First Annual Report of the Pomologist.
George Didsbury, Government Printer. Wellington1892
First Annual Report of the Pomologist.
I began my work in January by endeavouring to encourage orchardists to make shipments of apples and pears to the London market, in order to aid in developing the export of fruit. I visited many of the growers in the Whangarei, and also a number in the Auckland district. In talking the matter over, I found most of them very timid about venturing on shipments, owing to the high rates of freight and other charges. The general feeling was the rather selfish one of waiting to see how their fellow-growers fared during the present experimental stage of this young industry, when the probability of loss is most prominently present. However, my efforts were so far successful as to induce a number of growers to forward small consignments. Some twelve orchardists in the Whangarei district combined, and forwarded seven hundred cases during the season. The consignments consisted chiefly of apples, but also comprised a few cases of pears and grapes. From Auckland, fruit-growers who had shipped in previous seasons sent larger consignments; and I noticed some new shippers, whom I had visited, sending fruit to London per s.s. "Tainui," while I was superintending the shipments by that vessel; but I have no data as to how successful my endeavours were to promote shipments from that district. When the details of the result of this season's shipments come to hand I purpose furnishing a report on the subject to the Minister of Agriculture.
Secondly, with a view of ascertaining how the fruit is at present conveyed to London, and considering whether any improvements could be suggested, I came down with a consignment of 330 cases from Whangarei for London per s.s. "Tainui," and superintended the shipment of all the fruit by that vessel and the s.s. "Duke of Westminster." I came down to Wellington in the former, and watched the regulation of the temperature in the cool-chambers. My observations and suggestions on this subject are embodied in my special report to the Minister of Agriculture on apples exported by s.s. "Tainui." Shortly after my arrival in Wellington a proposed Order in Council to admit certain specified vine-cuttings was brought under my notice. On reading up the records it was very evident that the proposed Order in Council had been drawn up in misconception of the desires of many who had written to the department on page 4 the subject. As they evidently desired to import a number of varieties of wine-grapes (whereas the proposal was to permit the importation of several species of American vines that resist the phylloxera, and are used as stocks only), I therefore drew up a memorandum to the Minister of Agriculture pointing out how dangerous it would be to permit free importation of vines or vine-cuttings, while at the same time it was most desirable, in view of the many settlers in the colony who in their native land had been accustomed to vine-culture, and who, if they could obtain the right varieties, would engage in that important industry here, that a collection of the best wine-grapes should be grown in the colony. I therefore suggested that the Government should import under proper precautions, and cultivate at an experimental station, a collection of the best wine-grapes, to be obtained from reliable sources, free from phylloxera and other disease. My suggestions have met with the Minister's approval, and for fuller particulars thereof I beg to refer you to my memorandum.
During the latter half of March I made a tour through the Manawatu and Wairarapa districts for the purpose of ascertaining the condition of the fruit industry there. In the new settlements along the Manawatu Railway Company's line I found much interest manifested by the settlers in fruit-culture, and numerous young orchards planted, and others were preparing to plant as soon as the land can be cleared. The climate along the coast is mild, and well adapted to fruit-culture; but shelter from the seaward winds must be provided. In Wairarapa I found fruit-culture, on the whole, much neglected. Here and there might be found a well-cared-for orchard, which made its owner profitable returns; but they were the exception, and the rule was neglected orchards overrun with pests. The small settlers in the Wairarapa certainly want wakening up to the knowledge of the money there is in fruit-growing when properly attended to; but not more so than do the settlers in the Hutt Valley, which, owing to its being the only piece of arable land in close proximity to Wellington, one would expect to find almost a continuous stretch of orchard and market-garden. Instead, the cared-for profitable orchards might be counted on one's fingers, and vegetable-culture is almost abandoned to a few Chinese, and the land at the same time provides grazing for a few cows—land which, under a proper system of petite culture, could easily be made to yield ten or twenty times the present return.
The matter of greatest importance to the fruit industry that has come under my notice is the want of a properly-equipped horticultural experimental station, at which all subjects bearing on profitable fruit-culture should be carefully studied, and practical results aimed at, for the benefit of the colony. The following would form some of the objects of such an experimental station : The growth of a comprehensive collection of fruits, embracing not only apples, pears, and stone-fruits, but likewise citrus fruits, olives, grape-vines, both table-and wine-grapes, small fruits, and any other fruits not commonly grown, but which present possibilities of profitable culture. All promising new fruits should be imported, and their value for this colony be ascertained. Records of the behaviour of each variety should be made from season to season : this, in time, will form a page 5 most valuable record of the commercial value of the variety. As in the American experimental stations, the head station would from time to time make arrangements with reliable persons to test varieties in their districts, and thus a mass of valuable information on that matter would be ascertained at little expense.
