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Hawaiki: The Original Home of the Maori; with a Sketch of Polynesian History

Occurrences in the Fiji, Samoa, and Haapai Groups

Occurrences in the Fiji, Samoa, and Haapai Groups.

We have now followed the Rarotongan histories down to a point when Maori and Moriori traditions begin to shed their light on the course of events, for the occupation of the Fiji and Samoan groups is their "Heroic Period," when flourished so many of their heroes whose deeds are embodied in tradition and song, and which form the classics of their branch of the race. Full as the accounts of this period are of the marvellous, the historical parts may easily be sifted out. Such as they are, they are probably not more full of the supernatural or wonderful than the old world classics of the Greeks and others. They carry us back to much the same culture-level depicted in the Iliad, and other works of that and succeeding ages, where the gods took part in the affairs of man.

By both Maori and Rarotonga histories Emā (Hema) was the father of the two brothers Karii (Karihi) and Taaki (Tawhaki). It will be seen by the general table at the end of this work that Rarotonga lines of ancestors come down through Karii, whilst the Maori lines as a rule descend from Tawhaki. In accordance with this, the Rarotonga traditions make Karii the eldest son, and most important ariki of the two; it is just the contrary with the page 141Maoris, with whom Tawhaki is the elder brother and the ariki, a piece of national pride on the part of both branches of the race. Apparently the Rarotogans trace no descent from Tawhaki, though many Maoris do. I have already pointed out that Rarotonga history makes Taaki to have flourished forty-six generations ago, whilst the Maori table published in the Journal Poly: Soc: vol. vii, p. 40 makes him to have lived forty-eight generations ago, by taking the date of Turi as twenty generations ago. We may therefore fix the date of Tawhaki as about the year 700.

Apolima Island. Samoa Looking South

The Rarotonga stories of these two heroes are similar in most respects to those of the Maoris, whilst they differ in detail. Their mother, (according to the first) was Ua-uri-raka-moana. On one occasion she commanded Karii to perform an operation on her head, which Karii refused to do. She then said, "My son, thou shall not remain an ariki. Thou shalt serve!" Taaki was then directed to do the same thing. He did so; and after retiring to his own district of Murei-tangaroa, it was not long before great power (mana) entered suddenly into him, and soon the news spread that the country was illuminated by him, the lightning flashing from his body (The Maori story is the same here). Karii now became jealous and angry at the power of his younger brother, especially because their father Emā had turned his affections on Taaki, which caused Karii to offer his parent at the marae as a sacrifice page 142to the gods.* Much fighting ensued at Murei-tangaroa and Murei-kura, two mountains where Taaki's home was, in which his sisters Inano-mata-kopikopi and Puapua-ma-inano took part. After this Taaki is invited to bathe in Vai-porutu stream where he is killed by Karii, but is brought to life again by the incantations of his sisters. Then he decides to go in search of his father Emā, and is warned of the dangers on the way by his mother, the dangers con-sisting of some vaine taae, wild or fierce women, called "Nga-tikoma." Taaki now proceeds to the Nu-roa-i-Iti, where the vaine-taae are anxious to secure him as a husband, but he is directed on his course to Tangaroa-akaputu-ara—-who has his father's body—by another woman, Apai-ma-mouka. Further on he meets another lady, who advises him to hasten, as the gods are already collecting firewood to roast his father. Taaki finally succeeds in obtaining his father's body, after defeating a number of atua or gods, besides bringing back with him several valuables, the names of which do not help us to ascertain what they were. The story of Taaki ends here. It is much like that of the Maoris, except that the latter mentions in song and story the ascent of Tawhaki to heaven by the toi-mau—a special kind of connection between heaven and earth—where he meets Whaitiri or Kui the blind woman, and obtains his wife Hapai. This ascent, according to Rarotonga story, is by or to the Nu-roa-i-Iti, which seems to be the name of a place in Fiji. The tall coconut at Fiji, is the translation.

* So the Native history seems to read; but it is an extraordinary statement, and contrary, I think, to Polynesian custom for parents ever to be offered in sacrifice.

The Maori name of Tawhaki's wife is Hapai, or Hapai-maunga, clearly the same as the above.

This story of Kui-the-blind, in Rarotonga tradition, forms part of that relating to Tane, a hero who flourished in the Fiji group, not to that of Taaki, (or Tawhaki).

page 143

In considering the many versions of this story of Tawhaki as preserved by the Maoris, and more especially in one collected by the late John White, wherein are mentioned the names of Savai'i, Upōlu, and Tutuila, and the wars in which Tawhaki engaged there, it has always been my idea that this marvellous ascent into heaven after his father's bones, was in prosaic reality, merely the climbing up a mountain-cliff by means of a rope amongst an alien people, who had killed his father.* I would suggest that it was to one of the Fijian islands that Tawhaki went, either when residing in Fiji or in Samoa, and that the atuas and the vaine taae here, are merely the Melanesians, who at this period occupied parts of the group. Taaki, by both Rarotonga and Maori story, was a very handsome man; hence the vaine taae (Melanesian women?) desired him.

In connection with this mountain—if it were such— where the gods lived, reference should be made to Mr. Basil Thompson's account of the first occupation of Fiji by the Melanesians, and his description of Nakauvandra mountain in Viti-levu as the home of Fijian gods, and especially of Ndengei, a name which is supposed to be the Fijian equivalent Tangaroa in whose keeping (see above) were the bones of. Taaki's father. Tawhaki, under the form Tafa'i is known to Samoan tradition, and from its surroundings, the story is evidently very ancient. The following is the story as I learnt it from Sapoluo Matautu, near Apia, Mr. Churchill translating.

