Lore and history of the South Island Maori
The story of that tract of country bordering on Otago Harbour forms the subject of this chapter. Otakou; as a name, is, however, applicable also to the greater area which extends from Heywards Point, north of Otago Harbour, southwards to the Nuggets, covering 400,000 acres known in native land purchases records as the Otakou Block. On July 31st, 1844, the Ngai Tahu Tribe sold the Otakou Block to the New Zealand Company for £2,400. The deed was signed by 25 chiefs, but not before a promise was made that a tenth of the land sold would be held by the Company in trust for the future welfare of the tribe, as had been the case in other purchases by the New Zealand Company. The instructions as to "tenths" by Captain J. J. Symonds, Lands Purchase Officer, conveniently dissappeared.
The native vendors were:—Tuhawaiki, Taiaroa, Karetai, Korako Karetai, Korako, Kaikaorere, Mokomoko, Te Ao, Tutewaiuo, Papa Kawa, Takamaitu, Te Raki, Topi, Kihau, Horomona Pohio, Pohau, Kahuti, Kurakura, Te Hoki, Kai-wakana, Potiki, Pohatu, Te Raki, Pokene and Pokihu.
The Maoris living within the Otahou Block have continuously up to the present time, petitioned parliament for redress, but without avail notwithstanding the fact that Royal Commissions have reported in favour of the natives.
The sum paid for the land in 1844 represents payment at the rate of l½d. per acre. Otakou better known as the "Kaik" situated on the south side of Otago Harbour near Taiaroa Head, has been for ages the centre of Maori life in the province of Otago. Otakou as a name has been invariably stated to mean red ochre. The Maoris, who have long since passed away, stated it was a name imported from the distant "Hawaiki", and was given not to the land at Otago Heads but to the water. The old channel which once made the North Spit at the Heads an island was called Otakou. Indeed the North Spit, as an island, was claimed in 1882 by H. K. Taiaroa.
The Harbour Board's lengthy mole has for ever converted Kapukepuke kite Waiparapara into a peninsula, on which Europeans now have weekend cottages Red ochre can be found at Kumo kumo whero behind the kaika, but it is always known to the South Island Maoris as maukoroa. The native reserve at Otago Heads in Early European days contained page 131several small settlements as follows:—Pukekura, Te Rua a titiko, Te Rauone, Tahakopa, Omate and Waipepeke. Quite a large area formerly in occupation is now covered by drifting sand. Captain Haberfield of Moeraki, who was acquainted with Otakou in the early thirties, has stated that the Maori population at the Heads was 2,000 persons and at Purakaunui 500, and it was not uncommon to see a dozen fully-loaded double canoes at sea off Taiaroa Head. Influenza, measles and other. introduced European diseases caused hundreds of deaths at a time. Doctor Ellison and others have made similar well-founded statements. The population in 1848 at Otakou was 110.
The first authentic references we have to Ngai Tahu occupation of Pukekura at Otago Heads appear to have occurred when Waitai and his followers parted company with the rest of the tribe at the Marlborough Sounds shortly after its big migration from the Wellington district. Maru, the principal chief, was of a merciful disposition, and he saw fit to spare the life of an enemy chief named Te Rapa a te kuri, whom had been taken prisoner in battle. Waitai, annoyed, journeyed south to Otago Heads, Port Molyneux and finally to the Bluff, slaying all the peaceful folk he met on the way without hindrance. The Ngati Mamoe Tribe however, eventually saw fit to slay Waitai and his followers at Mokamoka near the Bluff. Te Wera, Taoka, Moki II and other Ngai Tahu chiefs later occupied Pukekura, and there were periods of peace between the Ngai Tahu and the Ngati Mamoe who occupied a near-by pa named Rangi pipi kao.
