The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 50
Courses of Study — In the O'Fallon Polytechnic Institute, or Polytechnic School
Courses of Study
In the O'Fallon Polytechnic Institute, or Polytechnic School.
The regular courses of study and instruction in this branch of the department extend through four years. * and generally they are intended to prepare students for professional work, either as engineers, chemists or architects. It is not assumed, however, that all who avail themselves of these advantages for professional study will actually become professional men. On the contrary, it is fair to expect that less than one half of the professional graduates will ultimately adopt engineering in any one of its branches as their path of labor. But it is expected that those who complete any of the following courses of study will exhibit that mental discipline which enables one to undertake the solution of the problems of active life; and that they will possess such knowledge of the physical world as will fit them to turn to good account the wealth with which they are surrounded.
The best discipline is often secured through the agency of professional studies. Every such study has a practical bearing, and, in a student's mind, is invested with a strong sense of responsibility. The special merit of an "office" education—i, e., the train-ins to be gained in a lawyer's, a doctor's or an engineer's office, in the counting-room, or in a page 35 factory—is due to the fact that there the student deals with the problems of real and not ideal life. The obvious importance of every step in a process stamps it ineffaceably upon the mind. To a certain extent this is true of professional studies in a Polytechnic School.
On the other hand, students are free from the cramping narrowness which is the characteristic demerit of a business training. At school, the professional student is led to the study of the finest examples of professional theory and practice, both in the present and past ages, with the greatest possible range of subjects. The growth of mind under such cultivation is very great compared with that to be gained from the utmost familarity with the petty details of a single ordinary office.
It is for these reasons that students looking forward to a non-professional business life are often advised to follow some congenial course of professional study.
|I.||A Course in Civil, Engineering.|
|II.||A Course in Mechanical Engineering.|
|III.||A Course in Chemistry.|
|IV.||A Course in Mining and Metallurgy.|
|V.||A Course in Building and Architecture.|
The studies are the same for all the courses during the Freshman and Sophomore years, but during the Junior and Senior years they diverge, page 36 more or less, though certain branches still remain common.
The distribution of studies and exercises is substantially as follows:
* See Special Announcement on page 59.
Mathematics.—Geometry (Chauvenet's) completed.
Physics.—Pneumatics, Acoustics, Heat.
French or German.—Grammar and Reader.
History.—Civil Government; United States Constitution.
Mechanical Drawing.—From Flats and Models. Use of Scales, Tracing, and Construction of Plates, etc.
English.—Declamation and Composition; Rhetoric.
Drawing.—Study of Design may be taken in place of Shop-Work.
Shop-Work.—Use of Carpenter's Tools or Wood-Turning.
Physics.—Heat continued. Optics.
French or German.—Grammar continued.
Free-Hand Drawing.—Continued as First Term.
Descriptive Geometry.—Orthographic Projections, Problems of Points, Lines and Planes.
English.—Declamation and Composition; Shakspere.
Shop-Work.—As First Term.
Mathematics.—Plane and Spherical Trigonometry; Analytical Geometry begun.
Physics.—Electricity, Magnetism and Meteorology.page 37
Descriptive Geometry.—Curves, Surfaces; Tangency, Intersection of Surfaces: Construction of Models.
Theoretical Chemistry.—Roscoe's, with Lectures.
Practical Chemistry.—Eliot and Storer's Manual.
Free-Hand Drawing.—Machinery, Casts, etc.
Mechanical Drawing.—Line and Brush Shading; Lettering.
French or German.—Reading prose writers.
Shop-work.—Turning of Wood or the use of Carpenters Tools.
Surveying.—Chain and Compass Surveying; Leveling and Transit Surveying; Adjustment and Use of Instruments in the Field.
Descriptive Geometry.—Spherical and Isometric Projections; Shades and Shadows; Perspective.
Practical Chemistry.—Qualitative Analysis.
Mineralogy and Geology.—Lectures.
Free-Hand and Mechanical Drawing.—Machinery and Architecture.
Shop-Work.—Same as First Term.
I.—Course in Civil Engineering.
Mathematics.—Differential Calculus and Applications.
Descriptive Geometry.—Perspective. Applications to Masonry, Carpentry and Machinery.
Civil Engineering.—Railway Curves, Turnouts, etc.; Estimation of Volumes of Earth and Stone Work; Haupt's Engineering Specifications and Contracts.
Applied Mechanics.—Graphical and Analytical Statics.
Practical Chemistry.—Qualitative Analysis.
