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The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 65

Report of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute for the Year Ending January 31, 1884

Report of the Hawke's Bay

Philosophical Institute

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Printed by R. C. Harding Napier Hastings-Street.

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Of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute (founded September 14th, 1874) for the Year ending 31 st January, 1884; with a List of Office-bearers and Members, for the Year 1884.

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During the past Winter Session the full complement of Ordinary Meetings (6) have been held in the Society's Room, Napier.

But only one complete Paper written by a Member was read, and that at the last meeting, (and only then through the meeting being held a month later than usual,) viz.:—


"A description of several newly-discovered indigenous Plants, mostly Cryptograms of the Orders Filices, Musci, Hepatiœ, and Fungi," (with specimens of the same,) by W. Colenso, F.L.S.

This Paper has been duly forwarded to the Manager of the N. Z. Institute, with a view to it being published (if approved of) in vol. XVI. of the "Transactions."

Other Papers, however, that were partly written, would have been also read but for an untoward and unlooked-for circumstance,—of which it is right the Members should know. Indeed the first part of a curious and interesting historical legendary Paper, "On Hawaiki and the Green-stone Myths," also by Mr. Colenso, was read by him at the first Ordinary Meeting in May,—"to be followed by the remainder in 2 or 3 Papers"; but shortly afterwards, on his finding that his 3 papers on Maori matters, read last year:: before the Society, were excluded from the annual volume (XV.) of the "Transactions," he declined to read or to write any more on Maori subjects for the Institute.*

Notwithstanding the absence of written Papers, something not wholly unsuitable was provided for each meeting by the Council, in the shape of oral addresses and observations on Natural specimens shown; among them were the following.— page 4
1.Respecting the smaller indigenous wild yet valuable Vegetable products of the Country: by W. Colenso.
2.Notes and Observations on several small indigenous Animals and Marine Sponges: by A. Hamilton.
3.On the Men of Science who preceded us in these Seas and Lands, with particular reference to their labours, adventures, and tragical ends," by W. Colenso. (Several of them he had personally known, and seen here in N.Z.)
4.The able Lecture on Evolution lately delivered by Professor Huxley before the University of Cambridge, and printed in; the June number of "Nature," was read by the Hon. Secretary at the October meeting.

A large number of curious and interesting specimens,—Zoological, Botanical, Geological, and Palæontological,—were also exhibited at all those meetings; several being new and hitherto unknown to science.

During the year 13 meetings of the Council were held; for the election of new Members,—the selecting and ordering of Boob from England for the Library, and of Glass Cases, &c., for the Museum,—and for the general advancement and benefit of the Society. There were also other Meetings of Select Committees appointed by the Council for various matters.

After due consideration by the Council, it was deemed advisable in the winter to light up the Society's Room and to have a fire kindled in it on two Evenings of the week (Monday and Thursday) from 7 to 10,—for the convenience and benefit of Members and their friends, particularly of the younger Members of the Society; due notice of the same having been publicly given by advertisement in the local Evening Paper; but after a month's trial it was abandoned, with regret on the part of the Council.

Vacancies having occurred in the completed list of Honorary Members of the N. Z. Institute, through the lamented deaths of Dr. Darwin and others, your Council was again called on (in accordance with the N. Z. Institute Act,) to elect one Foreign Honorary Member to fill up one of those vacancies; when the Rev. M. I. Berkeley, M.A., F.L.S., of Kingscliffe, England, was unanimously chosen,—"on the grounds of his many and extensive researches, discoveries, and publications in Cryptogamic Botany during more than half-a-century, and with especial reference to what he has done for the Fungology of New Zealand, Tasmania, Australia, and the Antarctic Lands."

Also, (and in accordance with the N. Z. Institute Act,) the Vice-President, Dr. Spencer, was again chosen to vote in the annual election of elected Governors to the Board of the N. Z. Institute.

