Report of the Land Nationalisation Society.
Printed for the Land Nationalisation Society, and Published by them at the Office, 57, Charing Cross, London, S.W.
- Alfred Russel Wallace, LL.D., F.R.G.S., Frith Hill, Godalming.
- Desmond G. Fitzgerald.
- E. D. Girdlestone, B.A., Oxon.
- Professor F. W. Newman.
- Miss Helen Taylor.
- William Volckman.
- Francis L. Soper, F.L.S.
- William Jameson.
Assistant Hon. Secretary.
- C. A. Windust.
Hon. Financial Secretary.
- H. G. Moberly.
- Rev. J. D. Alford.
- F. Gilmore Barnett.
- H. H. Hood Barrs, LL.B.
- Rev. S. E. Bengough.
- F. A. Binney (Manchester).
- *D. Brodie, M.D.
- *S. M. Burroughs.
- *E. T. Craig (of Ralahine).
- David Crichton.
- *T. W. Rhys Davids, LL.D.
- R. S. Dick, M.D.
- P. R. Domoney, M. S'mpton S.B.
- Rev. T. G. Dyke.
- Col. J. M. Earle.
- *T. H. Elliott.
- A. Halstead (Harrogate).
- *E. Hatzfeld.
- *H. Hutchinson (Derby)
- Spencer Jackson.
- Rev. E. Pan Jones, Ph.D. (Mostyn).
- *George J. Knight.
- H. W. Ley.
- B. Lucraft, M.L.S.B.
- Charles Mackay, LL.D.
- * Mrs. Minns.
- Ernest Morley,.
- R. Owen.
- J. A. Parker.
- Chas. Peach.
- Rev. W. H. Ratcliff, M.A.
- W. Reeves.
- *W. Reynolds.
- Edgar Robinson (Isle of Man).
- Lt.-Col. W. A. Ross, F.G.S.
- H. S. Salt.
- Rev. T. Travers Sherlock, M.A. (Smethwick).
- A. P. Snodgrass.
- *A. C. Swinton.
- T. W. Taunton.
- Mrs. W. Tebb.
- J. Turle, M.D.
- J. F. Walker (Birmingham).
- J. Whyte (Inverness).
- *Charles Wicksteed (Kettering).
- S. D. Williams (Malvern).
Those marked with an * and the Officers constitute the Executive Committee.
June 29th, 1886.
It is with much regret we have to announce that since the Annual Meeting, our late Treasurer, Mr. A. C. Swinton, has been compelled, by ill health and defective sight, to relinquish active duties for a while. He still remains a member of the Council with undiminished interest in the Society's work, and will, we hope, at not a distant date, resume his accustomed activity in the cause.
Fifth Annual Meeting of the Land Nationalisation Society,
Mr. Wallace began by remarking that there were several indications of the essential principles of Land Nationalisation having made progress in quarters where it had hitherto been received with little favour. He instanced Mr. Jesse Colling's Allotment and Small Holdings Bill, which, he was informed, was now modified so that local authorities were no longer empowered to sell the freehold of land to occupiers, but were in all cases to retain a perpetual ground rent equivalent to about half its nominal value. This may be considered to ensure that the occupier shall always be owner of the tenant-right and pay a rental for the bare land at a low valuation.
Mr. Bradlaugh's Land Cultivation Bill adopted the principle that the State should take possession of all lands which had been a allowed to go out of cultivation, paying the landlords the rental for 25 years as full compensation, and thereafter letting (not selling) the land to working cultivators
It is worthy of note in this connection that under the old Saxon law of England "the mere neglect to cultivate or inhabit the land involved its confiscation to the King's hand," and that this law was continued during feudal times is shown by the fact stated by Hume in his History of England, "that in the year 1634 Sir Anthony Roper was fined £4,000 for depopulation or turning arable land into pasture land, under the provisions oi a law enacted in the reign of Henry VIII." It would be well if some of our legal authorities would ascertain whether this or similar laws cannot; be put in force against landlords who are now yearly turning thousands of acres of arable land into pasture, and thus depopulating the country. *
* The statements as to these laws are taken from a pamphlet, "Land Lessons, Irish Parliaments, and Constitutional Criticisms," by Clio. James Duffy & Sons 1, Paternoster Row.