Drawing.—Models, Arches, etc.; Shading.
Mathematics.—Integral Calculus and its Applications.
Civil Engineering.—Railroad Engineering; Location of Roads. Estimation of Volumes, etc.; Field Work; Statics of Frame-work, and Cords of Equilibrium.
Applied Mechanics.—Statics and Kinematics.
Masonry.—Practical Stone-cutting; Construction of Models in Plaster.
Drawing.—Machines. Profiles, Bridges, etc.
Shop-work.—Welding and Tempering: Testing the Strength of Materials and of Frames.
Civil Engineering.—Rankine's Manual of Civil Engineering, supplemented by lectures following Baker, Bell, Winkler, and Maxwell.
Mechanics.—Rankine's Applied Mechanics; Centers of Gravity; Stress; Mechanism.
Laboratory Practice.—Construction of Trusses and Ribs for Bridges and Roofs.
Drawing.—Of Constructions from Actual Measurement.
Astronomy.—Newcomb and Hold en's Astronomy.
Shop-Work.—Chipping and Filing; Screw Cutting. Drilling,. Boring, etc.
Civil Engineering.—Structures of Wood, Stone and Iron; Designing, Computing and Estimating Cost of the parts of Bridges, Roofs, etc.
Mechanics.—Principles of Mechanism, Dynamics.
Laboratory Practice.—Testing Strength of Structures; Photography.
Drawing.—Designs of Structures.
Political Economy.—Bowen, Rogers, Mill, Carey; (Recitations and Lectures.)page 39
Practical Astronomy.—Use of Instruments; Determination of Time, Latitude and Longitude.
Shop-Work.—Construction of a Machine.
English.—Graduation Thesis. *
II.—Course in Mechanical Engineering.
Mathematics.—Differential Calculus and Applications.
Descriptive Geometry.—Perspective. Applications to Masonry, Carpentry, and Machinery.
Mechanical Engineering.—Rankine's Applied Mechanics, Part II.; Principles of Mechanism; Rankine's Machinery and Mill Work; Haupt's Engineering Specifications and Contracts.
Mechanics.—Graphical and Analytical Statics.
Practical Chemistry.—Qualitative Analysis.
Shop-Work.—Testing Strength of Wood and Iron; Work in the Blacksmith Shop; Practical Stone-Cutting; Construction of Arches, etc.;
Drawing.—Machinery and Models.
Mathematics.—Integral Calculus; Analytic Mechanics.
Mechanical Engineering.—Rankine's Applied Mechanics; Statics, Stability. Gearing; Rankine's Machinery and Mill Work.
Mechanics.—Statics and Kinematics.
Drawing.—Machine Drawing, continued.
Shop-Work.—Welding and Tempering; Testing Strength of Materials.
Mechanical Engineering.—Study of Different Machines; Strength of Materials.
Mechanics.—Rankine's Applied Mechanics continued; Centers of Gravity, Stress, Kinematics.
Drawing.—Of Working Machinery.
Astronomy.—Newcomb and Holden's Astronomy.
English.—Descriptions of Structures, etc.
Shop-Work.—Chipping and Filing; Machine Work; Study of Engine and Boilers.
Mechanical Engineering.—Designing and Computing the Parts of Machines required to perform Particular Work; Construction and Management of Engines; Rankine's Prime Movers.
Mechanics.—Theoretic Study of the Prime Movers; Water-wheels and Engines; Theory of Mechanism; Dynamics.
Drawing.—Designs of Machines.
Political Economy.—Bowen, Mill. Rogers, Carey; (Recitations and Lectures.)
Shop-Work.—Construction of Machines.
English.—Graduation Thesis. *
III.—Course in Chemistry.
Theoretical and Organic Chemistry.—Lectures.
Qualitative Analysis.—Fresenius, Gallaway, Eliot and Storer, and Bunsen.
Mineralogy.—Blowpipe Analysis and Determination of Species.page 41
Geology.—Dana's, with Lectures.
Laboratory Practice.—From four to six hours daily.
English Composition.—Lectures on English Literature.
Chemistry, Analytical and Applied.—Daily instruction in the Laboratory. Actual Chemical Work, embracing Pharmaceutical Preparations for the Laboratory and Apothecary; Methods of Determining the Value of Drugs; Assays on Ores of Lead, Silver, Gold, Zinc, Antimony, Copper, Nickel. Cobalt, etc.; Examination and Analysis of Metals, Soils, and Ashes; Examination of Poisons; Uses and Value of Manures.