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Of the 108 Members whose names were published in the Report of last year,—two died during the year, Mr Robert Stuart and Mr. George Rearden; (the former gentleman being one of the earliest Members of the Society, and for some time its President; and the latter a rising young townsman of promise in his profession of Architect, and a regular and interested attendant at our Ordinary Meetings,—he was unfortunately drowned in the harbour with two other young men while boating;) 3 have resigned; and the names of 2 others have been struck off the Roll for non-payment of their subscriptions, (in accordance with the By-law of February, 1881,)—thus leaving of that published number 101 on the Roll; to those, however, have been subsequently added 13 new Members, who were elected during the year (one of them having since resigned), and so making a present total of 113 Members.

During the past year a variety of interesting Natural Specimens were received from several Members of the Society, chiefly residing in the Country,—also from several friends; some of those specimens were exhibited at the Ordinary Meetings of the Winter Session, and were not unfrequently the cause of pleasing and profitable discussion and enquiry. Among those specimens were:
(I.)Zoological: 1. Mammalia: the lower jaws of Dolphins, and the bones of a Whale (Kogia breviceps), from Mr. Hamilton.
2.Aves: Skins of Huia birds (Heteralocha acutirostris), from Mr Hamilton and the Honorary Secretary;—of a Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus), a rare bird in the N. Island, shot at Waikare Lake and presented by Mr. E. Tuke; of a small Rail (probably Ortygometra affinis), and of a species of Sphenœacvs, both from Te Aute Lake locality, presented by Mr. C. P. Winkelman.
3.Reptilia: Several Lizards, one being a very fine green one; and the rattles of a Rattlesnake from California; presented by Mr. D. P. Balfour.
4.Pisces: Specimens of the rare and curious Torpedo, T. Fairchildii, and of other novel Fishes (some probably not yet known to Science) caught here in our harbour and bay, purchased from the Fishermen, and also procured by Mr. Hamilton.
5.Mollusca (recent): A rather large number of N.Z. Land and Marine shells (various genera) from Mr. Hamilton, Mr. C. P. Winkelman, and others:—several handsome shells from Jervis' Island, near the Equator, collected there by Mr. Henry Winkelman and kindly presented through his brother Mr. C. P. Winkelman:—a pair of fine shells (Murex sp.) from Fiji, kindly presented by a young townsman, Mr. C. S. Thomas.
6.Crustacea: Several small but novel Marine Crustaceans, collected by Mr. Hamilton.page 6
7.Arachnides: Many and various specimens of this class, principally Spiders (Araneides), collected by Mr. D. P. Balfour, the Hon. Secretary, and others.
8.Insecta: Several valuable specimens, mostly Coleoptera, from Mr. D. P. Balfour, the Hon. Secretary, and others; also a complete series of the handsome N.Z. Butterfly Pyrameis gonerilla, in all its changes—larva, chrysalis, and imago,—captured in its larva state in the forests and reared by the Hon. Secretary.
9.Echinodermata: Specimens also of this class, as Starfishes (Asterias. various genera,) and Sea-urchins (Echinus), &c., both indigenous and tropical, from Mr. Hamilton and Mr. C. P. Winkelman.
10.Spongiadœ: Of this now numerous family many interesting specimens obtained in Hawke's Bay, including some novel "Cup Sponges,"—from Mr. Hamilton.
(II.)Botanical: Comprising sundry specimens of all the classes, but mostly Cryptogams of the orders Filices, Musci, Hepaticœ, Fungi, and Lichenes, chiefly however, Hepaticœ; of which order there are eleven new species of the curious (and hitherto small) genus Symphyogyna; together with several new species of the allied and curious genus Aneura, one species being (perhaps) by far the largest yet known. A few and more rare Ferns were also shown, collected in various and distant N.Z. localities;—as from Mangonui near the N. Cape by Mr. Norton,—from the Great Barrier Island (Thames) by Mr. C. P. Winkelman,—from the interior (Taupo Country) by Mr. Hamilton,—from the "70-mile Bush" by the Hon. Secretary,—and from near Christchurch and Akaroa (South Island) by Mr. Enys, and kindly presented by him. There are also some elegant and novel Orchids both terrestrial and epiphytical; a fine new large-leaved Fagus,—a singular Panax with minute I leaves,—a second and large-leaved species of the aberrant parasitical genus Tupeia,—and a handsome shrubby Metrosideros. These were collected by several Members, and largely so by Messrs, Hamilton, C. P. Winkelman, D. P. Balfour, and the Hon. Secretary: the Metrosideros (quite an acquisition,) was discovered by Mr. Horace Baker.
(III.)Fossil: Sundry specimens of this class were collected and presented to the Society by Members and friends; particularly by Mr. John Stewart, of Takapau, and Mr. D. P. Balfour, of Glenross.
(IV.)Geological: A quantity of interesting specimens were also collected and sent to the Society by Mr. J. Stewart, Mr. C. P. Winkelman, and Mr. D. P. Balfour; and a few foreign ones were presented by Mr. J. Harding, of Mount Vernon.
(V.)Palæontological: Stone axes and chisels of various kinds and of different shapes and sizes, and other implements in page 7 wood and bone of the Ancient Maoris were collected and presented to the Society by Messrs. D. P. Balfour, C. P. Winkelman, and a cast of the antique E. Indian Bell by Dr. Hector.