When Te Wera was dwelling at Pukekura, the paramount chief Tukitaha rangi and the son of Moki II died. Te Wera was accused of having practised makutu (wizardry) and as discretion is the best part of valour, he fled to Purakaunui where his sister's husband Te Rehu held sway. Moki II sent out a war party under Kapo, but Te Rehu and Te Wera escaped from the net. Te Wera, safe back at his own pa of Huriawa at Old Waikouaiti; thought out plans for revenge. Journeying by canoe to Otakou he surprised a party of women on Te rauone Beach, slew them, cut off their heads which were boldly displayed as the canoe passed below Pukekura Pa Taoka was later invited to act as peacemaker, but he declined. Te Wera with followers then went on a similar errand. Te Taoho of Pukekura and Te Aruhe, a son of Te Wera, fell out with each other and soon a general conflict t ook place. Te Wera killed Kapo, and, there is reason to believe, Moki II also. The Ngati Mamoe, allied to the Pukekura Ngai Tahu, suffered with them in the disastrous defeat, the Ngati Mamoe dead being cast away at Calliope (Ryan's) Bay near a cave, but Te Wera spared the life of a lad named Taikawa. Kapo was disembowelled, cooked, and eaten by Te Wera's men on the island in Papanui Inlet, which bear his name. Several Ngati page 132Mamoe were slain when hiding in the cave at the Little Pyramid on Kapuketereti Flat.
Kumu kumu whero, behind Otakou, recalls an incident of Te Wera's raid, its reddish colour being a reminder that a warrior was seen ascending the spot, his posterior being badly slashed and gory. For over sixty years the vicinity of the Little Pyramid has been the happy hunting-ground of European collectors of skulls, and the cave within, although "tapu" to the Maoris, was ransacked in the so-called interests of science during August and September, 1938, and hailed as a great discovery. The restless spirits of the slain from Te Wera's raids are said still to frequent Pipikarita on the sea coast, going to that beach to gather pipis. The present-day Maori however calls this tapu place Pipi Garhead.
The irreconcilables of the Ngai Tahu and Ngati Mamoe Tribes were slow in being bound by the alliance of the tribes made at Kaiapoi when Te Rahi ihia, the leading chief of the Ngati Mamoe, married Hine hakari, the sister of Te Hau tapunui o tu, the great chief of the Ngai Tahu. The son of the latter, Honekai, married Kohiwai, the granddaughter of Te Raki ihia. At Papanui, near Cape Saunders, dwelt a section of the Ngati Mamoe under the chiefs Rangiamoa and Whaka taka newha. At Pukekura dwelt the Ngati Tahu and their chiefs were Maru, Tarewai, and Aparangi. The success which attended the fishing activities of the Ngati Mamoe of Papanui, brought forth the green streak of jealousy in the hearts of the Ngai Tahu, and so they spoilt the fishing grounds by burning kelp and casting the ashes over the sea. Not content with this they rendered the Ngati Mamoe canoes unseaworthy. The Ngai Tahu then went fishing over the Ngati Mamoe reserve. Rangiamoa, the Papanui chief, made his way to the point called Putoki, and by means of karakia (prayer) brought on a gale which scattered the fleet from Pukekura.
Peace reigned for a while, but the Ngati Mamoe had not forgotten the wrongs, and they looked on Tarewai as their principal enemy. Retribution came when Tarewai and his companions were invited to help the Ngati Mamoe to build a whare at Kapu turoto (hills standing inland) near the Pyramids. One by one the Ngai Tahu men were inveigled away and slain, among these being a famous tohunga named Kahutu punei. Tarewai was reserved to receive the full force of Ngati Mamoe revenge. He was captured and held down on his back by four men while others proceeded to cut slices of flesh from his body with cutting stones. Strangers appeared on the scene, and this attracted the attention for an instant of the Ngati Mamoe captors. Tarewai grasped the opportunity, broke loose and escaped. But his death-dealing mere was in the possession of the enemy, and Tarewai was determined to regain it.page 133
Seated round a fire at evening were the Ngati Mamoe warriors admiring the weapon and speaking in praise of the fearless Tarewai. Tawewai, unnoticed, joined the party having been mistaken for a Ngati Mamoe individual with defective speech. Simulating a stutter he asked to be shown the mere. It was unsuspectingly handed to him. With the mere in his possession he struck right and left, and escaping he called out to his former captors, "Naia te toa o Tarewai, Kei aia ano tanu patu" (the brave Tarewai has recovered his weapon). Hotly pursued he escaped in the direction of Pukekura Pa. He leaped around a bluff near the pakeha fort, which bears his name on the survey maps as Te rereka o Tarewai. Tarewai, after his leap to safety, taunted his pursuers as follows:—"Haere, e moea tou wahine e whaki i tou tamariki, whakaika kia kai, apopo te raki moku". (Go and look after your wives and feed your children. Tomorrow will be the day for me). A spot not far away is Ka tapuwae o Tarewai (the foot steps of Tarewai), where his foot marks can still be seen on the rocks. At Otikiha once existed a stone called Te konohi-o-tarewai (the eye of Tarewai), which showed bright at night until some European vandal removed it.