Political Economy.—Bowen. Mill, Rogers, Carey's Recitation and Lectures.
Preparation of Thesis for Degree of Chemist. *
* *See Special Announcement on page 59.
IV.-Course in Mining and Metallurgy.
Mathematics.—Differential and Integral Calculus.
Descriptive Geometry.—Perspective. Applications to Masonry and Machinery.
Engineering.—Statics of Frames and Trusses; Strength of Materials. Beams, Girders, and Columns; Applications to Buildings and other structures; Hydrostatics and Hydrodynamics; Rankine's Applied Mechanics.
Chemistry.—Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis: Lectures and Laboratory Practice.
Geology.—Lithological. Cosmical, Physiographic, Historic, and Dynamic.
Mineralogy.—Blowpipe Examination of Minerals.
Mining.—Modes of Occurrence of Useful Minerals; Examination of Mineral Lands, etc.page 42
Mining Tools. Tunnelling and Sinking Shafts, Timbering and Walling Mines.
Underground Transportation, Hoisting Engines. Cages, Cars. Man Engines, etc.
Visits to neighboring Coal, Iron. Lead and Zinc Mines.
Metallurgy.—General Metallurgy—Classification of Processes; Furnaces; Modes of Construction; Refractory Building Materials, Natural and Artificial: Manufacture of Firebricks, etc.
Nature of Combustion.
Draft—Natural and Artificial; Chimneys, Fans, Blowing Engines, etc.
Fuels—Classification of, and Methods of Computing Calorific Power; Manufacture of Charcoal, Coke, etc.
Special Metallurgy—Iron and Steel, Physical and Chemical Qualities; Description of Various Direct and Indirect Methods of Production: Preparation of Ores.
Blast Furnace—Form, etc.; Hot Blast Stoves; Lifts, etc.
Manufacture of Wrought-Iron—Bloomeries, Forges, Rolling Mills, etc.
Manufacture of Steel—Puddled, Cementation, Cast, Bessemer Metal.
Visits to Iron and Steel Works, Forges, Rolling Mills, Foundries, etc.
Assaying.—Lectures and Laboratory Practice; Examination of Fuels and Refractory Materials.
Drawing.—Profiles; Crystals; Plans and Sections of Mines and Mining Machinery; Furnaces; Apparatus and Machinery of Smelting Works, etc,
Shop-work.—Forging Iron and Steel.
English Composition—Lectures on English Literature.
Mining.—Ventilation, Natural and Artificial; Measurement of Ventilation and Work done by Ventilators.page 43
Accidents—Fires in Mines, etc.
Mechanical Preparation of Ores; Stamps, Mills, Separators, Jigging Machines, etc.; Washing and Dressing of Coal, etc.
General Management of Mines, etc.
Engineering.—Prime Movers; Study of Water-wheels and Turbines; Steam Engines and Boilers; Designs and Estimates.
Chemistry.—Quantitative Analysis of Ores, Coals, Fire Clays, Pig Iron, Slags, etc.
Assaying.—Lectures and Laboratory Practice, Ores of Lead, Silver. Gold. Tin, Antimony. Copper, Nickel, Cobalt, Gold and Silver Bullion.
Economic Geology.—Occurrence and Distribution of Ores; Iron, Lead, Copper, etc.; Character, Uses and Distribution of Coal, Lignite, Peat, Petroleum, Salt, Clays, Building Stones, Fertilizers, etc.
Metallurgy.—Copper: Swedish, English and Mixed Methods; Extraction by Wet Way.
Zinc—English, Belgian and Silesian Processes; Manufacture of Oxide.
Lead—Description of Various Processes; Extraction of Silver from Lead; Pattisonage; Zinc Method; Cupellation.
Silver—Amalgamation; Smelting; Extraction by Wet Way.
Gold—Washing; Amalgamation; Smelting; Extraction by Wet Way.
Tin—Preparation of Ores; German and Cornish Methods of Extraction.
Metallurgy of Platinum, Aluminum, Mercury, Arsenic, Antimony. Bismuth, Nickel. Cobalt.
Examination of Metallurgical Works.
Blowpipe Analysis.—Quantitative; Lectures and Laboratory Practice; Assay of Ores of Gold. Silver, Lead, Copper, etc.
Mechanics.—Rankine's Applied Mechanics; Stress. Kinematics, Mechanism, Dynamics.
Drawing.—Machines, Furnaces, Mines, etc.
