The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 50
II. School of Chemistry. — Professor Schweitzer
II. School of Chemistry.
Requirements for Admission: English Grammar, Arithmetic, Geography, [unclear: U. 8]. History and the elements of physics.
Instruction in this school is given in the following distinct courses of study:
1. Phenomenal Chemistry.
This is an elementary course in chemistry, following some suitable text-book, and consists mainly in recitations, illustrated, as far as practicable, by experiments and diagrams. The writing of reactions, calculating of quantities by weight and volume, determining of changes in the volume of gases through changes in temperature and pressure and the establishing of formulas upon proper physical facts accompany the work throughout. The course is designed to be complete within itself, and while giving the student the facts and formal principles of the science, to serve, at the same time, as an introduction to the study of rational chemistry, taught later. All students of the University, excepting those in law, must complete this course before they can receive a diploma or certificate, or before they can be admitted to other classes in this department.—First Semester, daily, from 11-12.
2. Rational Chemistry.
|1.||Food and Drink—Cereals, starch, bread, meat, sugar, preservation of food, water, milk, tea, coffee, fermentation of wine, beer, spirits, vinegar, tobacco, etc.|
|2.||Oils, Fats, Soaps, Glycerine.|
|3.||Illumination—Candles, oils and lamps, petroleum, gas and its products.|
|4.||Fuel and its application.|
|5.||Disinfectants and Antiseptics—Preservation of wood, etc.|
|6.||Limes, Mortars, Cements, etc.|
|7.||Glass, Porcelain, Pottery, etc.|
The collection of specimens to illustrate these lectures is yearly increasing, and embraces a complete set of Knapp's Technological Diagrams, which greatly facilitate instruction in this department. All students working for an academic degree, as also those in Medicine and Civil Engineering, must complete this course.—Second Semester, daily, from 11-12.
3. Domestic Chemistry.
|1.||Air: Respiration, vitiated air and ventilation, heating of houses, clothing for protection against cold and against taking cold, infection, contagion, germ theory of disease.|
|2.||Water: Potable water, hard and soft; impurities in it, such as lead and sewage matters, and their effects upon health and life; mineral waters, pond and sea bathing.page 42|
|3.||Food: Composition and general properties, boiling, roasting, [unclear: baking] pickling, salting, canning, etc., food for infants, invalids and persons in [unclear: sickness] condiments, cooking vessels and the dangers that may result from their use.|
|4.||Cosmetics: Face powders and washes, enamels, hair dyes and [unclear: restoration] I pomatums, essences, tooth powders, soaps, etc—First Semester, daily, from 3-4|
4. Agricultural Chemistry.
A course of lectures on agricultural chemistry is delivered to students in [unclear: Agriculture.] It embraces a scientific exposition of the function of the plant, [unclear: including] production, conversion, transportation and deposition of organic matter [unclear: within] body.
The physiological structure of the green cell is elucidated, and its office, [unclear: as] apparatus capable of doing chemical work depending upon light and heat, [unclear: may] clear. The nitrogenous constituents of the plants are treated in reference [unclear: to] organs, to the nitrogenous fertilizers, and to the nitrogen of the air, leading to the consideration of the mineral matter or ash, and to the growth of plants, as [unclear: depending] upon the character of the soil. Osmose and endosmose of gases and fluids illustrated by experiment, and the influence of climatic conditions explained by [unclear: revenge] to statistics.
The chemical and physical properties of the soil are fully treated of, by [unclear: track] its production from various geological formations through natural agencies, and improvement through mechanical means and fertilizers of various compositions [unclear: a] origin, to its present condition.
The different fertilizers in use, their relative value, and their employment extensive and intensive cultivation, as a paying investment, are discussed finally. One-half of Second Semester, daily, from 10-11.
A special course of lectures and recitations on toxicology, based on [unclear: Taylor] work on poisons, and lasting about two months, is given to students in [unclear: medicine], Second Semester, daily, from 10-11.
There has been given, the past year, a course of five lectures to the senior [unclear: class], which promises to become, in a more extended form, a permanent feature this work.
6. The Laboratory.
Qualitative analysis is taught by lectures and blackboard exercises, and [unclear: the] dent is required to repeat, at his table in the laboratory, all experiments [unclear: descale] in the manual used; after becoming familiar in this way with acids and bases, [unclear: Simmy] substances (of the composition of which he is ignorant,) are given to him for identification; thus he proceeds from simple to more complex cases, until he is able determine the composition of the most complicated and difficult mixtures.
When the student, upon written and experimental examination, proves to sufficiently familiar with qualitative analysis, he passes to the study of [unclear: quantitation] analysis. Lectures and blackboard exercises go here, also, side by side, with [unclear: liberators] work. The student executes a number of analyses, determining, in the page 43 stances handed to him, each constituent by weight; when he has attained the requisite amount of skill to insure accurate results, he is encouraged to execute analyses of a more complex nature, such as of coals, limestones, slags, ores of iron, lead, cobalt, zink, copper, nickel, pig-iron, technical products, etc.
If, after pursuing this course, the student desires to engage in any special investigation, either scientific or practical, every facility of the University and the special attention of the professor will be given him.
The full course in qualitative analysis is required of all students who propose to graduate in science, civil engineering and medicine, and in a somewhat modified and abbreviated form, including, however, the recognition of simple substances, of all candidates for other academic degrees.
Rules for the Guidance of Students Working in the Laboratory.
|1.||Each student must make a deposit of $10, before he can draw his apparatus from the supplies of the University; this is returned to him, upon the return of the apparatus, subject to a small percentage for its use, and after deducting the value of such articles as he may have broken or injured.|
|2.||Each student must make an additional deposit of $10, when drawing his apparatus for quantitative analysis.|
|3.||No article will be received back which is not in a sufficiently good condition to be re-issued again.|
|4.||Articles may be purchased for cash, at any time.|
|5.||The charge to students for ordinary chemicals has been fixed at the rate of 83 per month.|
|6.||The Laboratory is open to students daily from A. M. to 5 P. M., Mondays excepted; yet to facilitate the work of instruction, which is necessarily personal and not by classes, it is found necessary to give the first semester to students in quantitative analysis, and to devote the entire second semester to work in qualitative analysis; any deviation from this plan will be made only in exceptional cases.|
Text-Books Used in This School.
|1.||Thorpe, Manual of Inorganic Chemistry.|
|2.||Cooke, Principles of Chemical Philosophy.|
|3.||Fresenius, Manuals of Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses.|
|4.||Appleton, a short course in Qualitative Analysis.|
|5.||Taylor, on Poisons.|
Suitable hand-books for reference are recommended and accessible to all students.
Number of Students in all the Classes of this School During the Scholastic Year Just Ended.
- 60 Students in Phenominal Chemistry
- 35 Students in Rational Chemistry.
- 2 Students in Domestic Chemistry.
- 3 Students in Agricultural Chemistry.
- 16 Students in Toxicology.
- 63 Students in Laboratory, of whom
(a) 39 Qualitative Analysis, (Fresenius). (b) 10 Qualitative Analysis, (Appleton). (c) 14 Quantitative Analysis, (Fresenius).
- 179 Students.
- Number of individual students admitted to the school, 100.