As an instance of the extraordinary carelessness with which people write upon the laud question he might mention, that, in last month's issue of the Nineteenth Century there was an article by Lady Verney who quoted a French economic writer, M. Lafargue, as follows, as regards the peasant proprietors of France:—"There are ten millions of small proprietors in France who, with their families, consume as much as they produce; they eke out a scanty subsistence, and vegetate miserably, condemned by their voluntary isolation to a labour as severe as it is unproductive. The condition of agriculture brought about by our subdivision of the land, and the distance from each other of the morsels belonging to one owner, condemn a man to work such as animals and machines ought to execute; and not only reduces him to the level of a beast, but curses the soil with sterility..... Three millions of the small proprietors are on the pauper list of France."
Now it had never struck Lady Vernon or the editor of the Nineteenth Century that such a state of things was absolutely impossible. Ten millions of proprietors and their families would amount to 87,000,000, the total population of France being 86,900,000! The real number of peasant proprietors was about three millions.*
Mr. Wallace then suggested that what they required in the future would be to get some members of Parliament to put forward preliminary resolutions or motions, or to bring in bills something to this effect. The first should be a resolution that no land the property of the State should be ever sold or permanently alienated. Hitherto the practice had been just the reverse. Secondly, that all manorial rights should become the property of the State, holders being compensated on a fair basis. It would be a comparatively easy and small operation on the basis of the actual net proceeds. Thirdly, that all Crown, State, Municipal, or Corporation lands should be let out in small holdings on our principle—that is, at a quit-rent for the bare land, the tenant to purchase the improvements, and the quit-rent to be revised at long periods. If that was applied to the Crown lands, Municipal lands, and vast Corporation lands, especially in Ireland, it would at once throw open a large area of land on which the experiment of Land Nationalisation could be tried. Fourthly, the total abolition of the Game Laws, which not only create crime, but keep land out of cultivation, and set up a barrier against land reform. He would further suggest that a memorial, or petition, should be got up to the effect that, in any proposal for buying out the Irish landlords, the land should be retained by the State to let out at quit-rents on a permanent tenure. This would lay down the general principle that the State should never alienate the land of the country whenever it has been in any way obtained by the State.
* Average 3.71 to a household-37 millions proprietors-rather more than total Population! 1 Total population, 36,900,000.
The actual peasant-proprietors of France are about 2½ millions, and this is perhaps an over-estimate, because those having land in different communes will often be counted twice.
Mr. Wallace then made some remarks on the mode of compensating landlords by means of terminable annuities, which he had first suggested, and which had been adopted by the Society. He had found by conversation with many intelligent persons not opposed to the principle of Land Nationalisation, that there was a great objection to this method as being opposed to popular ideas of giving full value for the land, and also of giving the landlords a marketable security which it was thought a terminable annuity would not be. His attention had just been called to this subject by reading Mr. Wicksteed's able book, "The Land for the People," in which that gentleman had suggested a mode of dealing with the landlords more acceptable perhaps to the bulk of the middle and upper classes than the mode their Society had advocated. Mr. Wick-steed proposed that the landlords should be paid in bonds, bearing 3½ per cent, interest at 30 years' purchase of their ground rents, and he showed very clearly from the past history of the increased value of ground rents in this country that, from their steady increase in value, which there was no reason to believe would stop, these bonds could be bought up and altogether paid off in 40 years, supposing the increase went on as at present, namely, at the rate of two per cent, per annum. That was a point of the greatest importance. If we gave 2-5 years' purchase it would be done still more easily, and if we took a little longer term, say 50 or 60 years, we might get year by year a large decrease of taxation; and you would have what you specially want, viz., the means of showing the people that, though you pay the Landlords the full market value of the land, the result would be that, owing to the continuous increase in the value of the land, they would be able, by paying off these bonds, to extinguish the debt altogether in a comparatively short period—say of two generations—and at the same time year by year reduce taxation, and at last, when the debt was all paid off, the whole of the ground rents would become the property of the State and serve in lieu of taxation altogether.