Projects.—Plans for the Establishment and working of Mines and Smelting Works, under given conditions, with drawings, Estimates and Written Memoirs.page 44
Shop-work.—Work in the Machine Shop.
Graduation Thesis *
* *See Special Announcement on page 50.
V.—Course in Building and Architecture.
Architectural Designs.—The Elements of Design; the Principles of Composition; Examination of Architectural Works.
Applied Mechanics.—Statics, Analytical and Graphical; Strength and Stability of Frames and Trusses.
Descriptive Geometry.—Perspective. Applications to Masonry' Carpentry, and Machinery; Groined and Cloistered Arches; Domes, Stairways, etc.
Mathematics.—Differential Calculus and its Applications.
Practical Chemistry.—Qualitative Analysis.
Drawing.—Exercises in "Designing"; Plans. Elevations, Sections, and Details: Ornament Sketching from Buildings.
English.—Composition; Lectures on English Literature.
Shop-work.—Forging Iron and Steel.
Architecture.—Composition; History of Architecture; Specifications, Contracts, Estimates, Details of Superintendence.
Engineering.—Stability of Structures; Stress: Strength and Stiffness of Girders, Pillars, etc.; Foundations. Walls, Roofs: Building Materials.
Mechanics,—Principles of Statics; Rankine's Applied Mechanics, Dynamics.
Shop-work.—Practice in Testing Materials; Work in the Machine Shop: Framing in Wood and Iron.page 45
Draining—Designing Architectural Ornaments; Architecture; Landscape; Designs for Particular Structures; Drawing from Memory.
Political Economy.—Bovven, Mill, Rogers, Carey. (Recitations
English.—Graduation Thesis. *
* See Special Announcement on page 59.
Civil, and Mechanical Engineering.
The school is well fitted with the necessary apparatus for illustrating the principles of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. An extensive collection of Photographs of Bridges, Locomotives, Machines, etc., hangs upon the walls of the Lecture and Drawing Rooms; while the Model Room contains Models of Bridges, Water-wheels, Roofs, Arches, Girders, Electric Signals, Gauges, etc., and a large number of the more unusual combinations of machinery.
The "Testing Machine," employed by the Illinois and St. Louis Bridge Company, for determining the modulus of elasticity of cement and other building materials, now in possession of the University, is in frequent use by the students. By actual experiments they learn the strength of wood, iron, steel, stone, brick, etc. Students are employed in experiments and investigations where such work can be carried on to their advantage.
The Institution is now in possession of one of the largest practical Laboratories of Mechanical Engineering to be found anywhere, and special attention is given to the practical use and management of Boilers page 46 and Engines. Extensive tests on a large scale are made on the machinery, not only belonging to the Institution, but to some of the large manufacturing establishments of the city.
The use of tools for working wood and iron is systematically taught. From four to six hours per week throughout the entire course are given to Shop-practice. About a year is spent in each of the Shops of the Manual Training School.
As a school of practical mechanical engineering, the facilities in actual use are unsurpassed.
The instruction in all branches is given from textbooks when practicable, supplemented by lectures and practical work. Great pains is taken to give the best engineering pratice, both European and American, and to keep pace with the great advances made on all sides in every department of physical science Special prominence is given to the use of "graphical methods," which are now so usefully supplementing the processes of computation.
Hence advantage is taken of the excellent opportunities offered in St. Louis and vicinity for the study of applied science. Through the kindness and courtesy of railroad officers, engineers, commissioners, and business men in general, both professors and students have generally had free passage over railroads, on expeditions for scientific purposes; easy access to all engineerieg works in process of construction, whether bridges or water-works; and ready admission to machine shops, foundries, rolling-mills, furnaces, and manufactories of all kinds. These visits and expeditions have always proved of page 47 great value, the tendency of such a combination of study and observation being to train not mere theorizers, but practical, far-seeing men.
The Course in Mixing and Metallurgy.
This branch of the Polytechnic School, organized in September, 1871, has been in full operation since that time. Its object is to supply some means for acquiring a thorough knowledge of the theory and pratice of those operations in mining and metallurgy which play such an important part in the development of the resources of our country. It must be evident that few, if any, places in the country possess so many and so great advantages for the successful working of such a department as the city of St. Louis-a great and growing commercial and manufacturing center, in the midst of and within easy access of nearly all varieties of mining and metallurgical operations.