The nomenclature of our fruits is in great confusion, and causes no small loss to our orchardists. The loss occurs in this way : A man makes up his mind to go into fruit-culture, and he visits some orchards in the district where he intends to settle, and, finding certain varieties doing exceedingly well, he wisely determines to plant largely of that variety or varieties, and he orders from the nurseryman several hundred trees, perhaps, of those choice and profitable kinds. He plants and cultivates carefully, and in three or four years his trees begin to bear; when he finds, to his great disappointment and loss, the variety is something quite different to what he expected, and, probably, in comparison, nearly worthless. I write feelingly on this matter, as time after time have I experienced this loss, and I think every orchardist in the colony who grows a few acres of fruit can bear me out in this matter. Owing to the confusion at present existing in the names of our fruits there is hardly any dependence to be placed on getting kinds true to name. The standard collection at the head experimental station would in a short time do much towards putting this matter straight, and be very valuable as a reference by which the names of doubtful origin might be verified by comparing the fruit with that on the standard trees. Scions in limited quantity would be available for nurserymen and others desiring them.
When the experimental station is established, the importation of cuttings, trees, or fruits from countries where pests exist, from which this colony is at present free, should be prohibited, except such importations of new varieties as the Government might make from time to time, under proper quarantine precautions. This is of the greatest importance, as, although we suffer from a number of troublesome pests, yet there are a great many more, and very serious pests too, in other countries, from which this colony is at present free—for instance, the dreaded "peach yellows" of the Eastern States of America, a most infectious and fatal disease, from which a tree once attacked has never been known to recover; it has done millions of dollars' worth of damage to the peach-growing industry there. Then, there is the curculio weevil, which destroys the plum, apricot, and nectarine crops in the United States; also, a borer insect which ruins many peach-trees, and quite a large number of destructive scale-insects, which do great damage not only to the orange and lemon, but also to all deciduous fruits. In Australia there are also many destructive insects from which this colony is at present free—for instance, the curve-winged apple-moth, apple-tree borer beetle, apple-root borer, the apple beetle, the Rutherglen fly, cherry borer, &c. I consider an immediate effort to protect the colony from the importation of any more pests is of great importance to the fruit industry. The work of the experimental station would have a large field of usefulness before it in the experimental study of stocks. The most profitable stocks on which to grow the many varieties of fruit is a subject which has as yet received but small at- page 6 tention, but which offers a large field of investigation. The insect and fungus enemies of our fruit trees and vines call for more effectual, cheaper, and more easily-applied remedies than we at present possess. Experiments in this direction would form no inconsiderable part of the station's work. The study of the life-history and means of destruction of any other noxious pests that may from time to time appear; the effects of various manures, varied styles of pruning, and methods of preserving various fruits—these and other subjects of study and experiment would all come within the sphere of usefulness of a well-regulated horticultural experimental station.
Another matter which has come under my notice is the want of typical collections of the different varieties of fruit grown in the colony, modelled and coloured to nature, in order to enable the fruit-growers to arrive at some correct system of nomenclature.
In conclusion, I may say the recognition of horticultural interests by the Government has already created considerable interest, as manifested by the number of visitors bent on inquiry, and the letters seeking information that are coming in; and it not only has the effect of assuring the fruit-growers of the appreciation of their wants as a class by our public men, but also of securing to them many beneficial results in the near future.
L. Hanlon, Pomologist.The Secretary for Agriculture.
Report on Apples Exported Per S.S. "Tainui."
5th March, 1892.
I have the honour to report that I watched the shipment of apples consigned by the above-named steamer from Auckland to London in order to note what improvements in packing, handling, stowing of fruit, and arrangement of cool-chambers might be effected.
The s.s. "Tainui" had two small chambers provided for fruit, which held between them some 2,300 cases, some hundreds of cases being shut out for want of room. Fortunately another steamer was in Auckland at the time, and took those cases.
I found the chambers provided clean and sweet. The floor of one was wet: at my suggestion sawdust was spread on it to absorb the moisture.