From the report of the last Agricultural Commission he found that considerable pains had been taken to ascertain the real cost of management of great estates and it was stated that it varied from 15 to 20 and sometimes 80 per cent. It was, therefore, not the actual rental of the land the landlords would require to be compensated for, but the net rental, viz.—the rental less this percentage. The State would receive the rents, less say 2 per cent, for collection, and the balance, after paying the landlord's interest, would be clear profit and go to reduce taxation. The system of terminable annuities was always objected to as giving a temporary instead of a permanent security. If by adopting Mr. Wicksteeds plan we could do away with this objection by giving the landlords consols and yet pay them off in 40 or 50 years we should get all the benefits of Land Nationalisation even more certainly and quickly than by the present scheme of the Society.page 6
"First. Value the ground rental of the country (by ground rental I mean the rent of the land), without buildings or removable improvements."
"Second. Compensate the landowners by giving them Government bonds to the amount of 30 times the ground rent, bearing a fixed interest of 3½ per cent, per annum, which would be the amount of the ground rent. *.... No money would pass, but the owner of the bonds could, of course, sell them to private individuals, just as he might have been able to sell his land before."
"Third. As the land was valued and the bonds were given to the landowners, the land so valued would fall under the control of Land Boards to be created, or of some local body already in existence. These bodies would collect the rents and pay the interest on the bonds through the Imperial exchequer."
"Fourth. Assuming that the rent would increase, devote any excess over the original amount of interest to the redemption of the bonds.
"Fifth. As the bonds are paid off, use the interest thus set free, not in redeeming the bonds but in relieving taxation, pp. 8, 9. (Mr. Wicksteed goes on to show that rents, taking town and country together), have always been increasing during the last 300 years, that they have increased with great rapidity during the last fifty years, and must continue to do so while population grows; that they will increase more rapidly than ever if our industries are liberated by the Nationalisation of Land. But assuming the increase of rents during the past 10 years to be the normal one in the future, then the Nation's liability, by his method, will be extinguished in 10 years, an immense reduction of general taxation going on the meanwhile. Assuming, however, that the increase be only half this, still the Nation's liability will cease in 71 years.
"Mr. Giffen takes the judical rent to be £8,000,000, equivalent, at 20 years' purchase, to a capital of £160,000,000. Why should not the Irish Government, when constituted, create the requisite amount of Irish three per cent. Consols, transfer the stock to the landlords in discharge of all claims, and make the agricultural soil of Ireland national property.
"The interest charge on £160,000,000 at 3 per cent, is £4,800,000. A rental of £8,000,000 leaves a big margin for redemption by sinking fund. One per cent, or £1,600,000, just half the surplus, would cancel the entire debt in less than fifty years. The debt redeemed, the rents would become a substantial unencumbered addition to the Irish revenue. I adduce Mr. Giffen's figures, without adopting them, merely to show how the scheme would work financially."
"For the landlords the terms suggested would be less favourable than those contained in Mr. Gladstone's Land Bill by just the difference in value between English and Irish credit."
"The tenure of land in Ireland is based on confiscation in the past. The landowners of to-day, although not responsible for that past, owe their inheritance to it. It is impossible they should altogether escape the Nemesis of wrongs upon which their entire claim for compensation ultimately rests.
* For the re-assurance of those who may regard these terms as too liberal to the landholders, Mr. Wicksteed stated at the Society's Annual General Meeting that he by no means bound himself to the proportions here indicated. These marked the limits of national generosity. Any reduction in these terms would, of course, hasten the process of Land Nationalisation.
Again, our new treasurer, Mr. Soper, in his tract on "Landlordism: What it is; What it does; and what should be done with it," makes an almost identical proposal by compensating landlords by means of bonds which will give them an income equal to their rentals, less costs of management and losses from bad tenants and bad seasons.