The studies during the first two years are the same as in other special courses, somewhat general and elementary in character, preparatory to the special work of the course on Mining and Metallurgy, to which the remaining two years are devoted. The plan of instruction includes lectures and recitations on various subjects pertaining to the course; practical work in the Physical, Chemical, and Metallurgical Laboratories; field work in Geology, etc.; projects, estimates, and plans for the establishment of mines and metallurgical works; exrmination of, and reports on, mines and manufacturing establishments.
Have increased very largely in the past year, and now embrace a very full series of models of crystals and specimens illustrating the various minerals and rocks, and their asociations, ores, coals, petroleums, fire-clays, building materials, etc, from many parts of this country and Europe; botanical and zoological forms; characteristic fossils of the different geological ages; metallurgical products, illustrating the various operations in the treatment of ores by the wet and dry methods. These collections are used to illustrate lectures, etc, and are at all times accessible to the students, so that they may become thoroughly familiar with the character and modes of occurrence of the minerals, rocks, and ores they are likely to meet with in the field, and the various products in metallurgical operations.
Special facilities are now offered for critical studies in Microscopic Lithology, thorough instruction being given in the preparation of mineral, rock, and fossil sections, and their examination under the microscope. Orders will be received from outside parties for the cutting and mounting of objects.
Collection of Casts.
Through the liberality of a few of our prominent citizens, a fine collection of Casts of Celebrated Fossils has been purchased of Prof. Ward at a cost of 82,800, and presented to the University. This collection is well known throughout the country as the most valuable of its kind, and forms one of the page 49 most attractive features of any museum. The zoological and palæontological collections are arranged in Room No. 4, on the first floor, and the mineralogical and geological collections in Room No. 8, second floor. These rooms are open to the public at all hours during the day.
The Assay Laboratories.
are kept in full working order, completely furnished with crucible, scorification and cupelling furnaces, and everything necessary for practical work in the assay of ores of lead, silver, gold, iron, tin, etc.; also volumetric apparatus for the assay of silver coin and bullion by the wet methods. The general principles as well as the special methods of assaying are explained in the lecture rooms, and at the same time ores of the various metals exhibited and described. From a large stock of these ores from various parts of the country the students are required to make a large number of assays, under the immediate supervision of the instructor. In the chemical laboratories a practical course is pursued in connection with lectures on qualitative and quantitative analysis; the students being required to make tests and full analysis of coals, limestones, ores of iron, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, pig-iron, clays, technical products, etc., that they may acquire a practical experience in the chemical examination of the materials and products liable to be met with in practice.
An assistant is in constant attendance upon the students in the assay and metallurgical laboratories, to aid them in the practical work assigned.
Visits to Mines, Works, Etc.
Every opportunity is afforded the students through the term for visiting and examining the various mines, smelting and manufacturing establishments in the vicinity.
Summer School of Practical Mining and Metallurgy.
During the summer vacation a school for practical work is held for about two months in some mining district. All the students of the Mining Department, including those who have satisfactorily passed the examination of the Sophomore year, and expect to enter the mining course the following term, are required to take part in the work of the summer school. In this way each student receives the benefit of two seasons of practical work in connection with the course. While in the field the students are under the constant supervision of an assistant, and are required to make complete surface and underground surveys, take sketches and notes of all machinery and appliances used, and as far as possible, take part in all the practical operations connected with the mining and treatment of ores, etc. During the following term full reports are prepared and handed in, embracing a statement of the work done, and a discussion of all the operations examined. These reports are illustrated with accompanying working drawings and collections of specimens.
Before receiving the degree of Engineer of Mines, they are required to execute plans or projects for the establishment and working of mines or smelting page 51 works under given conditions, with drawings, estimates, and written memoirs.
An endeavor is thus made to combine thorough practical with theoretical instruction in this course, and to fit the student for the successful practice of his profession hereafter, and for a field of usefulness in the country at large.
Course in Chemistry.
All facilities are offered students in Chemistry for gaining a thorough knowledge in both the organic and inorganic branches. In general the European plan of instruction has been adopted, and students of highest proficiency are graduated.
The student enters the qualitative laboratory after having attended the lectures on general or theoretical chemistry, illustrated by experiments. The course of analysis has been arranged to cover as wide a field as possible. Especial stress is placed on the analysis of minerals and the products of chemical technology The student in chemistry is also required to familarize himself with the principles of physics and to attend lectures and practical exercises in mineralogy, lithology, and blow-piping.
The large and spacious laboratories afford ample working-room for a large number of students. Their excellent ventilation, and their completeness of outfit, offer rare inducements to those desiring to make a special study of chemical science. The textbooks in use are the standard ones. Access to the literature of the science, as it is embodied in the page 52 original memoirs in the various chemical journals, is afforded through the extensive chemical library.