Tarewai when recovering from his wounds, is said to have occupied a cave named Te Ana Korokoraka along with members of a fairy tribe. Harbour Cone, at the rear of Smith Bay, which bears the name Puku mata, is also associated with Tarewai's exploits. Rangi amoa of the Ngati Mamoe paid a peace visit to Pukekura but was immediately slain by Maru and Aparangi. As Tarewai recovered strength he made his own personal deeds of revenge, slaying odd members of the Ngati Mamoe as they visited the springs. When Tarewai was well enough to return to Pukekura, its warriors danced a haka to divert the attention of the Ngati Mamoe in the nearby pa of Rangi pipi kao. Tarewai slipped in to Pukekura unobserved, and he and a chief Katamakinao, wrecked full vengeance on the Ngati Mamoe in battle at Pari haumia near Beconsfield. Tarewai's career ended at Preservation Inlet, but that is another story.
Many years later the bones of the Ngati Mamoe chief Te Raki ihia, who had arranged the alliance at Kaiapoi, were desecrated and used to make fish hooks by a party of the Ngai Tahu Tribe. The Ngati Mamoe, led by Te Maui the son of Te Raki ihia and nephew of Taihua, took revenge by slaying some Ngai Tahu who were gathering firewood on Terauone Beach. Tane toro tika, a son of the Ngai Tahu chief Taoka, was among the slain. Taikawa, the protege of Te Wera, warned Te Maui that full revenge would be taken by Te Hau tapu nui of Ngai Tahu. This duly came to pass and will be told in another chapter.
When Edward Shortland visited Otakou in September 1843, page 134he met the chiefs Pokene (who was an uncle of the Canterbury chief Te Maiharanui), Matenga Taiaroa, Karetai, Pohatu, Taheke and Matahara. Just a little previously, in 1842, Taiaroa had strangled the chief Kohi. It appeared that Kohi had instructed his servants, Kurukuru and Rau o te uri, to burn the Otakou community boat. By doing so Kohi had roused the enmity of his fellows. With the consent of his wife Piro, he consented to be strangled as propitation for his sin. Taiaroa in doing the task was not making a good job and Kohi exclaimed: "Kahore kia mataa a Taiaroa ki te mea o te taura" (Taiaroa does not know how to tie a knot).
C. B. Robinson, Resident Magistrate at Akaroa, in a letter dated October 31st, 1842, mentioned that Taiaroa of Otakou, had accused others of strangling Kohi, but he felt the matter had better be investigated by an official versed in Maori customs.
Colonel Wakefield, in a letter dated October 23rd, 1842, states that Matenga Taiaroa was dwelling at Oteheiti near Pulling Point, Otago Harbour, in a house of European pattern, and had 700 warriors to obey his call. Kohi dwelt at Koputai (Port Chalmers). Bishop Selwyn visited Otakou on January 24th, 1844. The Wesleyan Methodist Church, however, had already predated his missionary efforts, working from its headquarters at Old Waikouaiti. When the sale of the Otakou Block was executed on July 31st, 1844, at Koputai (Port Chalmers) on or near the site occupied by the Watkin Creed Memorial Church, no less than 22 chiefs and many of their followers had embraced Christianity.