"Here we have a remarkable identity of plans proposed by three original thinkers. It is more in accordance with general public opinion than our plan, it will enlist in its favour a large body of the upper and the commercial classes who have an almost superstitious regard for what they consider to be a permanent and negotiable security; and as we can give them this and retain all the essential advantages of our plan, I certainly think it will be true wisdom and sound policy to adopt it. As the originator of this plan of terminable annuities I may be supposed to look upon it with some parental affection; but the success of Land Nationalization is more to me than any scheme, and as I feel that this success will be ensured by the adoption of State Land Bonds or Consols in lieu of terminable rentals to compensate landlords, I willingly sacrifice my weakly offspring for the public good, and I strongly recommend the Society to make this alteration in its programme."
Mr. Wallace then announced his proposed lecture tour to America and Australia, which would necessitate his absence at the next Annual Meeting—a matter of little importance to the Society, as there were several talented Vice-Presidents who would worthily occupy his place.
The Society earnestly desires to enlarge the area of its work, but the vigour of its action depends upon the financial means at its disposal. Special appeal is therefore made to all who realise that the extent of the Nation's trade depression and perilous pauperism is primarily due to the existing system of land tenure, Reformers are invited to give effect to their convictions either by personal effort in connection with the Society, or by such pecuniary aid as they can afford to give it.
Concurrence with the Society's principle of Land Nationalisation, and Annual Subscription to its funds, are the conditions of membership. A Donation of £5 5s., or more, confers Life membership.
Remittances may be sent to the Treasurer, F. L. Soper, Esq., 57, Charing Cross, London, W. Cheques to be crossed "London and County Bank, Covent Garden." P.O. Orders to be made payable at Bedford Street, W.C.
All who are interested (and who are not?) in Land Law Reform are cordially invited to become members of the Society, and to assist it in the formation of Branches. Copies of the Society's detailed Scheme Rules, and other Literature may be had on application.
The Council, as far as possible, supply Lecturers where friends find a Chairman and a Public Room, and are always glad to hear from those willing to co-operate in the movement.page 8
"The first thing the Student has to do, is to get rid of the idea of absolute ownership. Such an idea is quite unknown in English law. No man in the law is the absolute owner of his lands. He can only hold an estate in them."
—Williams. (Real Property. 12th ed., p. 17.)
"No man made the land; it is the original inheritance of the whole species! The land of every country belongs to the people of that country."
—John Stuart Mill. (Political Economy.)
From the sudden and unavoidable circumstances referred to at the last Annual Meeting, an officially audited Financial Statement could not then be presented. On the present occasion, therefore, Balance Sheets for the last two years are submitted, showing for 1884-5 gross receipts to the amount of £256 15s. 5½d., and for l885-6 to the amount of £188 2s., with a Balance in the Treasurer's hands on the 31st of May of £58 14s. 7d. The able services that the Executive relied upon having rendered by Mr. A. McDonnell, as Hon. Secretary, wholly ceased more than thirteen months since through the pressure of his personal interests, which still prevent him from doing any work for the Society.
In consequence of the heavy expenditure incurred by the Society during the last General Election, and the unfavourable state of the times for financial support to any public work, the Executive accepted the resignation of the Assistant Secretary, Mr. R. B. Holt, last February, and since then all the Society's work has again been voluntarily carried on. In stating this the Executive record their sense of the earnestness and devotion of Mr. Holt in the cause of Land Nationalisation.
Lectures and Addresses.
Either by means of the Press, or by correspondence, and the circulation of literature—which have hitherto been the Society's three main modes of Educational action-no opportunity has been lost of appealing to every one who has, within the knowledge of the Executive, shown an open spirit to thorough Land Reform. But the concentration of public interest on Parliamentary subjects during the past twelve months, to a large extent diverted attention from the essential Land Reform movement; and, thereby, the number of Lectures delivered on behalf of the Society, although somewhat more than that of last year, has been less than it otherwise would have been. The necessitated absence abroad of Miss Helen Taylor has also further lessened the Society's work in this direction. Since the last Annual Meeting the number of Lectures delivered is twenty two, as follows:—Miss Helen Taylor, 1, at Clay Cross; the Rev. T. G. Dyke, 3, at Margate; A. Halstead, 1, at Harrogate; R. B. Holt, 4, at Maidstone, Camberwell, Southampton, and Croydon; H. Hutchinson, 1, at Burton on-Trent; W. Jameson, 10, at the Eleusis Club, Chelsea, at Camden Town, Hackney, Hammersmith, and various other clubs and societies; the liev. Dr. E. Pan Jones, in South Wales; T. W. Taunton, 1, at Manor Park, and C. W. Windust, 1, at South Bermondsey.