The Course in Physics.
The Physical Laboratory has been removed to the first floor of the south wing, where more suitable accommodations are provided. One large room, with exposure to the east, south and west sides, serves as a lecture-room and students' laboratory. The work-tables are arranged around the sides of the room, and each table is devoted to a particular series of experiments. A second room serves as apparatus-room and is also used for special work of advanced students. In the earlier years graphical methods of reduction are mainly used, and the student gains an insight into the methods used in physical investigation. In the junior year the experiments are more elaborate, and involve a discussion of electrical and magnetical measurements in absolute measure, reductions being made by the methods of least squares. For such work a room has been fitted up in the basement, which contains three brick piers; on one pier is placed a fine astronomical clock, which is connected with a chronograph in the room above. The other piers are used as supports for any apparatus where refined adjustments are necessary.
The Course in Drawing.
It is expected that students enter the Department with sufficient skill to construct the ordinary prob- page 53 lems of plane geometrical drawing, and have a knowledge of the practical use of the straight line, circle, and tangent, and their direct application to proportion.
With the beginning of the Freshman year, freehand drawing from the "round" or solid is practiced—first, in outline, then in shading with charcoal. In the first stages of free-hand shading, there is but little attempt made at finishing work,—the student is urged to gain the power of expressing rapidly a clear idea of the object before him by means of his drawing, rather than to attempt an artistic production.
Instruction in the conventional use of color, and the use of the brush in shading, as applied to mechanical and architectural drawing, is taken up at this stage of the work.
Regular students of the Sophomore class use as models, during the time allotted to free-hand work, parts of machinery, casts of ornaments, etc. During the first term they spend some time in sketching from nature. The time devoted to Mechanical Drawing is spent in line and brush shading, lettering etc.
During the second term, the time is devoted to Machinery, Architectural and Map Drawing. During the past year a course in sepia painting has been partly introduced in the work of this class.
The Junior class in Civil Engineering work from models, arches, etc., finishing with pen and ink, India ink with brush, and also practice sepia and water-color painting.
The Senior class in Civil Engineering devote the page 54 time allotted to drawing, in finishing drawings from actual measurement and the designing of structures. The drawings are executed with pen and ink, brush-shading in sepia or India ink, and water-color.
The course pursued by the classes in Mining Engineering, differs only in the objects used as models. The Juniors execute drawings of profiles, crystals, plans and sections of mines and mining machinery, furnaces, apparatus and machinery of smelting works. Seniors execute similar work from actual measurement and constructions.
All finished work must be left in the school, or if removed by special permission, must be returned before the close of the second year, for final examination by the committee appointed for that purpose.
In the Courses of Study the word "shop-work" has been used to cover the systematic course of instruction and practice in the use of the more common hand and machine tools.
It is believed that, to students, without regard to plans for the future, the value of the training which can be got in shop-work, spending only from four to twelve hours per week, is abundantly sufficient to justify the expense of materials, tools, and expert teachers.
As at present, arranged, no branch of study has been omitted from the theoretical work, in consequence of the addition of the shop-work. This is to be clearly understood. The standard of scholarship has not been lowered. A knowledge of practical page 55 matters and the ability to use tools, should supplement, not displace, abstract and theoretical work. Theory and practice must go hand in hand.
During the last two years the facilities for tool-instruction and practice have been greatly increased. All the shops of the Manual Training School are open to students of the Polytechnic classes, as provided in the ordinance establishing the school.
Examinations and Theses.
The Examinations in the Undergraduate Department are frequent and rigid, and, whenever it is possible, in writing. Upon them chiefly the teachers rely for information of the progress of the students. No promotions to higher classes are made except upon conclusive evidence that the antecedent subjects have been well mastered. Reports of the standing of individual students will be made by the Dean of the Faculty to parents or guardians, if such are requested.
Every applicant for a degree, besides passing satisfactorily all his examinations, must present a thesis, an original essay, review, or investigation upon some subject, professional or otherwise, connected with the course of study he has followed. The thesis must be accompanied with all necessary general and detailed drawings. All such theses and drawings are left in charge of the University.