Tawhiroku Pa stood on the north side of Pulling Point. At the hill known as Ohine tu, at Otakou, the famous warrior chief of the Ngai Tahu and Ngati Mamoe Tribes addressed his people on the selling of the Otakou Block. Teone Topi Patuki, according to the Rev. T. A. Pybus, was baptised at Otakou on September 15th, 1844, by the Rev. Creed, Wesleyan missionary. The Wesleyan Church in the forties had mission halls at the kaingas of Te Rua a titoko, Tahakopa and Omate of the Otakou Native Reserve.
Through the zeal of the Rev. T. A. Pybus, a beautiful Otakou Maori Centennial Church has been erected at the settlement. The foundation stone, known as the Waitangi Stone, was laid on February 24th, 1940, by Miss Watkin, a granddaughter of the Rev. J. Watkin, the pioneer missionary of Otago. Mr J. Ellison rendered the Maori welcome. Speakers were the Revs. Eruera Te Tuhi, M. Tauroa, L. B. Neale, Haddon and G. S. Laurenson. Sister Atawhai also spoke. The church was opened on March 22nd, 1941, by Miss A. Karetai. On this occasion the principal speakers were Mr J. Ellison and the Hon, F. Langstone (Minister of Native Affairs). Clergy present were: Revs. Te Tuhi, Piripi Rakena, W. A. Burley, Rugby Pratt, L. B. Neale and G. I. Laurenson. Leading page 135citizens of Dunedin and Port Chalmers were present. The Rev. T. A. Pybus conducted the first regular services on April 6th, 1941.
The Wesleyan Methodist Church, unlike the other bodies, has kept the banner flying at Otakou. Bishop Pompalier arriving by his little vessel, the Sancta Maria, introduced the Roman Catholic faith to the Maoris during November 1840. He made little progress, even though he made gifts. The Wesleyan Methodist mission had accomplished its work well in promoting both secular and religious education. There was hardly a Maori who could not read and write, and that was more than could be said of the European whaling population. The Rev. Riemenschneider (Presbyterian), did wondrous service to the Maoris during the sixties. Of the native lay preachers at Otakou, mention must be made of Patoromu (Bartholomew), who died on July 10th, 1877. For over twenty years he was an assiduous worker. The funeral service was conducted by the Revs. A. Blake, W. Johnstone and the Rev. Dr. Stuart.
A native church was opened at Otakou on January 1st, 1865, by the Rev. Johnstone of Port Chalmers, assisted by the Rev. Rieminschneider. Five hundred persons were present, including one hundred and twenty Maoris. The visitors arrived from Dunedin and Port Chalmers by the S.S. "Bruce" and S.S. "Golden Age". The interior of the church was 28 x 16 feet, the chancel 8x8 feet, and the height of the building 30 feet; the tower being 10 feet higher than the roof. The seating accommodation was for 120 persons. The Rev. Rieminschneider commenced his Maori mission on behalf of the Presbyterian Church in June 1862. The services at that time being held in a dilapidated cottage.
By February 1863, the Maoris had placed in the missionary's hands £57 for the projected church, later this sum was augmented, and when building operations commenced, £170 had been collected. The exterior work on the the church cost £250 and the interior £30. The pulpit was made by the Rev. Rieminschneider, and the fancy linen work was the gift of Mrs Perry. Clergy present were: Rev. Dr. Stuart, Conebe, Johnstone, Bunn, Fraser, R. Hood, W. Gillies and Will. Many prominent citizens of Dunedin and Port Chalmers were present. The Rev. Rieminschneider passed away in 1866. In 1873, Bishop Nevill, with the assistance of a member of the Taiaroa family, managed to have the Presbyterian services at Otakou replaced by those of the Anglican Church. The Rev. Ngara, a native clergyman was the Anglican choice.
