Christchurch: Printed by Angus Turner, 191 Gloucester Street,
School of Art.
The Board of Governors of Canterbury College.
David Blair, late Art Examiner, Science and Art Department, South Kensington, London: formerly Head Master, Islington School of Art, London.
George H. Elliott, late Assistant Master, Bradford Grammar School.
William E. Chapman.
E. Louise Bradbury.
The Annual Session consists of three terms, each lasting thirteen weeks, commencing severally in January, May, and. September.
Morning classes meet on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from 10 to 1. Fees—£2 2s. per Term; £5 5s. Annual Session. A class for the study of Landscape from nature meets on Tuesday and Thursday.page 6
Evening classes meet no Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from 7 to 9. Fees—15s. per Term; £2 Annual session.
All fees payable in advance.
Permission is given to students properly qualified to study in the school daily between the hours of 10 and 4. In connection with this, a special life class meets on Tuesday evening, and a general life class on Saturday afternoon.
A Register of the students' attendance is kept, and may be consulted by parents and guardians.
Visitors may inspect the school and the work of the students on application to the Master.
Further information may be obtained on personal application at the school, or by letter addressed to the Master, School of Art. or the; Registrar, Canterbury College.
Objects of the School.
The work carried on in this school has for its objects the systematic study of practical Art and its scientific principles, with a view to developing the application of Art to the requirements of Trade and Manufactures, together with the training of Art Masters and Mistresses. It is similar to that of Art Schools under the Art Department of the Committee of Council of Education, South Kensington, London.
The Instruction Comprehends the Following Subjects:—
Freehand drawing from flat examples, and the "round" or solid forms.
Practical plane and solid geometry—Perspective.
Light and shade from the "round" or solid forms.
Botanical drawing as applied to design and landscape foreground.
Landscape, Still life and Flower painting in Oil, Tempera, and Water colour.
Figure from the Antique and the Life, nude or draped.
Building construction from flat examples and actual measurement.
Machine construction from flat examples and actual measurement.
Lithography—Drawing on Wood.
Stages of Instruction.
|Stage1.—||Linear Draining by aid of instruments.
|Stage 2.—||Freehand outline drawing of rigid forms from flat examples or copies.
|Stage 3.—||Freehand outline drawing from the "round."
|Stage 4.—||Shading from flat examples or copies.
|Stage 5.—||Shading from the "round" or solid forms.
|Stage 6.—||Drawing the human figure, and animal forms, from copies.
|Stage 7.—||Drawing flowers, foliage, and objects of natural history, from flat examples or copies.
|Stage 8.—||Drawing the human figure, or animal forms, from the "round" or nature,
|Stage 9.—||Anatomical studies.
|Stage 10.—||Drawing flowers, foliage, landscape details, and objects of natural history, from nature.
|Stage 11.—||Painting ornament from flat examples.
|Stage 12.—||Painting ornament from the cast, &c.
|Stage 13.—||Painting (general) from flat examples or copies, flowers, still life, &c.
|Stage 14.—||Painting (general) direct from nature.
|Stage 15.—||Painting from nature groups of still-life, flowers, &c., as compositions of colour.
|Stage 16.—||Painting the human figure or animals in monochrome, from casts,
|Stage 17.—||Painting the human figure or animals in colour.
|Stage 18.—||Modelling ornament.
|Stage 19.—||Modelling the human figure or animals.
|Stage 20.—||Modelling fruit, flowers, foliage, and objects of natural history, from nature.|
|Stage 21.—||Time sketches in clay of the human figure, or animals, from nature.|
|Stage 22.—||Elementary design.
|Stage 23.—||Applied designs, technical or miscellaneous studies.
|Stage 24.—||Drawing on Stone (Lithography.)
|Stage 25.—||Drawing on Wood (for Engraving.)
Regulations for the Course of Instruction.
The course is intended to teach Ornament and the Figure, with a view to their ultimate use in design and composition, and includes the study of plants and flowers, the painting of Still-life, and the drawing and painting of Ornament and of the Figure.
In following out the Courses of Instruction, Students are required to pass, with the approval of the Master, in the following stages:—
Course I.—For students wishing to Study
Landscape, Still-Life, and Flower Painting.
|1.||Elementary.—Preparatory to any study in this Course:—
|2.||Preparatory to Painting from Nature in oil or water-colour:—
Students in this Course should attend Lectures on Geometry, Perspective, and Botanical Drawing.
