The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 74
Translation in English
Translation in English.
Greetings to you, the tribe! Greetings to you, friends!
Greetings to you the remnant of the old chiefs, and to the survivors among the old Europeans who first commenced mining at Hauraki !
Greetings to you the young Maori and European men of this generation, including the new come youth Cadman !
I am here fruitlessly lamenting over the deaths of my friends the old chiefs who are lost from us. Depart! Depan sires. Go, that is all. Te Hoterene Taipari, Riwai te Kiore, Tamati Waka te Puhi, Hohepa Paraone Tarawerawera, Te Karauna Hou, Rapana Maunganoa, Parata te Mapu, Tarais Ngakuti, Te Hira te Tuiri, Tanumeha to Moananui, Tukukino, Te Kereihi Hukehuke, Tinipoaka, Tareranui, Hohepa te Ranhihi, Kitahi te Tanewha, Rawiri te Ua, Maihi Mokongohi, Pita Taurua, Kapanga te Arakuri, Hoera te Whareponga, Tarapipipi te Kopara, Haora Tipa, Tamati Tangiteruru, Patene Puhata, Maihi te Hinaki, Maaka Peneheirete, Ngakete, Ngatai, Hori te Whetuki, Tamihana Tukere, and the soft sweet-voiced women, Rangitehau, Riria Karepe, Harata Patene Kanuhuke. Aherata te Mihinui, and Mere Titia. Hearken ye youths of this generation, those were the chiefs and brave warriors of Hauraki in my generation. The hereditary proverb of those chiefs was "Rauru ki Tahi." Let me give you the meaning of this proverb. A chief speaks but once; when words pass from his mouth, there is no withdrawal, they endure. Not like some of you young men who have attended the European schools, who sell the land to-day to one European, and to-morrow sell it to another. But I will make this excuse for you young people, the Native Land Court did not exist in New Zealand in the days of the old chiefs, hence they were not acquainted with the methods of lying and fraud which you now practise—that is the school which educated you to deceit, the Native Land Court only.
Depart! Depart! Depart! My old friends, who have gone to the land of spirits. The tall trees of the fores! have fallen, leaving a remnant of us chiefs of Hauraki ! we are only small page 21 trees sach as mahoe, koromiko, and kaiwhiria (names of small nnderbrush), we are not to be compared with those who are departed from among us.
Where is my lost bird the Korotangi? (This was a very beautifully carved stone bird, which came with the ancestors of the Hauraki and Waikato tribes in the Tainui canoe, and was lost after their landing at Kawhia. It was described as having a piece broken off one of the wings. Some twenty years ago it was discovered in a limestone cave at Kawhia, near the reported landing place of the Taniui canoe, and truly one wing was chipped. The late Major Drummond Hay purchased it from the Natives for £50, he in turn gave it to the late Major Wilson. It is a kind of green talc, and every feather is accurately chiselled, showing that the ancestors of the Maoris must have been more advanced in civilisation than their descendants, as the carving is not of the ordinary rude character shown in Maori carvings.
(Then follows a Maori lamentation for the dead. As I have not the poetical powers of the late CO. Davis in regard to Maori songs, I am afraid it must be said that "to all my songs I have one strain, the same, to sacred as profane." The dirge represents a chief who has been absent from home, and on his return misses a favourite comb (some specimens of these can be seen in the Auckland Museum). He goes all round the posts, and other parts of the house searching for it, and at last walks outside to consult the small wooden image (tekoteko) placed at the end of the ridge-pole in the front of the house. The image replied, "It has been stolen by an ill-begotten bastard." The comb represents a friend who died in the chiefs absence—the illegitimate child is Death, who has snatched him away. I have now concluded the matters relating to the old chiefs who have departed from this world.
- The First gold discovered in Australia was found at Summer Hill Creek by Mr. Hargreaves, in 1851.
- The First gold discovered in New Zealand, was by Charles and Frederick Ring in the Kapanga Stream (Driving Creek), at Coromandel, in October, 1852.
- The Second, at Aorere, Collingwood, in the South Island. This was found by Messrs William Lightband, and William Hough, in December, 1856.page 22
- The Third, at the Buller River, West Coast of the Middle Island, by Mr. John Rochfort, surveyor, in 1859.
- The Fourth was discovered at Tuapeka, Province of Otago, in the South Island by Mr. Gabriel Reid in 1861.
