te hau (Grassmere), and ambushed Te Rauparaha at Paruparu. Te Rauparaha got away minus 140 of his best warriors. The Ngai Tahu chased their enemies to Port Underwood arid landed at Ngakuta Bay. The northerners were contacted from a ridge overlooking Opua Bay. Again Te Rauparaha suffered a reverse and fled to Tory Channel. Te Rauparaha obtained reinforcements, but the Ngati Toa with their allies the Ngati Awa, Ngati Raukawa and Ngati Mutunga were once more defeated at Fighting Bay by the Ngai Tahu led by Tutehounuku. Te Rauparaha's forces fled to Anapua in Tory Channel. The northerners rallied but failed to retrieve their position despite desultory fighting. So ended the fighting known as Oraumoa iti or Taua iti, during January 1833.
In February 1834, Taiaroa and Whakataupuka led a Ngai Tahu army of 500 men in 29 canoes up to Marlborough and into Queen Charlotte Sound, but Te Rauparaha and his warriors kept out of sight. The Ngai Tahu stayed there two months, half the force being stationed at Te Awa iti and the rest at Totaranui. Fugitives lived up the Wairau Gorge till 1844. Taiaroa's expedition is called Oraumoa nui or Taua nui. The leading southern chiefs in these expeditions were Tuhawaiki, Karetai, Iwikau, Karoki (father of Matiaha of Moeraki), Te Rangi a moa, Nohomutu, Te Ngaro Whakatomo, Kau (father of Horutu), Kahu tua nui, Katata, Tuauau, Tangatahara, Tamaniuarangi (father of John Paratene, first South Island M P.), Kainawe, Tutehounuku, Haranui, Paitu, Makere, Haere roa, Tirakapiti and Paori Taki.
In 1838 and 1839 Te Rauparaha threatened to raid Ngai page 22Tahu territory. In January 1838 the Ngai Tahu journeyed north in canoes to fight him, and again in November 1839. Te Rauparaha had however fallen out with his allies the Ngati Awa, and was not in a position to give battle.
With the advent of the Wesleyan missionary the Rev. Ironside at Port Underwood on December 20th, 1840, a new era began. He acquired 150 acres at Ngakuta Bay and built a small church 66 x 36 feet and 12 feet in height, and the edifice was opened for Christian worship on August 5 th, 1842. Through a faulty land purchase by the New Zealand Company and the forcing of the same by Mr Thomson, the magistrate of Nelson, twenty-two Europeans lost their lives at the hands of the Maoris on June 17th, 1843. This event is erroneously called the Wairau Massacre. The site is marked by a monument near the Tuamarina Stream. The memorial was unveiled in March 1869, and was designed by Felix Wakefield.
During recent years considerable attention has been given by our learned men to a moa hunters' camp on the Boulder Bank at the delta of the Wairau River. Implements, moa bones and real necklaces have been found in company with human remains, and it must be admitted valuable knowledge was obtained. If the replica of the find to be seen in the Canterbury Museum is correct, the date of burial is well within Canon J. W. Stack's estimate of the age of human population in New Zealand. Well-founded traditions of the South Island however go several centuries further back and were not obtained by the reverend gentleman. The Rangitane Tribe are credited with killing the moa at the Tua marina up till 200 years ago, and it is quite possible the finds at the Wairau do not date further back than the second Waitaha Tribe which arrived in the South Island about 1477A.D. The most interesting feature of the Wairau Delta is the navigable man-made canals of an aggregate length of twelve miles, width of twelve feet and depth of three feet. The canals were formed to facilitate the catching of birds and the taking of fish by the Maoris of the Rangitane Tribe. The large lagoons were gazetted as bird sanctuaries by the New Zealand Government on March 19th, 1903.