Course II.—For Students wishing to Study
|1.||Elementary.—Preparatory to any study in this Course:—
Before being admitted to the next Preparatory Course, Students must pass in Second Grade Perspective and Model Drawing.
|2.||Preparatory to drawing from the life:—
|3.||Preparatory to painting from the life in oil or water-colour:—
Course III.—For Studens wishing to Study
Students in design must first follow the Elementary Division of Course I., and attend Lectures on Plant form, Design and the History of Ornament.
|1.||Outline drawing and monochrome colouring from Jacobsthal, Meurer, and other works, which must be used not only as a means of studying drawing, but as a definite course of design.|
|3. Stage 11b.||Painting ornament from flat examples.|
|11a.||Painting ornament in monochrome from the cast.|
|14a.||Studies of plants from nature.|
|22d.||Studies of historic styles of ornament.|
|4.||Designing in imitation of given examples.|
|5.||Original designs, Stages 22b., c., and e.|
Before entering the Modelling Class, students must pass the elementary stages in Course II., and attend the model drawing and perspective lectures.
Lithographic Drawing (on Stone.)
Drawing on Wood (for Engraving.)
Students wishing to study in this course must pass in one of the two elementary courses, and in stages 5a. and b., and 8b1, and must carry on the advanced work of the school when the class does not meet.
Building and Machine Drawing.
Before commencing the work of this course, students must pass in freehand drawing from fiat examples and from models, and attend lectures on practical plane and solid geometry.
|Plant form. Design and Historic ornament||10-11
Drawing from the Cast Composition of Line
|Practical Geometry (Plane and Solid)||9.30-10.15
|Plant form. Design and Historic Ornament||10-11
|Light and Shade Colour and Composition||9.30-10
|Practical Geometry (Plane and Solid)||9.30-10.15
|Plant form. Design and Historic Ornament||10-11
The lectures will be illustrated by diagrams, sketches, and problems on the blackboard. Students are required to provide themselves with note books for pencil outlines and memoranda; these will be examined and marked if submitted before the following lecture. In Geometry and Perspective the problems will be drawn to scale on the blackboard; each student is required to make a similar drawing during the lecture, which, with the additional work given is to be submitted before the following lecture.
Syllabus of Lectures.
Materials—how to select and use them. Paper, pencils, Indiarubber. Sepia and brushes.
Method of sketching. Difference between drawing on a table or desk and on a blackboard or easel. The hand and its action compared with the arm. Dotted lines to be avoided in sketching. The use of indiarubber. Lead pencil suitable for first practice. Soft pencils preferable to hard.
Lining in—its object. Value of water colour as a medium for lining in, compared with lead pencil. Method of laying a flat tint over a drawing.
Systematic study. Importance of Analysis in Freehand. Stages in the progress of a drawing. Primary lines and masses—these frequently difficult to determine—their connection with the form. Blocking out as distinguished from squaring. Secondary forms as related to the whole drawing. Third and succeeding stages — details and their relation to each other—analysis of detail—forms issuing from forms. Illustration of these principles by examples from Jacohsthal and Meurer. The Colonial Drawing Book, specially prepared to secure a systematic method of instruction. Symmetrical, compared with non-symmetrical work as a means of training the eye. Practical Plane Geometry and its value in Freehand drawing. Appreciation of form. The preparation of Freehand examples. The value of different examples in teaching.
Practical Plane and Solid Geometry.
Practical Geometry and its connection with an art training.
Instruments—how to select and use them.page 17
Plane Geometry. — Definitions:—Lines, Angles, Triangles, Quadrangles, Polygons, the Circle and Ellipse.
The division of Lines and Angles.
Trilateral Figures:—Equilateral, Isosceles, Scalene. Right, Acute, and Obtuse Angled Triangles, their construction from given sides, angles, and dimensions.
Quadrangles:—The Square, Rectangle, Rhombus, Rhomboid, and Trapezia, their construction from given sides, angles, and dimensions.
Polygons:—their construction from given sides, angles, and dimensions. Inscribed and described rectilineal figures.
Proportion and area.
The Circle:—inscribed and circumscribed rectilineal figures.
The Ellipse:—different methods of construction. Tangents and perpendiculars.
Solid Geometry.—Definitions of Elementary Solids:—The Cube, Prism, Pyramid, Sphere, Cylinder, and Cone.
Planes of projection. Plans, Elevations, and Sections.
Given the projection of a solid in either plane to find its projection in the other plane. Vertical and Horizontal Sections.
The Circle and its projection applied to the cylinder, cone, and sphere.
Definitions:—The Spectator or Station point. Line of Direction. Plane of Dilineation. Centre of Vision. Structure of the eye. Facts connected with Vision. The Cone of Rays or field of Vision. Horizontal and Ground Lines.