- The Fifth was found at Hauraki by Paratene Whakauta and Hamiora te Nana in July, 1867. Paratene Whakautu is of the Ngatirarua tribe, who reside at the Collingwood (Aorere) Goldfield in the South Island. Hamiora te Nana, belongs to our Ngatipaoa, and went to Collingwood to dig for gold. On his return here Paratene Whakautu accompanied him.
In the year 1852 when gold was first discovered at Kapanga, Governor Wynyard proceeded to Coromandel, and all the tribes of Hauraki assembled there. Consent was then given for the Europeans to search for gold on all the lands commencing at Cape Colville, and extending to Kauaeranga (now Shortland). A document was then signed; the arrangement was that the Government were to pay £1 a year for each miner. This agreement was to hold good for three years, but at the end of that period the Europeans had departed, and the land was relinquished to the Maori owners. Governor Wynyard's agreement was dated 30th November, 1852.
In the year 1861, gold was again found at Coromandel, and mining operations commenced anew. Then Mr. McLean, the Chief Government Land Purchase Commissioner, went there, and all the tribes assembled at Coromandel. The right to mine for gold was ceded to the Queen over the lands commencing at Cape Colville, and thence along the main range to the source of the Waiau River, extending to the sea coast on each side. (The southern boundary would be about a straight line from Kerita to Mercury Bay). This agreement was made on the 9th November, 1861.
All the important chiefs of the district signed this document.
Subsequently in the year 1862, on the twenty-third day of June, an agreement was made with Riria Karepe, to allow gold mining on the Tokatea block at a rental of £500 a year.
At that time Pita Taurua and the Patukirikiri tribe gave up all their lands, bounded on the North by the Tokatea block, and on the South by the lands belonging to Mr. Preece, the Missionary, known as Te Puke. All residence, cultivation sites, and burial places were reserved.
Then also Patene Puhata and the Ngatihura hapu handed over all the rights to mine on their lands, commencing on the North at Mr. Preece, the Missionary's boundary, and extending thence southerly to the lands of the Ngatiwhanaunga tribe. All residence, cultivation sites, and burial places were reserved.
Te Tanewha Kitahi and the Ngati whanaunga tribe gave up all their lands, commencing on the North at the Ngatihura page 23 boundary, and extending towards the South to the boundary of the Mahakirau block, which had been long previously sold by the Ngatipaoa tribe to the Government. All residence sites, cultivations, and burial grounds were reserved. The payment to the Maoris for the right to mine was fixed at £1 a year for each miner.
Gold mining operations continued, and were carried on to a considerable extent, but on the commencement of hostilities at Waikato in 1863, the Europeans became alarmed and abandoned Coromandel. Some of the Maoris of Hauraki then went to the war.
On the eleventh of October, 1864, I went to Coromandel and made some alterations in Mr. McLean's agreements for those blocks. The principal one was abolishing the head money of £1 a year for each miner, but as Miners' Rights had become law, that method of payment was substituted for it, the reason being that it was impossible to keep any correct record of the number of miners working on the ground.
After the fall of Rangiriri, in November, 1863, the majority of the Hauraki Natives who joined in the war returned to their homes, and remained there.
In February, 1864, Governor Grey instructed me to proceed from Auckland to Hauraki, to publish his notices, calling on the Maoris who had been fighting to surrender their arms to the officers of the Government, so that peace might be made, and thus save their lands from confiscation, the same as was subsequently done with those of the Waikato tribes.
Whakatiwai was the first place I landed at in Hauraki. My companions were Haora Tipa, of Ngatipaoa, and Rawiri te Ua, of Ngatiwhanaunga. The men who pulled my whale-boat were chiefs from Nelson in the South Island. At Whakatiwai, the Natives commenced to surrender their guns and Maori weapons to me. We then heard that the people of Ngatimaru, at Hauraki, were desirous of surrendering their arms. Rawiri te Ua and some of the Ngatipaoa crossed over to Hauraki to ascertain the views of Ngatimaru. On his return he informed us that we were invited to go to Hauraki. We went, and assembled at Parawai proper, at Te Hoterene Taipari's place, where 23 guns were given up, and laid on the ground before me. I was then sitting on the keel of an upturned canoe. Then a man named Te Poihipi, of Te Whanauapanui tribe, uncle to Mereana Mokomoko, W. H. Taipari's wife, jumped up and said, "You are very foolish to surrender your guns to this European; do not give them to him, because when you are defenceless he will come from the man-of-war and murder you (H.M.S. "Esk" was then blockading the Thames). You had better load the guns and shoot this European." I then pulled out my revolver and pointed the muzzle of it at him. Then Riwai te Kiore was enraged, and said to that man—" You are a page 24 stranger to Hauraki, and do not know our customs; we are not a tribe of murderers. We invited this officer of the Government to come here; if you do not desire to give up your arms to him, that is all right; then let him go back quietly to Auckland." I then turned to Te Poihipi and said, "If you desire fighting, go to Tauranga, you will get your bellyful of it there." That man afterwards went there, and my words to him were like a prophecy, for he was killed at the fight at Te Ranga.