The object in requiring a thesis is mainly to secure evidence of the student's fitness to receive a degree; consequently a high standard of excellence is rigidly adhered to. Incidentally the theses furnish much page 56 valuable information to be used at the University by professional students, graduates, and all engaged in professional work.
|I.||The Degree of "Bachelor of Arts"|
|II.||The Degree of "Bachelor of Philosophy"|
|III.||The Degree of "Civil Engineer."|
|IV.||The Degree of "Mechanical Engineer."|
|V.||The Degree of "Chemist."|
|VI.||The Degree of "Engineer of Mines"|
|VII.||The Degree of "Architect."|
Persons recomended for any of these degrees may be recomended either for an ordinary degree or for a degree with distinction. Distinction in the degree shall be in three grades, indicated by the words, cum laude, magna cum laude, and summa cum laude, respectively.
Every member of the graduating class who has attained ninety per cent of the maximum mark on the general scale for the whole course, shall be recommended for a degree surmma cum laude.page 57
Every member of the graduating class (not recommended for the degree summa cum laude) who has attained eighty-five per cent of the maximum mark on the general scale of the whole course, shall be recommended for a degree of magna cum laude.
Every member of the graduating class (not recommended for the degree summa or magna cum laude) who has attained seventy-five per cent on the general scale for the whole course, shall be recommended for a degree cum laude.
The degree of Master of Arts will be open to all who have received from this University the degree of Bachelor of Arts, or Bachelor of Philosophy.
Similarly, the degree of Master of Science will be open to all who have received from this University the degree of Civil Engineer, Mechanical Engineer, Chemist, Engineer of Mines, or Architect.
In no case will the degree of Master be conferred within three years of the date of the lower degree, nor shall it be recommended except upon satisfactory evidence of a proper amount of study and attainment in advance of undergraduate work.
The degree of Doctor of Philosophy will be open to all who have received the degree of Master from this University. It shall not be given within five years of graduation, and only upon conclusive evidence of very superior scholarship.
The Faculty of the Undergraduate department will act upon applications for advanced degrees, and will page 58 adopt such rules as to the examination of candidates as may from time to time he necessary.
Graduates purposing to apply for advanced degrees, should report to the Faculty for approval the course of study decided upon.
The diploma fee is five dollars, payable in advance.
Upon the unanimous recommendation of the Faculty, the Directors of the University have authorized the publication of the following statement:—
After June, 1885, only Bachelor degrees will be conferred upon students on the completion of the four-year courses of the Polytechnic School as laid down above. The full professional degrees of "Civil Engineer," "Mechanical Engineer," "Chemist," "Engineer of Mines," and "Architect," will be given only to graduate students who complete an additional course of study and practice during a fifth year.
The work of the fifth year has not been fully arranged, and it should be understood that the details of professional study are always subject to change. The elaborate professional thesis now required of Seniors will, after June, 1885, be deferred till the fifth year. So far as outlined
The Fifth-Year Courses
1. In Civil Engineering:
Unwin's Bridges and Roofs;
Baker's Strength of Beams, Columns and Arches;page 59
Cotterill's Steam Engine;
The preparation of Abstracts and Reports upon certain classes of work, obtaining the data from professional papers or by observation.
2. In Mechanical Engineering:
Clausius' Mechanical Theory of Heat;
Baker on Beams, Columns and Arches;
Cottrill's Steam Engine;
The preparation of Abstracts and Reports upon certain classes of machines, especially engines and boilers, obtaining the data from professional papers or by observation. The reports will include estimates of cost of construction and operation.
3. In Chemistry:
Study and practice in organic Chemistry.
4. In Mining and Metallurgy:
Extended laboratory work, including analyses and physical tests, with employment of special methods and appliances used at iron, steel and other metallurgical establishments in the country.
The actual examinations of mineral lands, mines, metallurgical and ore dressing works within convenient distance. The preparation and discussion of reports.
A practical course in the metallurgical mill which, it is expected, will be built in connection with the department, and ready for use before the proposed change goes into effect.
5. In Building and Architecture:
Unwin's Bridges and Roofs,page 60
Baker's Strength of Beams, Columns, and Arches; Heating and Ventilation;
The study and preparation of complete plans and specifications, with estimates of cost of construction.
Tuition is $50 per term of twenty weeks, payable in advance if required, and always before the middle of the term.
A matriculation fee of five dollars is charged, to all who enter this department, payable in advance.
This Department is encumbered by very few rules. Regularity, promptness, a cheerful compliance with every detail of the daily programme, and the manners and habits of good society, are expected of every student. The records of scholarship are based upon scholarship alone. Misdemeanors of whatever sort are met with reproof or censure; but cases of persistent neglect of any duty, or flagrant misbehavior, if such should occur, would require temporary suspension, or dismission from the University.