The thanks of the Members present at the Ordinary Meetings were repeatedly voted to those kind and mindful (though absent being country) Members of the Institute,—and to other friends of the Society,—who had so largely and so laboriously contributed to their pleasure and information, as well as to the enlargement of the growing Museum of the Society,—by their generous donations of specimens.

Besides those donations to the Society there were several others, interesting and valuable loans to the Museum in the shape of Deposits; among which may be chiefly noted,—the lower jaw of a Sperm Whale caught in Hawke's Bay, complete and in excellent preservation, from Mr. E. B. Bendall, of Te Mahia; and the jaws of a large Shark (Carcharias, sp.), caught in the harbour, from Mr. J. G. Kinross.

Much more, however, it is believed, could easily and profitably be done in this direction by Members generally, and by the friends of the Institute; especially by those residing or staying in the immediate neighbourhood of forests, and of the Sea-shore. Natural specimens of all kinds—particularly of the smaller plants (including ' mosses, etc.), reptiles, insects large and small, spiders, slugs, worms, and shells—are still greatly desired; among them are still many new forms wholly unknown to Science.

It is hoped, that as every year this Hawke's Bay branch of the N.Z. Institute grows and increases in the number of its Members, they will also severally do something more in the way of collecting and preserving natural specimens for their Museum; especially now that they have a place secured for their keeping and exhibition. The Hon. Secretary, or the Assistant Curator, will thankfully receive any and all specimens of every kind which Members and their friends may send to them; such may also be left at the Athenæum in the charge of Mrs. Gaulton.

A word of plain directions may here be given respecting the siæmple handy preservation of any insect, or spider, or worm, or any other small zoological specimen, which may be met with accidentally, or while travelling, &c.,—particularly as such not Unfrequently turn up both rarely and by chance. Make up loosely a small cone of paper, and put the animal into it, twist over the top edges, and carry it, without squeezing, in handkerchief or loosely in pocket, and on reaching home, put it into any common fide mouthed bottle containing a little spirits (of the common and more handy sort of spirits, whiskey is perhaps the best); of course a butterfly or moth cannot be so dealt with, but should be merely dried without pressure; also of a plant which may seem to be a page 8 novelty,—gather a flower or two and a couple of its leaves, or a small sprig containing both; or if it be a fern, then, if small, a whole plant, or if it be large, a small portion of a frond or leaf, (often a transverse section,) which may be folded over twice, or so;—or, if it be a moss or a liverwort, then a small tuft; and wrap the specimen up loosely in a little paper, or put it inside of an old letter, or anything handy in the pocket for the time, taking care not to squeeze or press it much. Many valuable and interesting specimens have been originally made known by this easy and simple way.

