The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 50
Lecture IV. — Walling
Walling, what is included in the term?—Two leading considerations.—-Solid materials classed under three heads.—Cementitious material.—Lime mortar.—Hydraulic limes.—Cements.—Summary of qualities of above.—Use and abuse of cement.—Cement mortar to be used when backing stonework.—How to build a Wall: Footings—Difference of level—Bond—Varieties of English and Flemish bond—Facings—Three principles to be kept in view—Uniformity of construction—Bond timber—Hoop iron bond—Distribution of the load—Tile floors—Arrangement of openings—Cast iron lintels—Wood bricks—Stone work to be built solid—Different rates of expansion—Mortar beds—Cornices.—Retaining Walls: Two kinds of failure—Failure of retaining-wall at Birmingham, Bristol, and Thames Junction Railway—Failure of Hunt's bank wall—Failures in tunnel walls—Provision for back drainage—Precautions against sliding of courses—Toe of wall to be protected—Expansion of London clay—Gonerby tunnel—Consideration of best section—Amount and direction of thrust—Minimum thrust—Maximum thrust—Resistance of the wall.—Breast walls—Harbour walls.—Four direct actions to be resisted: I. Direct blow from the sea. 2. Action from within the wall; monolithic work; failure of Wick pier. 3. Vertical rise of waves; Stonehaven; Eddystone lighthouse. 4. Vertical downward force.—Reservoir walls.