On my return to Auckland, Sir George Grey instructed me to return to Hauraki, and go on to Ohinemuri. The tribe Ngatitamatera, surrended their arms at Opukeko (now Mr. J. W. Thorp's residence and farm), and peace was made with them. I afterwards returned to that place, and took the surrender of the arms of the Ngatipaoa tribe. Subsequently I went seaward to Te Moananui's place at Waiomo, and some men gave up their guns Theuce we went to Coromandel to see some of the Patukirikiri hapu who had been fighting, and they gave up their arms also. This ended the peace making of the Hauraki tribes, which has never been broken since.
In August, 1864, shortly after the fight at Te Ranga, at Tauranga, Sir George Grey instructed me to go to Wiremu Tamihana Tarapipipi (William Thompson, the Waikato general) and ascertain his intentions. I, Rawiri te Ua, and the others nearly lost our lives on that occasion. Taraia Ngakuti sent an evil message (ngakau) to Mohi Te-Ahi-a-te-Ngu, and his people of the Akitai tribe, who were then settled at Waitoa and Te Aroha. These people had been driven off their lands near to Auckland by the Government, at the commencement of the war. They paddled down the Waitoa stream to the junction with the Piako River, having their guns with them. When they arrived there, we had passed ahead up to Te Whanake; had we been caught on the river we would have been shot. We then went to Te Uruhau at Matamata, and William Thompson and his people of the Ngatihaua tribe assembled there to listen to my statements. It ended in peace being made.
On my return to Auckland, Sir George Grey kept me there, and would not consent to my going back to my first place of residence in the South Island. The Governor then appointed me to be Resident Magistrate and Civil Commissioner for all the Hauraki District. I constantly visited the settlements of Hauraki; then the Natives became acquainted with me, and a friendship arose between us, which has never been broken to the present day.
The reason I refer to these episodes of the war, is because I wish you to know why I was shifted to Hauraki; it is not related in order to boast about my own acts
I was informed there was gold at Hauraki, and I had many conversations with Te Hoterene Taipari and his son Wirope page 25 Hoterene Taipari about it. But at that time the Hauhau Natives showed a very threatening attitude towards the Ngatimaru and myself. Hikutaia, Ohinemuri, and Piako were full of them (the tribes who had retreated there from Waikato). They came to dig gum, at the same time stating they would forcibly take possession of the whole Hauraki District, because it had been handed over to Potatau, when he was elected to be King of New Zealand. It was only by the conjoint knowledge and careful proceedings of the old chiefs of Hauraki and myself, that we saved this district as it now is. The smoke of the guns of the Hauhaus covered Tauranga, Opotiki, Napier, and Taupo, also other places of this island; but Hauraki always showed a clear sky. Hence the proverb "The Peace of Hauraki," which has been upheld from then to the present time.
When we were finally clear of the Hauhau difficulties, then Wirope Hoterene Taipari and myself (he had been appointed to be a Native Assessor) reverted to our previous thoughts about the gold. Notwithstanding the obstinacy of the Ngatimaru tribe, we succeeded in throwing open the lands of Ngatirautao (Taipari's hapu) for prospecting for gold, but the actual piece was small. It was confined to the block between the Hape and the Karaka streams. I then brought two Europeans, Williamson and Smallman, to prospect for gold on that piece, but being unsuccessful they returned to Auckland for good.