In forwarding small specimens of any kind by post to the Hon. Secretary, (which can be both easily and cheaply clone at the low postage rate of 1d. for every two ounces,) take care not to put the postage stamp on the packet or parcel, but on a small cloth or card label containing the address and looesly attached to the packet by a string; and don't spare a little extra wrapping of dry moss or old soft paper, around the specimens. A common tin match-box, of either the large or small size, is a very good means of conveyance for small specimens.

Several select and valuable Scientific and Historical Books have been received from England during the past year; others, to the extent of £50, lately carefully chosen by the Council, are now on order.

The Library is in the Society's Room in the Athenaeum I Building, now leased to the Philosophical Institute for a term of I years, and is open for reading and for reference at all times (luring hours to Members and their friends, on application to Mrs. Caulton, the resident Librarian of the Athenaeum. As very many of the! N.Z. birds, fishes, butterflies, and shells, and trees, and plants (grasses, ferns, mosses, liverworts, fungi, lichenes, and algœ), are I in those several works depicted, (most, too, being coloured from nature,)—also, all British and European birds, with their eggs, British quadrupeds, fishes, insects, plants, and shells (recent and fossil), together with the birds of America, and the marine mammals of its N.W. Coast,—also, the fish and polyzoa of Victoria, the marine algœ of Australia and Tasmania, and the gorgeous flora of the Fiji Islands; those works will be found both highly interesting and suitable for Scientific research, reference, and verification. The growing Library already possesses a very fair amount of first-class works on Natural Science pertaining to the British Isles and to Europe,—as well as to America, Australia, and Polynesia, including the latest magnificent volumes of the "Challenger" Expedition, publishing under the auspices of the British Government.

Further: In addition to the valuable first-class Standard Works in the Library, the Museum of the Society has been during the year put in order; several glass cases and other necessaries for that page 9 purpose having been purchased by the Council; and the able and hearty assistance of Mr. Hamilton has also been obtained. Mr. Hamilton has been appointed to the office of Assistant Curator.

Now that the room containing the Library and Museum is our own, it will be found highly suitable for quiet reading and for study; and it is especially hoped and desired by the Council, that during the long winter evenings in particular the rooms may be often visited and the Library used by the Members, particularly by the younger ones residing in the town, who will find therein stored many a rich and satisfactory intellectual treat.

Suitable written papers for reading, and remarks and observations on all Scientific matters generally,—and natural specimens of all kinds for Scientific information, enquiry, and discussions at the Ordinary Meetings of the approaching Winter Session of 1884, are much desired and would be heartily welcome.

The audited statement of accounts just read, shows a balance of £220 17s. 11d. remaining to the credit of the Institute; besides about £112 0s. 0d. now due for subscriptions payable in advance for this current year and for one year's interest on the Bank Fixed Deposit now nearly due, from this, however, will have to be deducted the sum of £50, advanced as a loan to meet the Draft lately sent to England for the purchase of Books; this sum of £50 being our only present liability, and this debt for a short period was incurred rather than draw out the Fixed Deposit and so lose the Interest thereon, or overdraw our account with the Bank. And here Members may be respectfully informed that had they paid their subscriptions for 1884 (due, in advance on the 1st instant), there would not have been any necessity to obtain that loan.

Members would do well in kindly bearing in mind, that, by the laws of the Society, their annual subscriptions are due (in advance) on the first day of January in every year, and should therefore be paid to the Hon. Treasurer as early in the year as convenient; by their so doing no small amount of unnecessary expense and trouble is saved.

Probably Members are not aware, that at the beginning of every year the printed list of their names is sent in to the Manager of the N.Z. Institute, Dr. Hector, for publication in the forthcoming volume of Transactions, and as a guide for him to furnish the requisite number of copies,—which, however, can only be issued to those Members who have paid their subscriptions.