The following are place names in rotation going north from Kaikoura:—Opokihi at Lyell Creek; Patiki, a creek; Waiwhero, a creek; Te Waia, a creek; Tahapuku, the Hapuku River; O Torohanga is the north side of the Hapuka River; Hapenui, the native village at Mangamaunu; Te Roto awa, small lake near Mangamaunu; Pohata nui; Te Umu wheke, the burial place at Mangamaunu; Te Pari Karakaraka, southern portion of the terrace at Mangamaunu; Te Haumi, site of Roman Catholic Church at Mangamaumu; Te Po o Te Manu, northern part of the terrace at Mangamaunu; Putawainui, spring and creek near Hapenui; Whakaikai a pako on bank of page 23the Hapuka River; Te Ara tia tia or Wai tiatia, old native cultivations; Wairere, (Te Waha o te Marangai) a rock on the beach north of the first cutting; Te Kawakawa is the Pinnacle Rock at Blue Duck village; Te Karetu, is Blue Duck Greek; Haupopokia, Irongate Creek; Te Ikaa Whaturoa is the site of a battle between the Ngai Tahu and Ngati Mamoe; O Huruhuru, boat harbour at Aniseed Creek; Rangiata an inland hill; Rakautara is Hennesey's Creek at Aniseed; Pari Koau, Halfmoon Bay; Ohau, the rocks a fishing place; and Paparoa is the well known point.
On the south bank of the Clarence on the cliff above the entrance to the traffic bridge can be seen the earthworks of an old pa which figured in the warfare between the Ngai Tahu and Ngati Mamoe Tribes, its name being "Te Puha te kari". Opatu tu is a high hill at the Clarence. Papatea is the small stream on the Giles Estate. The Mereburn or Porangarau Stream is correctly the Pungarehu (ashes left by fire). An ancient burial-ground is situated at the mouth of the Aniseed Creek, and on the north side was situated a pa called Kaitutae. Aniseed is believed to have been the home of a noted chief whose name was Tute Uretira. The recently constructed Blenheim—Christchurch railway disclosed many burial caves, and curios were eagerly sought for by European, collectors. Pukaka Pa stood at the outlet of the Waimanara Gorge, and Pirinoa Pa was located on the Emm's Estate. Notched adzes used for whakapapa (genealogical) purposes have been found there about.
Kaikoura (eat crayfish) has earned the reputation of being the Scarborough of New Zealand. From the Maori view point it is a place of historic importance. The full name of Kaikoura is Te Ahi-koura-a-Tama-ki-te-Rangi (the place where Tama-ki-te Rangi kindled a fire to cook crayfish). Tama-ki-te Rangi was an explorer who arrived from Hawaiki by the Tairea Canoe. Tradition also associates Kaikoura with Rakataura of the Pauira raira Canoe. Tamatea-pokai-whenua of the Takitimu Canoe also visited Kaikoura some six hundred years ago. The foregoing voyages are well known to North Island historians, but South Island tradition is more ancient. Kaikoura is definitely associated with Maui of the Mahunui Canoe of nearly 1200 years ago. The North Island was fished up by Maui from Kaikoura. Rakaihautu visited Kaikoura in the Uruao Canoe about 850A.D. (almost a century before the advent of Kupe).
In the days of Ngai Tahu occupation there were four pas at Kaikoura; Takahanga, and Pa Nganiho at Kaikoura. Wai a riki, and another the name of which was not obtained were at South Bay. The Ngati Mamoe pa was on the Kaikoura headland. At the Garden of Memories, Kaikoura, repose the mortal remains of the chiefs Te Hiakai, Mihi, and page 24Tenatama killed during strife within the Ngai Tahu Tribe.
The following place names are at Kaikoura or its immediate neighbourhood. Wai o puka (water of the broadleaf tree) is the creek and point near the Kaikoura wharf. Waikoau, Lyell Greek; Oha apu, canoe landing place at mouth of Lyell Creek; Te Maihuporo, centre of flat between wharf and township; Tarori, the bay; Te Ana o Tiri, point and cave east side of Kaikoura; Whinaunui, opposite Takahanga; Opokiri, north side of Lyell Creek; Pitokaone, east corner of Kaikoura; Tamahuporo, vicinity of the wharf; Rae o Atiu, north headland of Kaikoura Peninsula; Rae o Tawhiti, south headland of Kaikoura Peninsula; Te Waero o te hiku, South Bay, Kaikoura; Wai o Ruaraki or Wairua o Rangi represents the Kowhai River. Wairepo is a small lagoon on Kaikoura Peninsula. The Maori Leap is the bluff where the Main South Road meets the Kowhai River. The sole survivor from a captured pa there escaped by leaping the bluff.