Some considerable time afterwards Te Paratene Whakautu and Hamiora te Nana came here, they had some previous experience of gold digging in the South Island. After prospecting for about two months they found gold. The place they got it at was in the face of the hill, where the present road turns round to go up the Karaka stream. At that time Judge Bogan was holding a Native Land Court at Kauaeranga (now Shortland), that was the first sitting held there. Judge Rogan, Mr. C. O. Davis, and W. H. Taipari went to Auckland. On arriving there, Taipari called at my office and showed me the gold. At that time the Governor and Government had removed from Auckland to Wellington. Dr. Pollen was residing at Auckland and he had the administration of the Government business there. I had ceased to be the Civil Commissioner of Hauraki only, and had been appointed to be Civil Commissioner for New Zealand.
W. H. Taipari accompanied me to see Dr Pollen, and we showed him the gold. We discussed the matter, and it ended in our arranging to go to Hauraki. Dr. Pollen and myself were greatly pleased at this discovery of gold, because there was no money in Auckland at that time. Men were hanging about out of work, short of food, and living in poverty. The Government expenditure at Auckland had ceased when they removed to Wellington, and the troops had also returned to England. I then went to see if I could find a few diggers who had worked on other goldfields. I selected ten. We went in the cutter page 26 "Cornstalk" to the Thames, When we landed we proceeded to the Karaka and Waiotahi stream, and found gold there. We merely looked for alluvial gold in the soil, or in the gravel in the beds of the streams. We were then ignorant about working reefs.
On the 27th July, 1867, the first document was made throwing open land for gold mining at Hauraki. I was the only one of the party who knew anything about the laws relating to goldfields, because I had been appointed to be a Warden in 1858 and acted as such in the South Island until 1863.
The boundaries of the piece given over for mining, commencing on the sea coast at the mouth of the river Kauaeranga, thence by that river to the junction of the Kakaramata stream, thence by that stream to its source on the ridge of the hills, thence along the said ridge to the sources of the Hape, Karaka Waiotahi, Moanataiari, and Kuranui streams, turning thence down the Kuranui stream to the sea coast, thence by the sea coast to the mouth of the Moauataiari stream, thence inland to the base of the hills, thence crossing the Waiotahi stream, and by the base of the hills to the Parareka spur, thence ascending the said spur to Wai-o-whariki, thence descending a spur to the Karaka stream, thence down that stream to the sea, thence by the sea coast to the point of commencement at the mouth of the Kauaeranga river.
Waiotahi was thus entirely excluded from that agreement. Dr. Pollen, I, and the other Europeans returned to Auckland, and as we were leaving I informed W. H. Taipari I would return with a large party of Europeans in a steamer on the 1st August.
Now, you young people, understand that your elders were the first to cede land to the Queen for gold mining purposes at Hauraki. Their names are Te Hoterene Taipari, Wirope Hoterene Taipari, Rapana Maunganoa, Te Meremana Konui, and Raika Whakarongotai.
We came on the steamer "Enterprise No. 2." There were about sixty (60) of us, and we camped at Kauaeranga (Shortland). We had been there a month or thereabouts when a disturbance took place between a European-and two of Aperahama te Reiroa's sons. They were all arrested and fined, but the Maori young men had no money, neither had their parents any, and they were about being sent to prison at Auckland. Then Aperahama te Reiroa agreed to cede Waiotahi for gold mining purposes, and for it to be included in the goldfield, and I made him an advance on account of Miners Rights to pay the fines with.
On the 12th August, 1867, the first reef was discovered at Kuranui, by Messrs Hunt, Cobley, Clarkson, and White.
After being about a week at the Thames I found person were commencing to erect buildings promiscuously, so one page 27 morning I and Mr. C. F. Mitchell lined out Pollen Street, Shortland, and laid off the first block of allotments.
Subsequently, I and the Ngatimaru commenced to make arrangements for the opening up of the whole of their lands, commencing on the North at Te Mamaku on the east shore of the Hauraki Gulf, and terminating on the south at the Omahu stream. When it came to arranging the divisions of the holdings of the various hapus within that area, great disputes arose between them about the boundaries. One piece in particular, belonging to Tamati Waka Te Puhi, near Hongikore, was very difficult to arrange, the side nearest to Tararu was disputed by Kitahi te Tanewha, and the northern end by others of Ngatimaru. On account of the long duration of this quarrel, I nick-named the block the Whakatete (signifying disputation or contention), and the name stuck to it. The dealing with these blocks commenced in September, 1867, but they were only finally settled by the end of February, 1868. Although the Ngatimaru were disputing among themselves all the time, and although there was no written agreement between the Ngatimaru tribe and the Government, the Europeans went wherever they pleased to prospect or mine for gold. No trouble arose either on the Maori or the European side. That was the good of the Rauru Ki Tahi proverb (meaning "their word was their bond"), we worked away merely on the spoken words (verbal assent) of the chiefs of Ngatimaru. It was not then the same as the fraudulent, double-dealing ways of the present time, but was in accordance with the old proverb: "When the son of Kiripuae lived his word was hie bond."