Perspective representation obtained by plan and elevation—this insufficient for the art student; its value in proving the rule for finding Vanishing and Measuring Points.
To find a point on the Ground Plane, given its position within the picture. Vertical and Horizontal planes in perspective. Line of heights.page 18
Representation of Lines and Solids in a plane parallel with the ground.
Rectangular Solids—The Cube, Plinths, Prisms, and Pyramids.
Polygonal Solids; truncated pyramids.
The Circle parallel and perpendicular with the ground. Cylindrical and conical solids.
Solids combining curved and right lines. Solids in relation to each other.
Given the plan and elevation of any solid to find its perspective representation.
Given the perspective representation of three or more points, to find the length of the lines joining them, and the degrees in each angle, (a) when the points are on the ground plane, (b) when the points are in space.
Perspective of Interiors. Representation of lines and solids.
|a.||In a plane perpendicular to the ground at an angle with the picture;|
|b.||In a plane perpendicular to the picture at an angle with the ground;|
|c.||In a plane which ascends or descends directly from the picture;|
|d.||In any plane inclined obliquely upwards or downwards.|
Shadows.—Sunlight—when the sun lies in the plane of the picture—behind or in front of the picture plane—in a vertical plane perpendicular to it or at an angle with it. Shadows on two planes—horizontal and vertical—oblique planes. Shadows cast on curved surfaces. Shadows by a curved surface on two planes—on curved surfaces. Shadow cast by a sphere.
Artificial Light.—Interiors, one light—two or more lights on planes at any angle.
Reflections.—Angle of incidence and reflection. Point of incidence. Horizontal reflecting planes—still water. Vertical reflecting planes—perpendicular, parallel, or at an angle with the picture, lnclined reflecting planes at any angle with the picture.
Light and Shade. Colour.
Light and Shade.—Materials used to represent it—pencil, chalk, charcoal—water colour and oil. Different methods of work.
Shadow and reflected light. High light and half tints. Tone. Breadth of light and shade.
Importance of shadows as to form and proportion.
Colour.—General considerations. Primary, secondary, and tertiary colours. Shades, tints, and hues.
Contrast and harmony. Qualities of colour—warm and cold—advancing and retiring.
Local colour. Influence of light and shadow. Colour of shadows.
Characteristics and selection of colours for water-colour and oil painting. Brushes and implements.
Hints on study and manipulation.
Model Drawing. Drawing from the Cast Composition of Line.
Model Drawing.—Position of the model with reference to the Student. Line of Direction and Picture Plane. Facts connected with vision. Education of the eye.
Means for determining the direction of a line, and its angle with another—plumb line and level.
Conditions under which parallel lines appear parallel. Convergance of parallel lines, whether horizontal, ascending, or descending.
The geometry of solids. Method of building up a model drawing. Measuring the apparent length of lines and surfaces. Model drawing and its relation to Landscape.page 20
Circular Models. Foreshortening of circles at the same or different levels on a common axis, when vertical, horizontal, or inclined. Cylinders, vases, &c.
Drawing from the Cast—compared with drawing from flat examples, and from models.
Relief. Position of the eye with reference to the cast. Importance of keeping the same position during the progress of a drawing from a cast in high relief—how this may be done.
Relation of one part to the other. Difference between model drawing and drawing from the cast in this respect.
Examples of ornament and figure work.
Composition of Line—illustrated by natural objects. Contrast. Conventional ornament. Grouping of forms and the arrangement of lines in design. Radiation of line. Drapery. Panels from the Ghiberti Gates.
Fresh specimens of the plant required for each Lecture must be provided by the students.
Position of the plant in the Vegetable Kingdom—Natural Order.
The Stem, its form and branching. Leaves—their venation and margin, simple and compound leaves. The leaf stalk and its insertion. Sessile leaves. Stipules, spines and tendrils.
The leaf and flower bud partly expanded. The fully expanded flower, its petals and sepals; relation of the calyx and corolla. Filaments and anthers. The fruit and seed.
Sketching flowers and foliage from Nature. Relation of the flowers and leaves to the stem. Pose of the plant and leaves.
Linear perspective applied to sketching flowers and foliage. Aerial perspective and its value in outline drawing.
Design and Historic Ornament.
Design—constructive and ornamental.
Constructive Design.—Technical knowledge required. Elementary facts connected with mechanics. Nature of the materials used.
The relation of constructive and ornamental design as illustrated by Furniture, Earthenware, Glass, and Metal work.
Suitability of material. Fitness of form. Quality of workmanship. Hand-made and machine-made work.
Ornamental Design—its nature and character. Work of Savage tribes—New Zealand, Fiji, Sandwich, and Friendly Islands, as illustrating unconscious intelligence in design.