Wm. Colenso

, Hon. Secretary. Napier,
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RECEIPTS. £ s d By Balance in hand, 1st Feb., 1883............................................. 15 0 7 By 1 back Subscription for 1881............................................. 1 1 0 By 3 Subscriptions for 1882............................................. 3 3 0 By 85 Subscriptions for 1883............................................. 89 5 0 By 17 Subscriptions for 1884............................................. 17 17 0 By Interest received on F.D., 12 months to Feb. 1883, @ 4%.......................... 8 0 0 By Fixed Deposit, Bank of New Zealand ............................................. 200 0 0 By Loan, advanced for Draft for Books............................................. 50 0 0 £384 6 7 EXPENDITURE. £ s d To paid Advertismg............................................. 3 7 0 To paid Printing Reports............................................. 4 10 0 To paid London Booksellers for Books, 1882-83............................................. 17 6 8 To paid Melbourne Booksellers for Books, 1882-83........................................ 0 15 0 To paid Dinwiddie & Co., Binding Books............................................. 0 16 0 To paid Kinross & Co., freight, duties, &c., Books, &c., per 4 ships, To paid 1882-83............................................. 10 7 10 To paid Waite, and others, cartage from Port............................................. 1 2 0 To paid Rent of Room............................................. 5 0 0 To paid Furniture and Museum cases and fittings............................................. 44 9 0 To paid Insurance of Books, Specimens, &c............................................. 2 10 0 To paid Assistant Curator (1 year)............................................. 10 0 0 To paid Librarian and Caretaker............................................. 6 6 0 To paid Carriage copies Transactions............................................. 0 15 0 To paid Postage stamps............................................. 2 16 0 To paid Moroney, freight, wharfage, and cartage, whale's jaw................... 0 11 9 To paid Stationery............................................. 0 15 6 To paid Barnaul & Co., Spirits of Wine, &c............................................. 0 14 3 To paid Manager Bank of New Zealand, Draft on London, Books.. 40 0 0 To paid Manager Bank of New Zealand, Expenses on same....... 0 18 6 To paid Mr. Locke for a 4to Book ............................................. 4 0 0 To paid Sundries (small sums as shown to Auditor)........................ 0 8 2 163 8 8 To Balance in Bank, cash account............................................. 20 3 9 To Petty cash in Treasurer's hands............................................. 0 14 2 To Fixed Deposit in Bank............................................. 200 0 0 220 17 11 £381 6 7 Examined and found, correct, February 1st, 1881. T. K. NEWTON, Auditor. E.E., January 31st, 1881. w. COLENSO, Hon. Treasurer.

Statement of Accounts of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute for the year ending January 31, 1884.

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Officers of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute.


  • The Right Rev. the Bishop Of Waiapu.


  • W. I. Spencer.


  • H. Hill
  • S. Locke
  • J. Kirker
  • T. K. Newton
  • F. W. C. Sturm
  • C. H. Weber

Honorary Secretary:

  • A. Hamilton.

Honorary Treasurer:

  • J. N. Bower Man.


  • T. K. Newton.
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Members of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute.

*Life Members.