On the 9th November, 1867, Tanumeha te Moananui and all his people of the Ngatitamatera tribe, and some of the Ngatiwhunaunga tribe assembled at Matariki. Then the land was ceded to the Queen for gold mining, commencing at Te Mamaku on the sea coast of Hauraki, at the northern boundary of the lands of Ngatimaru, thence by the sea coast to Cape Colville, thence by the coast to Mercury Bay, thence turning to the westward on arriving at the boundary of the lands of the Ngatihe hapu, thence along the boundary of the lands of Ngatihe, until it struck the boundary of the lands of the Ngatimaru tribe, thence along that boundary to Te Mamaku, the point of commencement. There were excluded from this, all lands occupied by the Native owners for residence or cultivation, and burial grounds. The payment to be received by the Maori owners was to be £1for each Miner's Right issued to the miners. That document as executed by Te Moananui and his people, has never been questioned up to the present date.
In the commencement of March, 1868, en invitation was given to the whole of the Ngatimaru tribe to assemble at Pukerahui, Thames, on the 9th of March. At the appointed time they met there. There were very long speeches made by the chiefs, and myself. They divided their lands into nine blocks, page 28 with the names following: Te Wharau, Whakatete, Tararu, [unclear: Th] Karaka, Otunui, Whakairi, Te Kirikiri, Warahoe, and the Puriri.
When the name of the Kirikiri portion was called, it in cluded within it Taparahi, Korongo, Takatakaia.and Paki rarahi, and parts of these extended over the watershed to the Tairua River. I, however, was not desirous of carrying the boundary in the written agreement beyond the main watershed range; having no surveyor it was necessary to adopt natural boundaries.
Hohepa Paraone Tarawerawera then stood up and said "Mackay, your dealing with me is very bad; I have a long time ago placed all this land in your hands for gold mining purpose Let the boundary be at the termination of the land! Why originates this idea? to leave the body of the canoe in one place and the stern piece (which is joined on to the remainder) [unclear: in] another ? "
Then Riwai te Kiore arose in great anger, and [unclear: addressd] me; "You European slave of the Governor, great is you offence. You are an extremely deceitful man; my liking [unclear: far] you is ended. I will thrust you out of the Hauraki district This is your work, the cutting off of my head; how can a [unclear: mai] live when his head is separated from his body ? You Europen discontinue this disputing with me; I have with my [unclear: moutl] already given you all my land for gold mining purposes. [unclear: My] word has gone forth; the honour of a chief is in keeping hi word; I am not a dog to vomit, and afterwards turn to [unclear: swallow] that which I have cast up. I appointed you to be the Com missioner for Hauraki here. Now you had better give [unclear: uj] working for the Government; go back to your Island in the South." He sat down very angry, and continued muttering! [unclear: to] himself.
Te Hoterene Taipari, the principal chief, then stood up an spoke :—"Mackay, these are my words to you: A piece of [unclear: my] land also extends to the Tairua River; I own this side of the watershed range, and some beyond it also. Place all these land under the one name of Te Kirikiri; all of these have been previously handed to you for gold mining purposes. These are the only lands of the Ngatimaru tribe which cross over the [unclear: main] range. The old men are afraid that if the people on the other side hear that the boundary ended on the dividing range be tween the two seas, that eventually they may jump on to this ground, and assert that such was the old boundary, and is [unclear: the] proper one. Mackay, consent to these words of us, the old chiefs' This ended Te Hoterene Taipari's speech, and he sat down.