On the south side of the traffic bridge, high up, overlooking the Kahutara River the Ngati Mamoe built the impregnable fortress of Peketa after their eviction from the Clarence district. Assault after assault was made by the Ngai Tahu in efforts to capture it, so they laid siege to it as a last resort. Te Rakai tau wheke the Ngai Tahu leader enticed the garrison out by stratagem. He sported in the sea as a seal. The Ngati Mamoe pursued him towards Kaikoura. He out-distanced his pursuers, but led them into a Ngai Tahu ambush at Opokihi at Lyell Creek. Rakaitauwheke accounted for the Ngati Mamoe chiefs Popia and Tarere, and his friend Maru killed Te Puehu and Te Awe awe. Bereft of their leaders the rest of the Ngati Mamoe were easy prey. The folk left at Peketa abandoned the pa and journeyed south to Omihi.
Peketa is the only hill pa the writer has seen which is to any extent comparable to the fortresses in the North Island. Omihi is south of the well-known Goose Bay camping resort. The wall of the ancient pa of Omihi was in 1945 still clearly visible some 30. chains southward of the Omihi Stream, and it dates from the time of the Puhirere hapu of the second Waitaha Tribe. Ngati Mamoe and Ngai Tahu have in turn occupied it.
A former pa on the same site dates to the Rapuwai Tribe. Hikurangi is the name of the hill to the rear of Omihi. Tradition tells of an unsuccessful attempt to capture Omihi Pa by a warrior named Te Towa. Pohea of the Ngai Tara was in possession of the fort for a brief period, but was ousted by the Ngati Mamoe. The flow of bloodshed was so great that the Omihi Stream was formed. Be that as it may, tradition declares any person drinking the waters of Omihi will always return some time to drink anew.
Sites of Typical Maori Forts in North Canterbury Upper Left: Nga took ono pa at Fisherman's Bay. Upper Right: Ngatikoreha pa, Ahuriri (near Tai Tapu). Lower Left: Orariki pa, Taumutu. Lower Right: Otokitoki pa, Fern Bay, Lyttelton.
Manawa continued to live with his Ngai Tahu followers at Omihi for nearly three years. Tukiauau had a beautiful daughter, and Manawa, foolishly seeking revenge for the slaying of Rakai Momona, went to Pari whakatau to arrange a marriage to his son Te Ruahikihiki. Tukiauau received his visitors with ceremony. His wife took close relations under her care, the others with Manawa were, escorted into a whare and slain. Maru in duty bound led the Ngai Tahu avengers. Off Pakihi a fishing party of the Ngati Mamoe were met with and its members either captured or slain. Maru captured the chief Tukarua toro, who was his brother-in-law, arid endeavoured to save him from death. Te Kauae, the second in command had no compunction and roused the Ngai Tahu to demand that Tukarua toro be handed over for the menu of the feast, Te Kauae himself biting off the ears of Maru's brother-in-law.
The pa of Pari whakatau long defied capture. A junior chief of the Ngai Tahu named Tu te Rangiapiapi closely related to the besieged persuaded his relations to allow him inside. One day he treacherously took a red hot stone from an oven and threw it on the dry raupo roof of a whare. Soon the inside of the pa was a mass of flames. The Ngai Tahu captured Pari whakatau and slew many, but Tukiauau and his close kin escaped to the Taieri. The further fortunes of Tukiauau are told in succeeding chapters.
The Ngai Tahu Tribe at Omihi had war with their kinsmen of Kaiapohia. The fight at Omihi, called Taheke roroa, saw the local folk under Haumatake defeat the Kaiapohia. Tawini, chief of the latter, was slain. On the south bank of the Conway River opposite the Hundalee Railway Station there is a gulley called Kokere-mahere where the southerners again suffered defeat. Haumataki ended his days at Wairewa (Little River), Canterbury.
At Te Umu kuri, the flat at Oaro a skirmish took place between the main Ngai Tahu and the Ngati Kuri branch. Kaka-mutumutu, Te Motumotu and Te Kahika are the branches of the Oaro River. Pa Ngaio is situated on the cliff overlooking the mouth of the Oaro River on its south bank. Te Haumi is the location of the Beaton home. The last occasion the writer met Mrs Beaton his informant was attending page 26a Ngai Tahu Conference at Christchurch in 1938, a short time before her death, when she expressed a keen desire for another "korero" with him.
