The Pamphlet Collection of Sir Robert Stout: Volume 14
Marriages, Births, and Deaths
Marriages, Births, and Deaths.
|2,115,397||8,477,712||6,790,616 Totals England and Wales in 15 years.|
|England and Wales.||Scotland.*|
|England and Wales||1,465,128||6,121,815||8,897,117||187,329||938,274||576,729|
|1,652,457||7,060,089||4,473,846 Totals Great Britain in 9 years.|
|England and Wales.||Scotland.||*Ireland.|
|England and Wales—|
|From 1864 to 1885||4,238,747||18,416,197||11,212,223|
|From 1855 to 1863||1,465,128||6,121,815||3,897,117|
|From 1840 to 1854||2,115,397||8,477,712||5,790,616|
|Totals in 46 years||7,819,272||33,015,724||20,899,956|
|From 1864 to 1885||543,901||2,662,719||1,640,198|
|From 1855 to 1863||187,329||938,274||576,729|
|Totals in 21 years||731,230||3,600,993||2,216,929|
|Ireland—Totals in 22 years||562,030||3,017,955||2,061,028|
* The Regulation Act for Scotland did not come into operation until January 1, 1855.
* The Registration Acts for Ireland did not come into operation until January 1, 1864; and it is stated that, owing to the defective state of the registration, the figures are only an approximation to the real numbers.
Emigrants and Immigrants, from and to the United Kingdom.
Up to the year 1874 successive numbers of the Statistical Abstract gave the total number of persons who emigrated from the United Kingdom, without distinction of nationalities; but from that year downwards only those of British origin have been included in its tables. The apparent falling off in 1875 and succeeding years is thus accounted for, and we have since had no means of ascertaining either the real number of emigrants or their destinations. In the following table the particulars are given as stated in the Statistical Abstract:—page 107
From this Table it appears that during the last 43 years very considerably more than two thirds of the whole number of our emigrants proceeded direct to the United States; and it is well known that that is the real destination of very many who, with private or State aid, make British America the first stage of their journey, the Homestead grant of the American Government being the grand attraction to such transfer of allegiance. There can be no possible objection to emigration, so far as those who have the inclination and the means to emigrate, and think they can better themselves by doing so, are concerned; but if it be 'true that the real strength and greatness of a nation consists in a numerous and thriving people, public and private bodies who are engaged m pumping out the population, either voluntarily or compulsorily, are doing a very unpatriotic work, for it is quite certain that with Real Freedom of Trade, instead of the sham which passes for it, there would be ample employment at home for all the able-bodied men of the three kingdoms, and for more than we have of them; and the probability is that, this being the country in which there would be the greatest demand for labour, and consequently the best remuneration for it, we should soon see our exiles flocking back again by tens if not hundreds of thousands annually. Organized Emigration is but a quack palliative for evils resulting from a radically rotten and vicious Fiscal System, which has perverted obedience to the Divine mandate, "Increase and multiply," into an apparent curse. Societies which recommend expatriation as a sort of specific for these evils, and Trades Unions, which look to it as a remedy for a supposed superabundance of hands, would do well to ponder upon this fact, for if they do they will soon cease to potter and dally with effects, and strike at the cause, viz., a thoroughly bad system of raising an enormous public Revenue, far in excess of the real wants of the State, coupled with extravagant, wasteful, and profligate modes of spending it, and, in addition, most unsatisfactory ways of accounting for both receipts and expenditure.
Dates of Leading Events in Railway History.
- 1602. Short roads laid down by Mr. Beaumont, in and about the collieries of Newcastle.
- 1776. Iron Railway laid near Sheffield, destroyed by the colliers.
- 1786. First considerable Iron Railway laid at Colebrook Dale.
- 1802. Trevethick and Vivian patent a nigh-pressure locomotive.
- 1814. Geo. Stephenson constructs first locomotive, travelling at rate of 6 miles per hour.
- 1829. "Rocket," travelling 25 and 35 miles per hour, obtains £500 prize offered by Directors of Liverpool and Manchester Railway.
- [Locomotives now attain a speed of 70 miles.]
- 1825. Stockton and Darlington Railway opened for passengers.
- 1830. Liverpool and Manchester' Railway opened (Huskisson killed).
- 1842. Railway Duty: (½d. per mile for 4 passengers. 1832) 5 per cent, on gross receipts.
- 1844. Examination of schemes by Board of Trade made requisite prior to their introduction to Parliament. Companies required to run cheap trains daily, and permit erection of telegraphs. Government authorized to buy any or all existing Railways after 1st January, 1866.
- 1846. Railway mania year and panic. 272 acts passed.
- 1863. Railway Clauses Consolidation Act. Amended 1867.
- 1867. Commission report against Government purchase.
- 1868. Smoking compartments ordered by new act, which also required provision for communication between passengers and guard in certain trains.
- 1869. Pacific Railway opened.
- 1872. Amalgamations accomplished to date, L. & N. W. 61 branch lines, G. N. R. 37, Gt. Eastern 27, London and Brighton 22, L. & S. Western 22, Midland 17.
- 1873. Bill for Amalgamation of L. & N. W. with L. & Y. thrown out. Railway Commissioners appointed.
- 1874. Pullman Cars introduced on Midland Railway, which Co. also reduce fares to 1½d. per mile 1st class, and abolish second class, giving no return tickets at lower fares.
- 1875. Employes of Railways 274,535, of which about 40,000 on L. & N. W. Co.'s system.
- 1877-8. J. Elevated Street Railways erected in New York.
- 1877. Proposed fusions: G. N. R. with Gt. Eastern, and M. S. & L. with G. N. R. and Midland: both fail.
- 1880. Expended on Railways in U. K., to date, about £720,000,000 (since 1829).
- 1881-3. Parliamentary enquiries into Railway Rates, after grievous complaints.
- 1881. Electric Railway opened at Berlin.