Principles of Ornamental Art.
Equal distribution. Symmetry. Repetition. Variety. Contrast. Composition of line. Radiation. Tangential composition. The Anthemion.
Elements of Ornament.
|1.||Geometrical forms.—Straight lines. Frets, interlaced patterns, square and lozenge diapers. The circle, spiral and volute.|
|2.||Vegetable forms—Foliage. The Acanthus as illustrating the principles of Ornamental Art. Flowers—the rosette.|
|3.||Objects.—Shields, Medallions, Masks, Vases, Labels, and Ribbons.|
|4.||Animal forms.—Shells, Horns, Dolphins, Birds, Griffins, Lions. Parts of these combined with foliage and other ornamental forms.|
|5.||The Human Figure—combined with other ornament—symmetrically disposed. Compositions of the Figure without or with background.|
The proper distribution of Ornament. Power of ornament to express feelings and ideas.
Ornament of Savage tribes—Tatooing, Stamping, and Weaving. Carving. Geometrical patterns, interlacing. Curved forms. The Human Figure. Clubs and paddles.page 22
Egyptian ornament—its symbolism. The Lotus and Papyrus. The Palm branch. Plaited patterns, mats. The fret. Carving and painting. Colours used by the Egyptians.
Assyrian and Persian ornament—its origin. Bas-relief. Painted ornaments, bricks, and pavements. Colours used. Sacred trees, the pine-apple. Sculptured ornaments, pilasters.
Greek ornament—purely aesthetic. Forms derived from Egypt and Assyria. Conventional rendering. Representative forms. The zig-zag, wave scroll, and fret. The Echinus and Anthemion. Greek pottery.
Roman Ornament—an elaboration of the Greek. The scroll and acanthus. Animals and the Human form in Roman ornament.
Byzantine Ornament—its character. Symbolic forms—the lily, cross, and serpent. The Trefoil and Quatrefoil. Painting and sculpture. Mosaics. Development of antique types. Delicacy of treatment.
Arabian Ornament. Governing principle of Mahometan decoration, and circumstances favouring its development. Absence of symbolism and the exclusion of natural forms. Geometrical symmetry. Moresque ornament, its equal distribution, radiation, and continuity of line. Technical methods of decoration. Colouring of the Moors as illustrating fixed principles.
Romanesque Ornament. Imitation of Antique art. Human and Animal forms. Tracery. Painting on glass. Enamelling.
Gothic Ornament—its conventional character. Symbolism. The use of foliage, animals, and the human figure. Early English, its harmony with structural features. Tracery. Ornament of the Decorated period compared with Early English. Undue elaboration. Its defects and decline.
Renaissance Ornament—its origin and development. Scroll work and interlacings. Revival of classic forms. Arabesques and scroll. Painted and carved panels. Natural and conventional decoration of the Sixteenth century. Sculpture and painting. The Rococo style. False principles of decoration. Ornament of the present century.
Notice to Students.
|1.||Every student to provide such drawing materials and instruments as are required.|
|2.||No student, without permission to leave the school before the time appointed.|
|3.||Students are required to conduct themselves with order, quietness, and regularity, and to sit down immediately in their proper places on coming into the school. No talking or unnecessary moving about is permitted.|
|4.||Each student before leaving the school will be required to remove the copy and drawing-board to the place assigned to them. No student to handle or misplace any of the casts, or other examples; and any student who in any way injures the property of the school, to be held responsible, and to pay for the damage.|
|5.||Any student guilty of improper conduct, shall be liable to be suspended by the Master, and to be dismissed from the school if the Governors so determine.|
|6.||No book, example, or other article belonging to the school, shall, under any pretence whatever, be borrowed or taken away without the special permission of the Master; such article to be recorded in a book kept for the purpose.|
Exhibition of Students' Work.
There will be a public exhibition of students' works at the end of each annual session: no work executed in the school, can, therefore, be removed until after such exhibition. All drawings, when finished and approved, must be delivered to the Master, who will be responsible for their safety, and return them to owners at the end of the annual session.
Second Grade Certificate D.
|1.||Freehand drawing from flat examples.|
|2.||Practical Plane and Solid Geometry.|
|4.||Freehand drawing from Models.|
|5.||Freehand drawing from memory, on the Blackboard.|
Examinations in these subjects are held annually in December.
Syllabus of Subjects of Examination.
Freehand.—Candidates will be required to enlarge an out line drawing of symmetrical ornament, without the aid of any kind of mechanical means of execution, such as ruling, &c., or the use of anything but pencil, paper, and indiarubber.