The school at Otakou was erected during January 1869, and was opened in March, with Mr Oldfield as its first teacher. H. Leask took over in October 1869, and continued as master until the end of 1871. On January 1st, 1872, Mr Walker page 136became the schoolmaster, and the female pupils were taught sewing by Mrs Walker. The school and master's house were erected on land set aside by the Maoris as a church reserve. The buildings were partly erected at the expense of the natives. Additions were later made, for which a Provincial Government subsidy of £286 was forthcoming. The roll in 1874 stood at 19 boys and 6 girls. The teacher's salary was £50 per annum. In 1876, Mr Lucas was the master and there were 31 pupils.
On the North Spit, close to Heywards Point, was a small kaiaka with cultivations; this was occupied by Maori squatters under a chief from Arowhenua in South Canterbury, known as Kaikaorere. When the Otakou Block was sold, Taiaroa gave him land at Otakou as compensation. Kaikaorere, known to the Europeans as Big Fellow, was accidentally drowned on May 2nd, 1852. The North Spit and the burial caves alongside the Otago Harbour Board Quarry, have yielded numerous curios and relics right up to April 8th, 1929. The numerous skeletons show the force of the influenza and measles epidemics of the whaling days.
The Maori name of Port Chalmers, which is Koputai (high tide) refers to an occasion when a war party left their canoe, as they thought, high and dry at a cave at Boiler Point toward Carey's Bay; to their discomfiture it was carried away by the high tide. Goat Island is Rangiriri, and was an abode of the god Tangaroa. Quarantine Island is Mamoe Taurua (place of the nets) or Kamau taurua, once a favourite fishing place. Takirikao is the point of the Port Chalmers Peninsula nearest Sawyer's Bay, and Te Waitohi the part nearset Port Chalmers. Kahukarere is Kilgour Point at Sawyer's Bay. Te Umu te whiti is halfway between Burkes and Ravensbourne. Te Paopiri is the eastern part of Ravensbourne. Kaitaka Tamariki is the old Maori name of Ravensbourne. Pu waitaha is Burkes. Logans Point is Otukaiwheti and Black Jacks Point is Tauranga pipi. Maia, the hill behind Burkes is a personal name meaning "brave". Signal Hill bears the Maori name Te Pahuri o te Rangipohika, and the fashionable suburb of Dunedin called Opoho bears the name of a warrior chief of the Ngati Wairua, who dwelt thereabouts 200 years ago. Otepoti, the centre of Dunedin City, was formerly the site of an old Maori canoe landing. The name Otepoti signifies "a corner of the harbour".
Dunedin never boasted a large native population. The occasional residents belonged mainly to the Ngati Wairua augmented by a few members of the Ngati Ruahikihiki, Ngati Taoka and Ngati Kaweriri hapus of the Ngai Tahu Tribe. The main attraction was the eels obtained from the mouths of the various streams, such as the Owheo (Water of Leith), Toitu, and the Kaituna, which entered the harbour near the site of the present Gas Works. Ko ranga a ranga te rangi was page 137the old name of Hillside. Nga moano-o-rua is the site of the Dunedin Gaol, and Matau kareao marks lower Hanover Street. A chief named Tamarua, lived and died and was buried on a site overlooking Otepoti. A descendant claimed the site in 1879. The site of the old landing place known as Otepoti, at Dunedin, was made a native reserve in 1852, by Sir George Grey, on the advice of Mr W. B. Mantell, then Commissioner of Crown Lands, the site being used by the Maoris until 1861. It was recognised as a Native Reserve by Captain Cargill, who had a native hostelry built on it. From 1848 until 1855 no Europeans used the land, but in the later years a blacksmith squatted on the ground.