From Wales we have frequent and pressing enquiry, but until the General Election is over, a thorough campaign there is improbable. In February last Mr. Michael Davitt delivered several powerful addresses in favour of Land Nationalisation; three of the Society's officers also did what they could to further the cause there, as two of them are still doing. The Rev. Dr. E. Pan Jones, whose recent lecture is mentioned above, is also frequently addressing audiences on the subject, and as our Literature is being judiciously circulated (its translation into Welsh has been proposed), we fully hope to see prolific results in the Principality, page 9 where the fact that 540 landlords monopolise sixty per cent, of Welsh soil is being thoughtfully considered by those who are the users of it.
From the list of our Members and ablest Honorary Lecturers we have very regretfully to record the loss of Mr. Lloyd Jones, whose decease occurred on the 22nd ulto. As one of the foremost advocates of the co-operative movement, he was also one of the earliest and most energetic representatives of our cause.
Believing that work could be more economically and rapidly done by appointing District Hon. Secretaries till sufficient strength existed in a locality for a vigorous Branch, the Executive have selected the best representatives they could find throughout the country, and some forty District Hon. Secretaries have been appointed, instead of fresh Branches. Several of these gentlemen have been doing effective secretarial work through the local Press and otherwise, and it is hoped that this mode of action may be largely extended.
In view of the last General Election, early preparation was made to extend the influence of the Society's literature. A pamphlet, entitled "State Tenants versus Freeholders," was written by our President, showing the great political advantages to all, and especially to small Freeholders and the agricultural labourer, of Land Nationalisation over so called "Free Trade in Land." Two leaflets were also prepared. The first is entitled the "Six Points of the People's Land Charter," being a popular abridgment of the Society's programme. The second is a "Resolution," being a statement, with authorities appended, of the great fact that the absolute ownership of land by a subject, is now, and has always been, expressly denied by the law of the country.
These publications, together with those already on our list, have been widely circulated. Altogether, upwards of 310,000 leaflets and tracts have been distributed during the twelve months.
Parliamentary and Public Action.
The Resolution leaflet, already named, has, we believe, been of considerable service to the cause of Land Nationalisation during the General Election. It was sent to all Parliamentary Candidates, to 900 Clubs, and to 150 leading Newspapers. The "Saturday Review" devoted a column and a half to its condemnation; a cheering fact, which we venture to regard as prophetic of the acceptance of this resolution, ere long, by Parliament. Among other kindred societies, the Financial Reform Association has cordially endorsed it, and co-operated with us. The direct representation that our cause now has in Parliament, and also the probability of this strength being largely augmented by the majority of the Irish members, is a hopeful result of the Educational work hitherto done. It is therefore our confident hope—based not alone on these indications of the movement of public thought, but also on the ever increasing necessity for Land Nationalisation, which the continued depression of trade discloses—that, at no distant date, the vital principle of Land Nationalisation may be fully debated in the House of Commons, and that, starting from the Constitutional fact which the Resolution declares, the present Stewards of British Land may be required to render an account of their Stewardship.
In our last year's report we noticed that landlords had formed a "National Land Co. Limited." Now we learn that there is an Association of Landlords for the voluntary extension of Allotments, under the presidency of the Duke of Westminster It appears that 340 Landlords and 380 Clergymen are already quickened for "the amelioration of the condition of the labourers," as members of this association.