The following place names were supplied by Mrs Beaton and follow in continuity south:—Te Pari Titahi, bluff at Kahutara River; Whakoiti Mako tukutuku; Te Ana pouri, a seacoast tunnel; Omaru, Hinekaimaraki; Takupu, first point one mile south of Omaru; Ramamai, second road tunnel; Te Whanga o te Koko; Te Rangi unu wai. a point; Te Kiekie, site of a kainga; Whankauae; Ohinekuha; O Te Makura, Goose Bay Stream; Tahuna torea, site of Hundalee Rangers House; O Tu Matua, Pinnacle Rock; Te Kapua, bay; Waiharakeke; Pukarehu; Omihi, creek; Tuiau; Te Awa roa, landing place; Kapukaputahi, rock at Huginin's House; O Tamahaka, bay; Te Pararoa; O Tuaruaru, flat north of Oaro; Kapua rangi, site of Oaro R.C. Church; Wai ora a tane, creek; Haututu, north side of Oaro River; Papaki a kete; Papaki a tai; Te Poutete, waterfall at Cherry Grove; Mikonui, old home of the chief Kaikoura Whakatau; Pukaroro, a rock in the sea; Waihiria,. burial place of Allwright the whaler; Haumuri or Amuri Bluff; Te Piri o Paua, the point of the Amuri Bluff; Okarahia, the river; Pakihi, the flat; Pari whakatau, old pa; Tutae Putu putu, Conway River. The highest peak of the Kaikoura Mountains is Tapuae o Uenuku.
Some of the afore mentioned places are of historical interest. Te Ana Pouri near the nothern most road tunnel was a burial-place. Members of the Puhirere hapu of the Waitaha were slain there Off the coast at Raramai is Riley's Island (Panau) and nearby a canoe fight took place between the Kaikoura and Omihi hapus of Ngai Tahu. The quarrelsome and ferocious chief Taoka was responsible for that event. He was also accountable for a fray near Peketa when Tawha ki te raki was slain. The canoe fight was called Te Huri moana.
An old pa once existed up the O Te Makura stream at Goose Bay. Five hundred persons are stated to have been buried at the karaka grove at Omihi. Rakaia momona is buried at Te Kapukaputahi, and nearby is interred Matai rena, the first wife of Kaikoura Whakatau. Kaikoura rests at Waihiria. Torotoro korangi and Wharawhera te raki lie at Omihi. Wai tapu at the cherry grove at Mikonui was where the tohi rite was performed. The sacred amulet was discovered by the railway construction workers, and was claimed by Mrs Beaton and re-buried. Her kin, however, had no scruples about removing the amulet from its hiding place on her death, and presenting the tapu object to the Canterbury Museum.
Tarapuhi is an old burial place on the Amuri Bluff, and Putakiwaiwai is the old time canoe landing at Claverley. Tuku tuku iwi or Te Wheaua is Monkey Face, and is on the page 27inland road. It is a very tapu place and is also a burial-ground.
Waihiria, where Allwright the whaler's grave can be seen alongside the railway line between the Amuri Bluff and Oaro, has an interesting tale. Allwright approached Kaikoura Whakatau for whaling rights at Te Oneopatiti. The privilege had already been granted to Barney Reilly and the Maori chief, with honour, refused. Allwright cursed Kaikoura, who quietly and in a dignified manner remarked, "You may see the sun set or you may not." Allwright dropped dead when stepping into his boat after the interview. Was Kaikoura Whakatau gifted with second sight or was he a master of "makutu"?
Kaikoura and some of his friends were away when Te Rauparaha slaughtered the people at Omihi and Mikonui; on returning to the Kaikoura coastline he caused the dead to be buried at Goose Bay near the Ranger's House. The site of Fyfe's Whaling Station at Kaikoura was purchased for £60 from Kaikoura Whakatau by Sir George Grey. The Kaikoura Block of 2,500,000 acres was obtained from the natives for £300 by James Mackay, New Zealand Government officer. Reserve of 4,800 acres of useless land was also allowed. The Government before even the, extinguishing of the native title had sold at least one portion of 15,600 acres for £7,800. Kaikoura Whakatau had valued the Kaikoura Block at £10,000. The sale was made on March 29th, 1859.
At Goose Bay there is an isolated sea rock, from which a Ngati Mamoe warrior held his foes at bay (with a death dealing mere) for twelve hours. A love legend attached to the Waiau uha (Dillon) and Waiau toa (Clarence) rivers was first recorded by Mr S. Percy Smith. These rivers are the female and male spirits of the lofty mountains at their sources; as they move to the coast they become separated. The Waiau uha laments her parting from her spouse, and her tears as warm rain melt the snows at the source. The flood of tears swells both rivers, and swollen streams flow far apart to the coast. Thus do the rivers grieve at parting.