In 1861, the town of Dunedin, backed by the Otago Provincial Government coveted the site as it stood in the way of harbour improvements, and the legality of the belated justice of Sir George Grey to the Maoris was questioned. On July 22nd, 1865, Henry Sewell, Attorney General, on behalf of the General Government upheld the legal ownership by the Maoris. On January 11th, 1866, Sir George Grey inadvertently issued a Crown Grant to the Superintendent of Otago, which had been placed between other grants requiring signature by the Governor from the Otago Provincial Government. Though Sir George Grey soon dropped to his mistake, he was not quick enough. The crown grant was well on its way by ship to Dunedin. The supporters of the Otago Provincial Government in the General Government were strong enough to defeat a motion to have the legality of the crown grant of the Otepoti (Princes Street) Reserve tested by the Supreme Court. The Maoris then took action at the Supreme Court and lost. The Court of Appeal supported the decision, so the Maoris moved to have the matter tried by the Privy Council. The sum of £5,000 was then paid to the natives to stop proceedings in 1872. In 1877, the Maoris petitioned Parliament for the rents that had accrued prior to the issuing of the crown grant. The Maoris asked £6,000. In 1878, Parliament voted £5,000 to settle the matter. £1,000 was paid out at Kaiapoi and £4,000 at Otakou.
That the natives came out of the whole matter as well as they did was owing to the energy of the Hon. W. B. D. Mantell and Mr Izard their lawyer, coupled with the sympathy of the Hons. W. Rolleston, J. Sheehan and W. Fox in Parliament. The Hon. John Byrce, of Parihaka fame, was a strong opponent of the native claim. The Princes Street (Otepoti) Reserve Dunedin, is now well away from the water front, and in the most valuable part of the City it is forgotten except by the Maoris who still consider themselves wronged. When the Native Land Court was in session at Dunedin, on June 14th, 1929, the Maoris took up a proposal by Mr Tuiti Makitanara, m.p., to spend £3,000 on erecting a carved meeting house at Dunedin if the Ngai Tahu Claim was settled in a satisfactory way.page 138
Tradition says the Maoris had a pa called Puketai at Anderson's Bay, also that a skirmish, details of which are not now known, took place long ago at Halfway Bush on the slopes of Flagstaff, the site being called Taputakinoi. Flagstaff Hill, a favourite resort of trampers, is known to the Maoris as Whanau-paki and Swampy Hill as Whawha-raupo. The low divide between these hills is Whe kore; the whole range, however, is Whaka-ari (held up to view). Waverley is Te Koau and Macandrews Bay is Te Rotopateke. Pudding Island between Smith Bay and Portobello bears the Maori name Paotiteremoana. On the coast Lawyer's Head is named Te Ika a paraheke, Maori Head is Otane, and Highcliff is Tutaehinu. Sandymount is called Pikiwhara, and on its south extremity stood a pa called Orau. Tutekawa, a chief whose name figures often in the Maori history of Otago and Southland, is buried there. The writer has reason to believe the relics of this worthy lie in a cave on the ocean face of the cliffs, inaccessible except with ropes.
In the forties Kahuti, Kurukuru and others were dwelling on Sandymount. These folk belonged to the Ngati Wairua and Ngati Raki. Kahuti died at Old Waikouaiti in 1881. Poatiri is the name of Mount Charles, the highest point of Cape Saunders Peninsula. The lighthouse in on Matakitaki Point, not on the real Cape Saunders (Kai-mata). At little Papanui Beach, near Cape Saunders, was situated a Maori pa which figures in the story of Tarewai. Te Wera and Taumaro also dwelt there for a short period after the former chief had vacated Huriawa at Old Waikouaiti, and prior to his departure to Moturata Island at Taieri Mouth. The old pa at Papanui stood where the Orangi-wairua stream enters the sea, the place being called Au-raki-tau rira. Not only the pa-site but the burial-grounds nearby have been for nearly a half-century well dug over by curio collectors.
The New Zealand Government in 1862, were leasing 20 acres of the native land at Cape Saunders at an annual rental of £20, based on a 21 year lease for marine purposes. Makahoe is the Maori name of Wickliffe Bay, on the beach of which can still be seen the wreck of the S.S. "Victory". On the northern extremity of this Bay is the long headland Whakarekaiwi. The southern headland is Tara kipa. Wai whakaheke on the coast just south of Taiaroa Head is one of the few places in the South Island where the dead received water burial. The Taiaroa Head Lighthouse was built from stone obtained on the land occupied by Korako Karetai. In November 1877, he was awarded £50 compensation.