I arose and said: "Your ideas are right according Maori custom. However, the reason I desire that the boundary should be taken along the main range, is [unclear: t] facilitate the division of the Miners Rights fees among you and enable me to locate the places occupied for mining. Your giving page 29 up of the land to ine is true, and it is not my intention to relinquish it to you. Leave it in my hands (this has a stronger meaning in Maori than in English), at a future time it will be included. Your fear of the people of Tairua is not worthy of consideration; there is no ground for it. If those people attempt to take the land, how will they manage it, because it is held in my hand? Leave it for me to consider." This ended my speech.
Riwai teKiore got up and said—"European, you are very wrong, and your action is obstinate." He then turned to the Ngatimaru and said: "What a perfect reptile this European is, just like the goodness of Herehumu!" Riwai finished speaking. (The meaning of this saying, "Just like the goodness of Herehumu "—There was a man named Ihaka te Tawhe, who was partly of Waikato origin and partly Ngatimaru. He insulted me when he came to give up his gun in March, 1864, and threw his whalebone club at me, and nearly struck me on the head with it. Timi Puru had also informed me that this man had murdered a European. I therefore seized him, and when the Ngatimaru wished to take him out of my hands, placed his back to a carved post (humu) of the Kauaeranga Pa, and wound a rope round him and it. (That post stood near the present wharf at Shortland, where Mrs. Avery's house now is).
The disputes about these pieces of land having ceased, the Ngatimaru and some of the Ngatiwhanaunga came forward and signed their names to an agreement ceding the land to the Governor for gold mining purposes. The following are the boundaries of the land:—Commencing at Te Mamaku on the sea coast of the Hauraki Gulf, thence along the southern boundary of the lands of Ngatitamatera to the main range dividing the sea on the Hauraki side, from the sea on the East coast; thence southerly along the main range to the source of the Omahu stream; thence along that stream in a westerly direction to the boundary of the lands which had been reserved for Native occupation and cultivation by the owners; thence turning towards the North and continuing along that line to Kakaramata, thence to the Waiwhakaurunga River, thence by the sea coast to Te Mamaku, the point of commencement. The rent for these lands was to be £1 for each Miner's Right issued to the miners. There was no date fixed for terminating the agreement, the Governor could hold the land for as long a time as he pleased. If, however, he desired to relinquish it, ho must give the Native owners six months notice of his intention.
I hear some of the young men have stated that they lost all their lands through me. I did not do anything with their lands. A very extensive area was reserved for them outside the goldfield. The Governor got the hills only. I did not purchase these lands, they, themselves, subsequently sold and conveyed them to the Europeans.page 30
The Government are performing a very wonderful feat now. They say that Taparahi, Korongo, Takatakaia, and Pakiraraha, were never ceded to the Governor for gold mining purposes. What is their idea? What will they think when they hear of the speeches which were made by Hohepa Paraone Tarawerawera, Riwai te Kiore, and Te Hoterene Taipari ? They do not believe my word as to the giving up of those pieces of land. What can be a more complete giving over than that which takes place openly before the whole tribe in daylight.
On the 13th December, 1867, certain Natives of the Ngati.whanaunga and Ngatimaru tribes received a deposit of £100 on a block commencing at Hikutaia, thence to the source of that stream, thence to Whangamata, thence by the sea coast to Cape Colville, thence along the sea coast to Waihou (River Thames) to the point of commencement at the Hikutaia stream. The same were given over to the Governor for gold mining purposes (excepting pieces of land owned by other tribes within the said boundaries). The said money shall be deducted from money hereafter arising from Miners' Bights issued for the said lands. This document was in confirmation of the giving up of the Moehau block by the Ngatitamatera tribe on the 9th November, 1867.
Manaia was thrown open for gold mining by the Ngatimaru and Tawera tribes on the fifteenth day of October, 1868, under the same conditions as the other lands of Hauraki.
Kennedy Bay was a block originally given by the Ngatita matera tribe to the Ngatiporou of the East Coast. It was ceded by the Ngatiporou, with the consent of Te Moananui, to the Governor for gold mining purposes on the thirteenth day of May, 1868, on the same terms as the other lands of Hauraki.
The Tairua, Hikutaia, Whangamata, and other blocks were purchased by me for the Government, and consequently became available for gold mining, in addition to the previous agreements.
Te Aroha was purchased by me for the Government, and thus became available for gold mining purposes. Large reserves were made for the Natives at Te Aroha, they probably have put them afloat on the Waihou River ere this, and they are now swallowed up in the sea.