At the Fabian Society's Conference held on June 9th and the two following days, at the South Place Institute, a paper was read by Mr. Jameson, as delegate from this Society, on the "Utilization of Land." Our President also spoke in the discussion that followed, elucidating points in our programme which the enforced brevity of the paper read had caused to be untouched. The aim of this paper was page 10 to show that the ownership and monopoly of 75 per cent of the nation's land by 17.000 persons was the cardinal difficulty in the way of utilizing the soil, and that neither by the free transfer of land, nor by the taxation of land, could this difficulty be removed, and that these 17,000 persons must, as landlords, themselves be removed, in order to free the land effectually and permanently. The sympathies of the audience appeared to be generally with this view. The main objection taken to the Society's scheme was its tenderness to present landholders.
Land Nationalisation Abroad.
The robust activity of Land Nationalisation abroad—in America, and especially in Australia, if not so much in New Zealand—seems to satisfactorily increase. "Under date of December 4th, an Australian paper, adverse to the movement, states that over 4,000 people had lately migrated from South Australia and Victoria owing to depression of trade, and that still the distress seemed unabated. This paper also makes the significant statement that a mass meeting of 2,000 persons held in Adelaide Town Hall to consider the condition of things was chiefly composed of members of the South Australian Land Nationalisation Society. It seems, therefore, that the public, even in our thinly populated colonies, are beginning to realize in a practical, though bitter way, how much the monopoly of the material source of life and wealth causes trade depression, by barring the natural flow and employment of labour and capital, by preventing the just diffusion of wealth, by minimising consumption; and, incomparably more than anything else, by promoting chronic pauperism.
It is cheering to record, further, that a movement to Nationalise the land has commenced in the capital of Prussia.
Subcriptions and Donations.
|A Friend, D. P. N.||55||0||0||10||0||0|
|Ashley. J. G.||1||1||0||0||5||0|
|Baker, W. L.||0||2||6||0||2||6|
|Barnett, H. Gilmore||—||1||0||0|
|Bidlake, Miss L.||—||0||10||0|
|Binney, F. A.||—||1||0||0|
|Blackwell, Dr. Elizabeth||2||1||0||1||3||0|
|Bengough, Rev. S. E., M. A.||0||2||6||0||2||6|
|Bradley, Miss K.||—||0||5||0|
|Brandreth, H. J.||—||0||1||0|
|Brodie, D., M.D.,||0||5||0||1||1||0|
|Bryant, Mrs. Sophie||1||0||0||1||0||0|
|Burroughs, S. M.||3||12||0||3||10||0page 11|
|Caffery. W. O. B.||0||5||0||—|
|Chalmers, J., M.D.||0||17||6||—|
|Chapman, D. W.||—||0||5||0|
|Collected after Lecture by Rev. E. Pan Jones, Ph.D||1||5||4½||—|
|Collected after Lecture by Rev. E. Pan Jones, Ph.D||0||9||0||—|
|Cotton, Mrs. S. A.||0||10||0||—|
|Coventry, Miss Kate||0||5||0||0||5||0|
|Craig, E. T.||—||0||7||6|
|Davids, T. W. Rhys, LL.D.||—||1||0||0|
|Domoney, P. R.||0||5||0||0||15||0|
|Douglas, W. N., B.A.||—||0||10||0|
|Drinkwater, T. H.||—||0||2||0|
|Duberly, J. G.||—||1||0||0|
|Dyke, Rev. T. G.||0||5||0||—|
|Elliott, T. H.||1||0||0||0||6||0|
|Fawcett, W. W.||—||0||10||0|