The Runanga Hall at Otakou opened on January 22nd, 1874, and named Te Mahi Tamariki (the work of children), measured 60 x 30 feet, was demolished in 1945 to make room for a larger and more up-to-date building. The Union Jack page 139flown in 1874 was a gift from Sir Julius Vogel. The new hall, the most ornate Maori Hall in the South Island, was opened on December 7th, 1946, by the Right Hon. Peter Fraser. Messrs G. Karetai, R. M. Taiaroa, and T. Wesley, as representatives of the Otakou natives, welcomed the visitors. The Rev. E. Te Tuhi of Auckland, made the reply, and delivered the necessary karakia (prayer) to raise the tapu off the building. Mrs Cameron, Mayoress of Dunedin, was accorded the honour of being the first woman to cross the threshold. Messrs Miller and White were the architects. The Rev. T. A. Pybus was the force behind the venture. The new Hall is named Tamatea, after the explorer who voyaged around New Zealand in the Takitimu Canoe. This famous canoe was wrecked at the Waimeha Stream near the Waiau River in Southland. The canoe was transformed into the Takitimu Mountains of Southland according to Maori legend.
The Maoris in conference discussed the Ngai Tahu Claim. During May 1875, representatives from all the principal native settlements from Kaiapoi to Port Molyneux, foregathered at Otakou to give consideration to the Ngai Tahu Claim. The Hon. J. Sheehan, Native Minister of Sir George Grey's Government, paid an unofficial visit to Otakou, and was warmly welcomed by the Maoris, who well knew his sympathy with native grievances. On December 8th, 1892, the Hon. A. J. Cadman paid the first official visit of a Native Minister to Otakou. The Hon. A. J. Cadman spoke on the land available for Landless Natives. Access to Otakou was improved during August 1905, when the Otago Road Board was permitted by the New Zealand Government to take land to form a public road through the Otakou Reserve.
The North Spit is named Wai para para. Its southern portion is called Te Mapou, and the northern part near the Bear and Lion Rocks is Nga tamariki a parera. Otuhare rau is the south-east portion of Heywards Point. Jacob's Ladder at Heywards Point is called Otu warerau. Otawhero is the name of the small point called Otafelo. Otawhiroki is Taylor Point and Taraepuha is Pulling Point. Kaparukakahu is the Maori name of Deborah Bay. Te Ana o te makau is at the southern end of Carey's Bay.
The Native Reserve at Port Chalmers was set aside by Mr W. B. D. Mantell and sanctioned by Sir George Grey, Governor in 1853. The Presbyterian Church at the Native Land Court held at Dunedin in 1868, claimed one of the sections which formed part of the reserve. However the title to the three remaining sections was issued to the Maoris in the names of Horomona Pohi, O Hoani Wetere Korako, Hori Kerei Taiaroa and Hone Topi Patuki. Overlooking the country traversed in this chapter, stands Mount Cargill, the highest of its hills and until a quarter-century ago covered with much bush, which, alas, page 140fire swept clean! Its beauty departed, the long Maori name remains—Kapukataumahaka.
On June 30th, 1943, General Freyberg, Commander of the New Zealand Division in the World War II, received a welcome from the Maoris of Otago and Southland at the Y.M.C.A. Concert Hall, Dunedin. Addresses were made by P. Karetai and Ned Parata. A presentation of a paper weight, representing a silver Kiwi formed on a greenstone base, was handed to General Fryberg by Miss Parata. Mr A. H. Allen, Mayor of Dunedin, represented the Europeans. Maori or pakeha can with every confidence, when viewing Dunedin and Otakou Harbour from Highcliff, and after seeing the sights in other places, endorse the views expressed in Thomas Bracken's poem, "Dunedin from the Bay". "… these may be grand, but give to me Dunedin from the bay." Perhaps the history told may add interest to those otherwise uninfluenced by beauty.
The name Otakou is a name imported from Hawaiki; usually interpreted "red clay". The name, however, referred to an old channel into the harbour, and was bestwed in error to the land by the early whalers, and there it remains.