The Ohinemuri block was extremely difficult to negotiate. On the 9th December, 1868, that land was given up to the Governor by all the Queen Natives. But the Hauhaos, represented by Te Hira te Tuiri, Tukukino, and Mere Kuuru made great obstacles to the completion and opening up of this block for gold mining. The officers of the Government commenced dealing with that land in 1868, but no advance was made in completing it, owing to the obstinacy with which it was held. This continued until Dr. Pollen, Sir Donald McLean, and myself went to Ohinemuri in 1875. In consequence of my persistent arguments, it was agreed to open this long locked up box (land) for gold mining purposes. This was on the 3rd March, 1875, page 31 Hearken young men of Hauraki, both Maori and European, you have now heard all the chief circumstances connected with the throwing open of your district of this island for gold mining purposes. Hauraki is now acquiring a reputation for its gold mines, but the work done is on reefs only.
I have now completed what concerns the whole tribe, and will commence a new subject.
The Ministers of the Government are now endeavouring to oust the Europeans from the claims they have acquired in the Pakararahi No. 1 block. Mr. Cadman also asserting that the Government never acquired any right to mine over that land from the Native owners of it; even, although, Governor Normanby had included it within the goldfield, Mr. Cadman says it is wrong. That proclamation was made on the 8th April, 1875. I drew it out. But before writing it, I went to Hohepa Paraone Tarawerawera, Riwai te Kiore, and Te Hoterene Taipari, and spoke thus to them—" Friends, do you recollect the portion of the Kirikiri block, which I excluded from the agreement of the 9th March, 1865, that is part of the Taparahi, Korongo, Takatakaia, and Pakirarahi blocks, which I have held ever since in my hand. At present, I and Dr. Pollen are drawing out a fresh proclamation to include more land in the goldfield. What do you say about it?" They said at once, "include it now, so that the lands may lay straight in their own places."
If the Government had no authority to sanction mining on the Pakirarahi block, perhaps they will be able to show the reason why the Miners Right, and the lease money has been paid to the Maoris during all these years. Also the payment for such "kauri" trees as have been bought for mining purposes.
This is another branch of the subject respecting the position of the Kauri Timber Company and the Maoris with regard to the Pakirarahi No. 1 block. In March, 1882, the Union Sash and Door Company, of Auckland, endeavoured to purchase that land, but it was not properly completed, because no successor had been appointed to Hona Pau, deceased. In 1884 that Company, recognising their false position with reference to that land, went to the Maori owners and requested them to execute a Deed confirming the sale of it to them. The Maoris would not consent to do so. Then the Company drew a fresh Deed, setting forth that the timber alone had been sold, not the land; but 99 years was to be allowed them, within which they were to cut and remove the timber, but if the timber was sooner cut and removed, then the whole land at once reverted to the Maori owners, their heirs, successors, or assigns; also if the Company became bankrupt, or was wound up, the land forthwith reverted to the Maoris.
"That if hereafter during the said term of 99 years, any page 32 prospecting, searching for, or mining for gold or other minerals shall take place on or in the said land, or any part thereof, all fees, dues or moneys paid for or on account of such prospecting, searching for, or mining by any person or persons, Company or Companies, body or bodies corporate, shall be paid to and be deemed to belong to and be the property of the Covenantees (Native owners), their heirs, successors or assigns, the deeds of conveyance herein before in part recited to the contrary not with standing."
You must notice that Deed re-conveyed the land, and the gold and other minerals, to the Native owners. Subsequently the Company mortgaged their Deed to the Bank of New Zealand, but when the amount of the mortgage was not met their rights were sold by the Registrar of the Supreme Court, and the Bank of New Zealand became the purchaser. The Bank then sold it to the Kauri Timber Company; then that Company Registered a Land Transfer Title in fee simple for the land, thus ousting the claims of all other persons to it.
"Now, youths of Hauraki, go to your elders now they are with you, and ask them this question ! Is the statement made by your elder, Mackay, correct? If they admit its truthfulness, then value it, and relate it to your own children, so that they may become acquainted with these facts, and not remain foolishly ignorant of these matters, the same as the Government are at present.
Probably after this I shall have but few opportunities of addressing you young men, because I am becoming an old man. Therefore, I deemed it advisable to give you the information myself now. This is all."
25th May, 1896.
Wm. MoCullough, Genral Printer, High Street, Auckland.