A great defect was at once apparent, no means of ventilation being provided for the exit of the carbonic-acid gas given off from the fruit. The chambers are closed by air-tight doors, and a great part of the fruit must necessarily remain in a stagnant bath of gas, which must damage it more or less. There may be a little circulation at the top of the chambers caused by the ingress and egress of the cold air, but, owing to the greater weight of the carbonic-acid gas, this draught cannot descend to the bottom of the chamber: page 7 were the cold-air trunks placed on the floor, instead of at the roofs of the chambers, they would no doubt draw off the gas.
Another defect is, that, while the chambers are insulated to prevent heat from entering from outside, the cold-air trunks that pass through the chambers, conveying air at a temperature of from 30° to 60° below zero, are simply made of inch timber, and have no insulation to prevent this extreme cold from penetrating and freezing the fruit stowed close to the trunks. Certainly battens were placed between the trunks and the cases, but that I consider insufficient. At my suggestion some old canvas was placed over the cases immediately in front and below the vent-holes by which the cold air gains access to the chambers, in order to prevent the air playing upon and freezing the fruit in the case immediately in front of the hole, and also to catch the snow which occasionally blows through and falls on the case under the hole.
In the foregoing I think I have found the cause of every here and there a case in the London sales catalogues being marked "frost-bitten," and selling for two or three shillings, when others are bringing 12s. to 18s. Another defect in the cooling is that the chambers are only cooled from one side: in consequence the temperature is much higher—from 10° to 20°—at the side of the chamber where the air finds egress into the return trunks, than it is at the other side of the chamber. It would be an improvement if the cold air could be admitted at either side alternately. In my opinion an entire change in the method of cooling chambers for the safe conveyance of both fruit and cheese is required, which change I think should be in the direction of ventilating-fans circulating a large body of cool air, 40° Fahr., through the chamber, and not, as at present, forcing in a small quantity of freezing air 30° or 40° below-zero, with the object of gradually cooling the mass of stagnant air and gas in the chamber.
Stowing the Fruit.
The stevedore whom I inspected stowing the fruit on the "Tainui" used his best endeavours to make the chambers hold as many cases as possible. He had some difficulty, owing to several-sized cases being shipped, but he succeeded in packing the chamber full to the roof. This proved a great mistake, as the engineer found he was unable to get the temperature down to the desired point, 40° Fahr.—this in consequence of no space being left for the air to circulate above the stack of fruit. During the trip from Auckland to Wellington one chamber was got down to 50° Fahr.; but the other could not be reduced below 63° Fahr.
Fortunately the vessel did not proceed on her voyage direct after taking in the fruit, so, on reaching Wellington the chambers were opened, and the stack of fruit taken down, and re-stowed in a way to leave some space at the top.
It is evident that a space must be left between the top of the stack of fruit and the roof of the chamber—say, 4in. to 6in.—for the free circulation of the cold air.
Captain Babot, Marine Superintendent of the Shaw-Savill Company, has had so much trouble with this shipment that he will take page 8 care in future that the chambers are not stowed too full. The s.s. "Kaikoura," now loading at Auckland, has not hitherto carried fruit. I have advised the chief engineer, chief officer, and the marine superintendent of the New Zealand Shipping Company on the stowing of the fruit, so that difficulty will not occur in that vessel. They also, to some extent, insulated the cold-air trunks before leaving Wellington by sheathing them with thick felt and fixing battens on the outside.
Handling the Fruit.
Great improvement is wanted in the way in which fruit is handled at the port of shipment. The knocking-about in the various handlings it receives while being carted and transhipped makes it almost a wonder that any of it should reach market in good condition.
The average lumper seems unable to comprehend that anything should be put down gently; with him every case is dropped with a jar sufficient to bruise much of the contents, and when fruit transhipped from coastal steamers receives eight or ten jars in course of being put on board the direct steamer, much of it must be seriously damaged. When passed on board fruit should be passed from hand to hand, and not put down with more or less of a jar by each man. When slung on board or out of coastal steamers, rope slings should on no account be used, as they almost invariably crush two cases in each slingful. I would recommend a canvas sling—a modified form of the kind used for frozen sheep—as likely to meet the want of an improved sling for fruit.