Board and Lodging.
Students living at a distance from the University have no difficulty in securing rooms and board at reasonable rates. Students wishing accommodations, and housekeepers wishing boarders, are requested to communicate with the Deans.
A Lecture Endowment Fund, amonting to twenty-seven thousand dollars ($27,000), was created in 1875, by one of the early friends of the University, Mr. William Henry Smith, now a resident of Alton, Ill. It was given without any restrictions, except that the fund should be increased, if practicable, by accruing interest, to $30,000, which has been accomplished, and that no part of the principal should be expended. The income is now used for the support of lectures, with a view to the advancement of the interests of the University, and the benefit of the public. The lectures are free, so far as practicable, but an admission fee is charged when circumstances require.
Some of these lectures are given in the hall of the University to the general public; others, which may be called "Class-Room" or "Instruction Lectures," are given in smaller rooms, or in the Laboratories, to classes limited in number according to the nature of the subject treated, and are designed to furnish to all persons instruction similar to that given in the class-room work of the College and Polytechnic School.
The beginning of a fund for the encouragement of the study of American History has been made, by a gift of $5,000, by Mrs. Mary Hemenway, of Boston, Mass., and several courses of lectures have been delivered upon this foundation.
It is hoped that this fund will soon be sufficiently increased to enable the University to provide for page 62 the thorough study of the history of the country and of its political institutions.
|1.||A course of four lectures upon the Jew in History, by Professor James K. Hosmer.|
|2.||A course of four lectures upon London, by Professors Marshall S. Snow and Halsey C. Ives.|
|3.||A course of eight lectures upon the History of the Constitution of the United States, by Professor Marshall S. Snow.|
|4.||A course of five lectures by Mr. John Fiske, of Cambridge, Mass., upon American History.|
|5.||A course of three lectures upon historical subjects, by Edward A. Freeman, D. C. L., the English historical writer.|
|6.||A course of thirty class-room lectures upon Thermo-Dynamics, by Professor Calvin M. Woodward.|
|7.||A course of class-room lectures upon Steam-Engineering, by Professor Charles A. Smith.|
Library and Reading Room.
Room No. 10 of the east wing is used as a reference library and reading room. Here all necessary books of reference are provided, and also a good selection of the periodical literature of this country and of England. No attempt is made at present to gather a general library. During the year 1880 a gift of about three thousand volumes was received from the family of the late Joseph Coolidge, of Bos- page 63 ton. This collection, known as the CoolidgeLibrary, is especially rich in excellent editions of Italian and French authors, and is a very material addition to the usefulness of the library.
Through the liberality of a number of citizens of St. Louis, an arrangement has been made by which the privilege of using the Mercantile Library has been extended, under prescribed conditions, to such members of the University as may be designated by the Chancellor.
Several memberships in the Public School Library are also at the disposal of the University.
During the summer of 1880 a Gymnasium was erected and furnished at a total cost of about $10,000, on the University ground. The large Hall, 50×70 ft., and nearly 30 ft. high, is unsurpassed by any gymnasium in the city. It is heated by steam, and supplied with all necessary apparatus. While encouraging and even requiring systematic and wholesome exercise, the University does not wish to foster an undue interest in the feats of athletes, and discourages exercises which involve personal risk to the performers. All class exercises are conducted by a professional instructor.
One perpetual scholarship, founded by the payment of $5,000, and entitling the holder to all the advantages of all the departments of the University forever, has been placed at the disposal of the Mercantile Library Association, with the recommendation "that when applicants for the scholarship are page 64 of equal merit, the preference shall be given to one from some mechanical pursuit."
One scholarship is also held by the St. Louis High School, which entitles the ranking student of the graduating class of each year to free admission to this department, in accordance with a resolution of the Board of Directors when the college was organized.
A Trust Fund of $30,000 has been accepted by the University, from the Western Sanitary Commission, for the establishment of Twenty Free Scholarships, in the College or the Polytechnic School, to be filled by children or descendants of Union soldiers who served in the late civil war. In default of such applicants, candidates will be appointed by the University Board of Directors, after examination by the Faculty. Preference is given to those in straitened circumstances, and no student is accepted or continued who is not of good moral character, who does not sustain satisfactory examinations, or who fails to comply with the rules of the institution.
From the same source a Sustentation Fund of $10,000 has been accepted, the income from which is expended for the aid of students in straitened circumstances, giving preference always to the descendants of Union soldiers, as above.