|Fitzgerald, D. G.||—||1||1||0|
|Ghosh, N. L.||0||5||0||—|
|Gill, F. W.||0||10||6||—|
|Girdlestone, E. D. and Mrs.||2||2||0||2||2||0|
|Girdlestone, Mrs. E. D.||1||0||0||—|
|Hancock, W. H.||0||2||6||—|
|Hastings, Rev. F.||—||0||2||6|
|Highland Land Law Reform Association||0||1||0||—|
|Holt, R. B.||0||5||0||—|
|Haggett, W. G.||0||2||6||—|
|Isteed, J.||0||2||6||—||page 12|
|Izzard, C. R.||0||2||6||0||2||6|
|Jenkyn, R. J.||—||0||2||0|
|Jones, Rev. David||—||0||1||0|
|Jones, E. C.||0||5||0||0||5||0|
|Jones, Rev. E. Pan, Ph.D.||0||10||0||0||5||0|
|Jones, Rev. M.||1||0||0||1||0||0|
|Kinnear, W. H.||0||2||6||—|
|Kitchener, H. W.||—||0||2||0|
|Knowles, W. G.||—||1||0||0|
|Ley, H. W.||0||7||6||—|
|Ley, J. H.||0||2||6||—|
|McIntyre, Miss J. A.||—||0||2||6|
|Massey, C. C.||—||5||0||0|
|Mather, J. H.||0||2||6||—|
|Moberley, H. G.||1||0||0||1||0||0|
|Monteith, J. A.||—||0||2||6|
|Newman, Professor F.W.||4||2||0||20||0||0|
|Newman, P. L.||1||10||0||0||15||0|
|Oldham Radical Club||0||2||6||—|
|Ratcliffe, Rev. W.H.,M.A.||1||1||0||1||11||6|
|Richardson, E.W., jun.||0||5||0||0||5||0|
|Richardson, R. M.||1||1||0||0||10||6|
|Salis Madame, M. F.||—||0||2||6|
|Saunderson, T. J. Cobden||—||1||1||0|
|Sharpe, H. E.||0||2||6||—|
|Shepherd, R.||0||2||6||—||page 13|
|Sherlock, Rev. T. Travers||0||2||6||0||2||6|
|Snodgrass, A. P.||0||5||0||—|
|Soper, F. L.||—||0||15||0|
|Squirrell, M. P.||0||10||0||—|
|Stephenson, J. H.||0||2||6||—|
|Swan, E. A.||0||5||0||—|
|Swinton, A. C.||—||50||0||0|
|Taylor, Miss Helen||—||50||0||0|
|Taylor, A. H.||—||0||10||6|
|Tebb, Mrs. W.||0||2||6||2||2||0|
|Turle, J., M.D.||1||11||6||0||10||6|
|Unwin, W., M.A.||1||0||0||1||0||0|
|Wade, W. T.||0||2||0||—|
|Wakenham, J. W.||—||0||2||6|
|Walker, J. F.||5||0||0||—|
|Wellwood, Rev. J.||0||5||0||—|
|Williams, Howard, M.A.||—||0||5||0|
|Williams, S. D.||5||0||0||5||0||0|
|Winder, F. A.||0||5||0||—|
|Windust, C. A.||1||0||0||—|
|Windust, C. C.||0||5||0||—|
|Zimmern, Miss A.||1||0||0||1||0||0|
|J. J. Robinson||1||1||0|
|Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell||1||1||0|
|A, J. Reynolds||0||10||0|
|F. A. Winder||0||2||6|
|Miss Helen Taylor||20||0||0|
|T. L. Henly||0||10||0|
|H. Grove Cooper||0||2||6|
|A. C. Le Qnesne||0||1||0|
|Rev. F. G. Dyke||0||10||0|
|Rev. J. P. Greig||0||10||0|
|H. W. Ley||0||1||0|
John Ronald Shearer.
Land Nationalisation Society.page break
28th June, 1886Examined and found correct,
John Ronald Shearer.
Its Necessity and Its Aims.
Being a comparison of the system of Landlord and Tenant with that of Occupying Ownership in their Influence on the Well-being of the People.
Crown 8vo. pp. xiv.—244, Original Edition Cloth, price 5s. Cheap Edition, paper Cover, 8d., by post 11d. Limp cloth, 1s. 6d., by post 1s. 9d.
Alfred Russel Wallace, LL.D.
Author of "The Malay Archipelago" "Island Life," &c &c.
Land Nationalisation Society Tracts.
|I.—The Land Difficulty:—How shall we deal with it?||Per 100||1||0|
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|VI.—The Why and the How of Land Nationalisation (A. R. Wallace)||12||0|
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|VIII.—How to Experiment in Land Nationalisation (A. R. Wallace)||1||0|
|IX.—The Great Land Suit (H. Hutchinson)||6||0|
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