It is very desirable that one uniform size of case be adopted. As yet there is but little uniformity. By the s.s. "Tainui" some five or six shapes were sent. The largest number, and undoubtedly the best cases, forwarded were the American-shaped cases: measurements—ends, 11in. by 12in., inch stuff; tops and bottoms, one piece, 12in. by 20in., 3/8in. stuff; sides in two pieces, 6in. by 20in., 3/8in. stuff; clean-sawn kahikatea tops, bottoms, and sides; the end pieces planed. This case is easier to handle than the flat case; it is also economical in price, in freight, and easier to pack than the flat case, and holds the same quantity of fruit. The saving in cost on a hundred cases, American shape, is 9s. 5d., and the saving in freight at present rate on a hundred of the same is 40s. I would advise every shipper of apples in the colony to adopt this as the standard export case for New Zealand; it would then soon become known on the London market as the New Zealand case, in contradistinction to the flat Tasmanian case.
Generally the cases are supplied by the timber mills to the growers in the flat, ready to nail together, but sometimes growers or packers in the vicinity of the mills prefer to get the cases ready made up. Such cases I found were very slightly nailed—indeed, they were so badly put together that quite a number of the lids fell off on the cases being lifted from the wagons in which they were brought to the ship's side. This brings me to another point—the
Having no authority to open for examination the cases of fruit being shipped, I had no means of judging of the quality; but when the tops fell off some cases I was then enabled to examine the contents of those cases, and I much regret to report that in one instance at least apples were packed that were utterly unfit for export. How the shipper could expect a profitable return for such fruit is more than one can comprehend. The variety was Reinette du Canada, the fruit small and inferior; in addition, about one apple out of every three was so misshaped, cracked, and blemished as to be rendered quite unfit for sale.
This I think a matter of great moment, and one calculated to do much injury to this young industry, the shipper of such inferior fruit not only damaging his own brand, but likewise blemishing the good name that New Zealand fruit has already made for itself in the London market. If this pernicious practice prevails to any extent it is hopeless to expect to gain the premier position in the English fruit market, which experts, who have been highly-pleased with the trial-shipments of previous years, have promised us.
In the other cases which I examined the fruit was of good quality, but no attempt at grading was apparent, large and small being packed in the same case. The London fruiterers prefer, and will pay a higher price for, fruit graded to an even size. It is a somewhat difficult matter sometimes to pack tightly with fruit of one size. When such is the case a few smaller fruit are admissible to finish off the ends of rows. Very few cases were packed so tight as not to move when the ease was shaken. This was to be expected, as a large number of the cases had been packed for two, some three, weeks before shipment: this was owing to uncertainty in the movements of the direct steamers. As all fruit shrinks a little after being picked, it was to be expected that cases which doubtless were tight when packed should shake a little two weeks afterwards; but some lots just packed were observed to be very loose. In some cases there was a space of 2in. between the fruit and the top of the case. I fear such will be badly bruised ere reaching market. As to the packing, almost all had the apples rolled up separately in white tissue-paper. Some, in addition, had the eases lined with paper, while the tightest and best-packed lot I saw was one which, in addition to the above, had a handful or two of paper-shavings, such as accumulate in a publisher's workshop, spread at bottom and top of case. This was a good idea, the shavings serving as a spring-buffer, and saving the fruit from many a bruising jar.
In conclusion, I am of opinion that in order to foster the fruit-export industry it would be advisable to have the shipments, for a time at least, superintended by an expert, in order to prevent rough handling, which is fatal to such tender produce as fruit. If I am in the service of your department next shipping season I shall make it my duty to undertake this work as far as possible. In case of steamers loading fruit at distant ports at or about the same time, I should endeavour to get some competent person to undertake the work when I was unable to be present.
Some growers seem to think it would be much for the benefit of page 10 the industry if the Government were to inspect all fruit shipped, and brand all that was of a standard quality with a Government brand; but I fail to see how this idea can be worked. First, it would cause great loss of time, opening and branding each lot as it was brought forward; secondly, considerable damage to cases and fruit would most certainly occur; thirdly, it would entail considerable expenditure without, I fear, an adequate return.
I have much more faith in the establishment of active fruitgrowers' associations in all the centres of fruit-culture, one of the duties of such associations being to inspect and work up to a high standard of quality all the fruit shipped by the members of such associations. This with the assistance of your fruit expert, it being part of his duties to visit and confer with the secretaries and members of all associations on the best methods of preparing fruit for export, and giving demonstration of picking, packing, &c., and so organizing that eventually these associations may meet in conference in the chief centres of population for the purpose of furthering the industry by co-operation in every way. When they have attained a fairly uniform standard of quality, then a registered brand might be given to each association for the use of its members.