Geometry—Plane—The construction and use of simple scales. Scale of chords, Diagonal scales. Elementary constructions required in geometrical pattern drawing and simple tracery. Construction of triangles and quadrangles. General methods for polygons. Irregular polygons from given angles, sides, and diagonals. Inscribed and circumscribed figures. Proportionals and areas. Elementary problems connected with the Ellipse. Solid—Plan elevation and section of the cube, pyramid, prism, sphere, cone, and cylinder, in simple positions. Projection of plane figures.
The instruments required are a plain scale of inches divided into eighths, a pair of pencil compasses, two set squares, an H pencil and a piece of indiarubber. A drawing board and T square, although not indispensable, are very desirable.
Perspective.—Students will be required to show a know ledge of the use of vanishing and measuring points used in horizontal planes, and to represent simple solids or objects on the ground plane in any position.
The instruments required are the same as for geometry.
Model.—The exercise in this subject consists of drawing from a group of three or more geometrical models and simple vases, single objects of household furniture, or domestic utensils of well defined form. The candidate is expected to show a knowledge of the effect of perspective in modifying the appearance of the models, and may estimate their apparent relative size by holding the pencil between the eye and the objects. No ruling or the use of instruments is allowed in working this exercise.
Blackboard.—This exercise is intended to test the candidate's power to use, in aid of their general teaching, the skill which they have obtained in drawing. In addition to facility in the use of chalk and the blackboard, it is required that they shall be able to give a fair representation of the form of any familiar object. Candidates will therefore be required to draw from memory, one of three or four objects of ordinary household furniture, or domestic utensils of well defined form, to be named by the examiner. Candidates will also be required to draw Roman or Italic letters, about nine inches high.
Candidates who pass in all the five subjects named above, obtain the 2nd Grade Certificate 1). Candidates may at their option take one, two, or all these subjects at the examination, and the subjects may be taken in any order.
This certificate is accepted by the Education Department, Wellington, as fulfilling the requirements, as regards drawing of the examination of teachers, for classification and certificates.
The "pass" standard for these examinations is the same as that of the 2nd grade, Art Examination, Science and Art Department of the Committee of Council on Education, South Kensington, London. Candidates who hold any of these certificates awarded by the above department subsequent to the year 1869, need not be re-examined in the same subjects,
Art Class Teachers' Certificate.
Regulations and Syllabus of Subjects of Examination.
Stage 1a.—A sheet of geometrical problems.
These may be six or eight problems selected to show the power of working neatly and exactly with instruments.
Stage 3b.—An outline of ornament in low relief from the cast.
This may be done from the Madeleine or Louis xii. pilasters, or any large ornamental scroll, and must be executed with a steady hand and in a firm outline: the object being to combine correctness of drawing and neatness of execution.
Stage 5a.—A drawing from a group of models, shaded in sepia, and drawn without background.
This drawing should fairly fill an imperial sheet, and should include some of Wedgewood's or Minton's vases or similar objects.
Stage 5b.—A sheet of ornament shaded from the cast in chalk.
This may be done from the egg-plant portion of the Ghiberti frieze, or other piece of ornament in high relief.
No candidate can be admitted to the examinations in Stages 3b, 5a, or 5b, whose preliminary specimens of work in those stages and in Stage 1a have not been previously accepted as satisfactory.
These four preliminary works must he submitted during the first week in December.
Accepted works become the property of the school.
Candidates whose works have been so accepted, may at their option take one, two, or all the prescribed subjects at the ensuing examination (held annually in the second week of December) and the subjects may be taken in any order.page 27
Candidates may not be re-examined in any subject in which they have once passed.
|(I.)||Geometry and Perspective.|
The examinations in these subjects are the same as those for the Second Grade Certificate (sec Syllabus of Second Grade Examination, page 24).
Candidates for the Art Class Teacher's Certificate who have already passed in .Second Grade Geometry and Perspective, are not required to be re-examined in these subjects.
Students Holding Second Grade Certificate D.
|Aldridge, Rosa E.||Cuthbert, William|
|Budden, Rosa||Roscoe, Stanley T.|
|Chapman, William E.||Wilkinson, .James R.|
|Roscoe, Helen D.||Wright, John, T. E.|
|Adams, Robert L.||Cuff, Ida C.|
|Allison, Laura M.||Simpson, John|
|Ansley, Annie||Stoddart, Frances|
|Bean, William D.||Taylor, Ada S.|
|Bradbury, Louise||Taylor, Lavinia|
|Bull, Benjamin S.||Young, Frederick W.|
Printed by Angus Turner, 191 Gloucester Street, Christchurch.