  • Baker, H.
  • Baker, H. J., Waipawa.
  • Balfour, D. P., Glenross.
  • Balfour, T. W.
  • Balfour, W., Mohaka.
  • Banner, H. A.
  • Beamish, N. E., Okawa.
  • Bell, M. S.
  • Bendall, E. B., Te Mahia.
  • Birch, A. S., Patea.
  • Birch, W. J., Stonycroft.
  • Bowerman, J. N.
  • Brown, J. H., Whakakii, Wairoa.
  • Campbell, H., Poukawa.
  • Caro, J. S.
  • Carlile, J. W.
  • Carnell, S.
  • Carr, J. T., Kopua.
  • Carroll, T., Clyde, Wairoa.
  • Chambers, J., Te Mata.
  • Chambers, J., jun., Te Mata.
  • Chambers, W. K., Poverty Bay.
  • Coleman, J. H.
  • Colenso, W.
  • Colenso, R. L., England.
  • Colenso, W., jun., England.
  • De Lisle, F. I.
  • Dennan, J. J.
  • Dobson, R.
  • Dolbel, P., Springfield.
  • Drummond, J., Taradale.
  • Gallien, H. L., Hastings.
  • Gannon, M. J., Poverty Bay.
  • Gilberd, H. J., Taradale.
  • Glass, B., Waiau, Wairoa.
  • Gollan, D.
  • Gollan, K., Tarawera.
  • Gosnell, Mrs. L., Wairoa.
  • Gow, P., Waipukurau.
  • Grant, J., Burnside, Ruataniwha.
  • Hamilton, A., Petane.
  • Harding, R., Mount Vernon.
  • Harding, R. C.
  • Hardy, S. W., Hampden.
  • Heslop, W.
  • Hitchings, T.
  • Holder, H. R.
  • Hovell, De Berdt.
  • Hutchinson, M.
  • Joseph, Brother.
  • Kennedy, C. D.
  • Kinross, J. G.page 13
  • Kirker, J.
  • Knowles, E. W.
  • Large, Miss L.
  • Leonard, J.
  • Lessong, L.
  • Leyland, E., Clive.
  • Livesey, J. N.
  • Locke, S.
  • Luff. A., Wellington.
  • Mackinnon, J.
  • McLean, R. D. D., Maraekakaho.
  • McLean, P. S.
  • Maney, R. D., Wairoa.
  • Matthews, J. F.
  • May, C., Mrs.
  • May, J. T.
  • *Meinertzhagen, F. H., Waimarama.
  • Miller, M. R.
  • Mirbach, R. von, Waipawa
  • Moorhouse, E., Patea.
  • Mulvihill, A. D., Hawera.
  • Nairn, H., Liston, Wairoa.
  • Nairn, J., Pourerere.
  • Nairn, C. J., Pourerere.
  • Newton, T. K.
  • Norton, C. J., Taupo.
  • Ormond, J. D.
  • Price, R.
  • Rainbow, W., Hastings.
  • Rearden, J. A.
  • Reardon, C. W., Gisborne.
  • Rochfort, J.
  • Russell, A. E., Palmerston N.
  • Russell, W. R., Flaxmere.
  • Scannell, D., Taupo.
  • Scott, W.
  • Sheath, A. P.
  • Simcox, F. E. T., Porangahau.
  • Spencer, W. I.
  • Stewart, J., Takapau.
  • Stuart, E. C., Bishop of Waiapu.
  • Sturm, F. W. C., Hawke's Bay Nursery, Clive,
  • Sutton, F., Royston.
  • Swan, G. H.
  • Tanner, T., Riverslea.
  • Tanner, E. D., Riverslea.
  • Thomsen. J. W., Norsewood.
  • Tiffen, H. S.
  • Tiffen, G. W., Elmshill, Patangata.
  • Trestrail, Mrs., Waipukurau.
  • Vautier, J. H.
  • Weber, C. H.
  • White, T., Glengarrie.
  • White, W. K.
  • Wilding, H., Waipukurau.
  • Williams, J. N., Frimley.
  • Willis, G., Wellington.
  • Wilson, Hon. J. N.
  • Winkelmann, C. P., Kaipara.
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Constitution and Rules of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute.