The chief work of fruit-growers' associations devolves upon the secretary. Hitherto the office has been an honorary one; but, as it is unfair to expect a man to devote much of his time without remuneration, it would be a great encouragement if a small subsidy, of, say, £10, were granted to each association representing at least fifty acres of orchard.
In other colonies the Governments have granted considerable amounts for the encouragement of horticulture, in the shape of a bonus on each case of fruit exported, and grants to the horticultural societies. In my opinion the colony may attain as good, if not better, results by far less expenditure on the lines here indicated. The encouraging of these associations as a method of fostering the fruit industry is of the greatest importance, and I hope it will receive consideration from you.
When the bulk of the fruit exported from this colony is sent under a registered brand buyers will be chary of purchasing lots without the brand, and this alone would soon cause the careless packer to mend his ways, or cease shipping. Inferior fruit simply aids in depressing markets, and interferes seriously with the sale of good fruit, and it is neither profitable to the shipper nor creditable to the colony.
Lionel Hanlon,Instructor in Fruit-culture. The Hon. the Minister of Lands and Agriculture.
P.S.—I attach copy of letter I wrote to the New Zealand Herald, re shipment of fruit per ss. "Tainui."—L. H.
Fruit Export and Packing.
If this young industry is to become permanent and profitable to our land, a few hours' inspection of the fruit being shipped by the steamer "Tainui" has shown me that much greater care in several ways must be exercised by the shippers. In the first place most of the cases put on board to-day were quite unfit to carry the fruit safely, being nailed together so slightly that on being lifted several of the lids fell off, being only tacked on with 1½in. shingle-nails, instead of 2in. stout wire nails, such as all lids nailed to the end of the grain should be fastened with. These cases were not being handled roughly—in fact, every care was being exercised, yet in about an hour five lids fell off, and the contents were damaged so as to render them unfit to ship. I am informed that these cases were supplied by the timber companies ready made up. I would draw the attention of the managers of those companies to these remarks—namely, that, while the timber of the cases is all that could be desired, they are put together in a manner uncreditable to the company and quite unfitted to the purpose for which they are intended. So much for the cases. Now, with regard to the fruit that rolled out, the most casual observer could not help seeing that this fruit was not such as would be considered first-class by any means. Indeed, I must say that the fruit that came out of one of these cases was quite unfit to export, there being apparently no attempt to grade the fruit to anything approaching uniform size; and, worse than that, about one out of every three of the apples I saw from this case of Reinette du Canadas was badly blemished by the bronze beetle and in other ways, such as loss of stalk, rubbing against branches on the tree, and so on. A great deal of unnecessary paper also seemed to be crammed into the cases. London buyers expect a case to be full of apples, and not to find the space that should be occupied by half a dozen apples to contain only paper. I know well how difficult it sometimes is, with a lot of well-graded fruit, just to exactly fill a case, and how, with a half-inch to spare at one end, a bit of paper is useful to wedge all tight; but with ungraded fruit such as I saw, with care small apples can always be found to fill the small spaces that large fruit do not readily adapt themselves to. I do not know how the shipper of this fruit could expect it to realise a satisfactory return; but I must say, and regret to say it, that if much fruit like the sample that came from the case in question is sent to London, it will very soon seriously damage the good name that New Zealand fruit has already made for itself. Growers and pickers, see to it that you ship only first-class fruit. The expenses on a case of poor fruit are just as great as on a case of good.
Now, a word to the carters and lumpers, and I am done. Do not, like good fellows, handle this fruit roughly, by letting the cases drop or jar in any way that you can help. Do not say to yourself or any one else, "What the d I do I care! it's nothing to me;" but just think for a moment (you can all think, I have no doubt) that this fruit export is like a new-born babe, it needs a lot of tender care and nursing if bruised and knocked about while in its infancy page 12 it will be crippled for life, and that life will be a short one, but if treated with care it will grow large and strong, and give you days and weeks—aye, months and years—of good honest work. So, men, do your share of the nursing, and handle these cases of fruit like you would new-born babies.
Trusting that these remarks may help in their small way this young industry,
Hints to Colonial Fruit-Exporters.
