# The University of New Zealand. — Entrance Examination, 1885—Junior Scholarships. — Heat

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## Heat.

 1 How has the absolute coefficient of expansion of mercury been ascertained? Is the coefficient so obtained, the cubic, superficial, or linear coefficient? 2 Describe six essentially different modes of determining temperature. What are the physical difficulties in the way of forming a perfect scale of temperature? 3 What form of energy is latent heat? What is the value of the latent heat of steam and of water? How do you explain the fact that the specific heats of water in its three physical states are so different? 4 Give an account of Andrews' experiments on the continuity of the liquid and gaseous states. Draw isothermals of CO2 at about 15° and 50° C respectively. 5 Give a full account of the formation of clouds. How are snow and hail formed? 6 How has the tension of water vapour been ascertained? Draw an isothermal of water vapour at a temp, of 100° C. 7 How is alcohol separated from wine? Describe fractional distillation and state generally its laws. 8 Give a general account of the various modes for the transformation of energy. How is heat turned into motion, into electricity, and into chemical affinity? 9 Define the coefficient of conductivity. How much water would be evaporated in an hour in a boiler, the fire surface being one metre, the thickness one millimetre, the temp, of the fire 1000 and of the water 100? The coefficient of conductivity G.C. S. system being 1·5. 10 Draw a diagram showing the distribution of energy in the solar spectrum, and in the spectrum of the electric arc. How is the latter altered after passing quartz, allum, rock salt and iodine respectively?