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1.The Institute is founded for the advancement of Science, Literature and Art, as well as for the development of the resources of the Colony.
2.Any person desiring to become a Member of the Institute, shall be proposed in writing by two Members, and shall be balloted for at the next meeting of the Council.
3.If any Member elected into the Society, shall have omitted to pay the contribution for the year, within two months after his election has been notified to him by the Secretary, his election shall be void.
4.The annual subscription for each Member shall be One Guinea, pay able in advance on the first day of January in every year.
5.Any Member failing to pay his Annual Subscription for two successive years, shall thereby ipso facto cease to be a Member of this Society, and at the next following meeting of the Council, after the second subscription becomes due, his name shall be removed from the Roll.
6.Members may at any time become Life-members by one payment of Ten Pounds ten shillings in lieu of future annual subscriptions.
7.All sums received for Life Subscriptions shall be invested, and the interest only arising from such investments shall be applied to the uses of the Institute.
8.Non-residents in the Province may be elected Honorary Members by the unanimous vote of any meeting of the Society in acknowledgement of their contributions to Art, Science, or Literature in general, or to this Society in particular;—such Members to have all the privileges of Members without the payment of any fees.
9.Members of Societies incorporated with the New Zealand Institute when in the Province of Hawke's Bay, shall be entitled to all the privileges of Members of this Society.
10.One-third of the Annual Revenue of the Society shall be applied towards the formation or support of a Local Museum or Library.
11.An Annual General Meeting of the Members of the Society shall be held on the first Monday of February in each year, at which Meeting not less than ten Members must be present, otherwise the Meeting shall be adjourned by the Members present from time to time, until the requisite number of Members is present.
12.At such Annual, or adjourned Annual Meeting, a President, a Vice President, an Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, and six Members shall be elected by ballot to form a Council for the ensuing year; of which four shall form a Quorum.page 15
13.Any casual vacancy that may occur during the year may be filled-up by the Council: but the Council may act whether such vacancy be filled-up or not.
14.At such Annual, or adjourned Annual Meeting, a Report of the pro- feedings of the Society for the year shall be laid before the Meeting, and also a statement of the Funds and Property of the Society, and of the Receipts and Expenditure for the year.
15.The Council shall have the entire conduct and management of the affairs of the Society, subject to the Resolution of any General Meeting of the Society attended by not less than ten Members.
16.Meetings of the Council or Society shall be called by the President, the Secretary, or any two Members of the Council, or upon the requisition of any five Members of the Society.
17.At all Meetings of the Society or Council any Resolution must be passed by a majority of the Members present,—the President or Chairman having a deliberative as well as a Casting Vote.


1.At Ordinary Meetings of the Institute, each Member shall have the privilege of introducing two friends.
2.Any Member desirous of reading a Paper shall give (in writing) to the Secretary, ten days before the Meeting at which he desires it to be read, its title, and the time its reading will occupy. The Secretary shall lay this communication before the Council at its next Meeting. Papers shall be read in such order as the Council may determine.
3.If any discussion should occur after the reading of a Paper, no person shall be at liberty to address the Meeting more than once, except when called upon, through the Chairman, for explanation. The Member contributing a Paper shall have the right to reply to observations made upon it.
4.Any original Paper read before the Institute and approved of by the; Council, or at a General Meeting of the Members, may be forthwith published, here, in Napier, wholly or partly at the charge of the Institute as may be found necessary for the purpose.
5.The Session of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute shall be during the winter months from May to October, both inclusive;—and Ordinary Meetings shall be held on the second Monday in each of those six months, at 7.30 p.m.


6.That a Catalogue of the books belonging to the Institute be kept in the Library, in a place convenient for Reference.
7.That the Books be divided into two sections:—
1.Books of Reference.
2.Books of General Utility.
8.Books in section 1 not to be removed from the Library without special permission from the Secretary (to be given in writing), and then only if required for the purpose of preparing Lectures or Papers to be read before the Institute, or for the objects of special research. Books entered on section 2, may be borrowed on application to the Custodian by signing a receipt for the same in a book provided for the purpose.
9.No Book to be kept for a period exceeding 14 days. All Members taking Books from the Library shall be responsible for their safe return, or in event of damage or loss shall be liable to replace them at their own cost.

* Note.—Those 3 Papers however were subsequently returned by the Manager N.Z.I., on official application being made for them; and were published here (for Members kindly subscribing), with the approval of the Council H.B. Ph. Inst.