Our London correspondent, writing on the 16th April, says,—
Mr. L. Hanlon's letter in your journal a few weeks ago, warning fruit growers and packers to "see to it that you ship only first-class fruit; the expense on a case of poor fruit is just as great as on a case of fine fruit," and to "handle these cases of fruit like you would new-born babes," was very opportune, and had his judicious advice been followed the first cargoes of fruit received from New Zealand this season would have turned out more remunerative than they have done. They afford a practical illustration of what he means. Nearly every case has been gathered before the apples were suitable for eating, and the consequence is that the colour and flavour, as well as size—all qualities essential to good prices—are far below last year's produce. There are great complaints among buyers of the lack of that flavour which formerly was so tempting a characteristic of New Zealand fruit, and which largely contributed to the eagerness with which the apples were sought for. It is useless gathering unripe fruit and sending it here, expecting the flavour and bloom to develop on the voyage. The result is, the apples are soft, and inclined to woolliness, with a distinctly unripe flavour attaching to them. They also have a partially-shrivelled appearance, which does not at all add to their attractiveness. In addition to this deterioration in quality, the condition of all New Zealand apples which have arrived this season is very poor. This is due to two causes. The codlin-moth has committed great ravages, and in many cases over 50 per cent, of the apples are worm-eaten. This is a defect that care in selection before packing could easily have removed. The worm-holes are as visible in New Zealand as in London, and all fruit thus affected should be kept at home, as a few worm-eaten apples destroy the value of a whole case. The prices of the "Ionic's" cargo are ample proof of the poor condition of the apples. The bulk of them realised about 8s. or 9s. Some cases were sold as low as 4s. One case of fine fruit was sold for 20s., thus illustrating the doctrine that fine-quality apples in London will always realise high prices. In the case of the "Ruapehu's" apples the condition complained of above was aggravated by the temperature to which they were subjected during the voyage. To all appearance they were not kept sufficiently cool. In many of the cases fully half were rotten, and many were black as balls of soot, and dry as can be. The porters who unloaded them from the ship's hold declare the page 13 cases were quite warm when handled, and the appearance of the fruit fully bears out this statement. No doubt many of the apples that were found to be rotten were bruised before or during packing. This is a matter requiring the greatest care, as fermentation rapidly spreads from bruises, and contaminates the whole case. Apples require very careful gathering from the trees, and should be packed there and then into the cases, care of course being taken as to their being perfectly dry. Some of the cases when opened looked as if the lids were forced down by great pressure, as it frequently happens every apple on one side of a case has a flattened face. There appears to be more care in grading the sizes and colours than last year, but there is much room for improvement in this matter. The small size of many of the apples sent will always prevent them from realising paying prices. Large and highly-coloured apples always find a ready sale. Of course, colour does not matter so much for cooking varieties; but it is a valuable quality even for this purpose. Cooking-apples should be large and evenly graded for size, and then they will pay for sending. The condition of some of the "Ruapehu's" apples may be gauged by the fact that a hundred boxes sold for less than 3d. a box. Buyers are hoping that the next cargo will be far better than the present, or low prices will be the rule. The salesmen have been doing their best to get good prices, some refusing to sell a box for less than 10s., and have still a large quantity on their hands. The Tasmanian apples this year are open to much of the same criticism as the New Zealand; but good cases of these have averaged 15s. to 17s. 6d., while New Zealand cases must average at least 7s. 6d. a case lower.
I append the remarks contained in the circular of the New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Company upon the fruit, as they largely bear out my own independent inquiries : "Shipments have been received from New Zealand by the 'Ionic,' 'Otarama,' and 'Ruapehu,' aggregating 1,962 cases of apples. We regret to have to report that the majority was landed more or less out of condition. This, in the opinion of those conversant with the trade, is owing, for the most part, to their having been subjected to an unsuitable temperature on the voyage. Another cause assigned for the unfortunate outturn of these shipments is the presence of worm in the fruit, due to growers having neglected to take proper precautions for the destruction of the codlin-moth. Shippers would do well to consign to this market only the very finest fruit, in perfect condition. The ranges of prices obtained was, for the 'Ionic' shipments, from 4s. per case to 20s. per case (the latter price being paid for one case of fine showy fruit in sound condition); for the 'Otarama' shipments, from 5s. per case to 12s. 6d. per case; and for the ' Ruapehu ' shipments, from 1s. per case to 6s. 6d. per case. It was not possible to bring the 'Ruapehu' apples to market until the 11th instant, and on the same day the first arrivals of Tasmanian, per 'Victoria,' were offered. The 'Victoria ' landed her cargo in excellent condition, and very full prices, ranging from 10s. per case to 17s. 6d. per case, were obtained."
By Authority: George Didsbury, Government Printer, Wellington,—1802.