"The Samoans sprang from two girls, Langi and Langi, These two women were swept away by a great wave of the

* Miss Teuira Henry tells me the Tahitians have much. the same story of Tafa'i (Tawhaki); that he ascended a mountain where dwelt the gods—which mountain the Tahitians have localized at Te Mehani in Raiatea island.

Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol. i, p. 143

page 144sea, but they secured a plank of a canoe, on which they floated awajr and finally reached Manu'a. It is not known where the girls came from. At Manu'a was an aitu or god named Sa-le-vao. The girls said to him, Ta fia ola,* 'I wish to live' (a prayer). Sa-le-vao came down to the beach where the girls were and said, 'Where do you two come from?' We two were swept away from the north (itu mātū); our land is altogether scattered.' Sa-le-vao then spat at the girls, at which they said, 'Spit towards the heavens' (anu i langi). (This is an expression still used. If anyone treats another disrespectfully, it is the usual and proper thing to say).
"Tangaloa-a-langi saw what was going on from his place in the eighth heaven, and he said to his son, 'Alu ifo, go down and bring the girls up here.' Tafa'i was the son of Tangaloa-a-langi. He went down and brought the girls up. As he was doing so, Sa-le-vao pursued them, and on reaching the eighth heaven he found the girls staying in Tangaloa's house. The latter said to Sa-le-vao, 'Hurry up and go down; wait down there until morning and then we will fight it out.' So Sa-le-vao returned below, and the next day Tangaloa went down and fought with Sa-le-vao and killed him. One of the girls Langi married Tangaloa-a-langi, the other Tafa'i. They all came down from heaven and lived on earth at Manu'a. The girls gave birth to sons—the wife of Tangaloa had Tutu, Tafa'i's wife Ila. Then were born U, and Polu and Saa, and Uii. Then Tangaloa-a-langi made his tqfinga, or appointment of occupations. One of the sons was to live in Manu'a and be called Tui-Manu'a; Tutu and Ila were to live in Tutuila; U and Polu in Upolu; Sa and Uii, the youngest sons, in

* Ta is an old form of the first person singular "I."

page 145Savai'i. Sa and Uii were scattered far and wide to all lands." The above story is eponymous in so much as it attempts to assign an origin to the names of the three principal Samoan islands. But the interest in this connection is in showing the Samoan knowledge of Tawhaki.

Another story says that Tafa'i lived at Le Itu-o-Tane, or the north coast of Savai'i. Possibly this may have been the man, not the god named above.

The group of people of whom Tawhaki is the most distinguished, is also well-known to Hawaiian tradition as the following will show: but in considering their place in history we must not lose sight of what Fornander has said on this subject, for he has probably studied Hawaiian history more closely than others. His belief was that the group of people—Kai-tangata, Hema, Tawhaki, Wahieroa, and Rata (all Maori ancestors)—has been engrafted on the Hawaiian genealogies after the arrival of the Southern Polynesians in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In this I think he is right; for the position assigned them on Hawaiian genealogies is contradicted both by Maori and Rarotonga history, but at the same time the Hawaiian account of them is very precise, as the following notes given to me by Dr. N. B. Emerson will show:—

"Puna (Maori Punga) and Hema were both sons of Ai-kanaka (Maori, Kai-tangata), and were born in Hawaii-ku-uli, at Kau-iki, Maui island. Hema died in Kahiki (Tahiti). The following old chant has reference to him, (in the translation the names are spelt as in Maori):—

Holo Hema i Kahiki, ki'i i ka apo ula—
Loa'a Hema, lilo i ka 'A'aia,
Haule i Kahiki, i Kapakapa-kaua,
Waiho ai i Ulu-paupau.
page 146 Hema voyaged to Tahiti to fetch the red coco nut—*
Hema secured it, but it was caught by the 'A'aia,
He fell in Tahiti, in Tapatapa-taua,
His body was deposited at Uru-paupau.

"Hema's descendants reigned over Hawaii and Maui; Puna's over Oahu and Maui.

"Kaha'i (Maori Tawhaki), the son of Hema, was born at Ka-halulu-kahi (Te-haruru-tahi in Maori), Wailuku, Maui, and died at Kaili-ki'i, in Ka'u. His bones were deposited at Iao, Maui. He voyaged in search of his father's bones, to which the following chant has reference:—

O ke anuenue ke ala o Kaha'i,
Pi'i Kaha'i, koi Kaha'i,
He Kaha'i i ke koi-ula a Kane,
Hihia i na mata o 'Alihi.
A'e Kaha'i i ke anaha,
He anaha ke kanaka, ka wa'a.
I luna o Hanaia-ka-malama—
O ke ala ïa i imi ai i ka makua o Kaha'i—
O hele a i ka moana wehiwehi,
A ka'alulu i Hale-kumu-ka-lani.
Ui mai kini o ke akua.
Ninau o Kane, o Kanaloa,
He aha kau huakai nui, E Kaha'i!
I pi'i mai ai?
I 'imi mai au i ka Hema,
Aia i Kahiki, aia i Ulu-pau-pau,
Aia i ka 'A'aia, haha mau ia, E Kane,
Loa'a aku i Kukulu-o-Kahiki

* It is perhaps presumption to differ from so good a Hawaiian scholar as Dr. Emerson, but I would suggest that apo-ula is better translated "the red girdle," such as was in use in the Central Pacific.

Cf. Rarotongan kakaia, the white tern.

Tuturu-o-Whiti is the common rendering of this name, and it refers to the "true, original, determined" Fiji.

page 147 The rainbow was the path of Tawhaki,
Tawhaki climbed, Tawhaki strove,
Girded with the mystic enchantment of Tane,
Fascinated by the eyes of Karihi,*
Tawhaki mounted on the flashing rays of light,
Flashing on men, and on canoes.
Above was Hangaia-te-marama—
That was the road by which he sought his father—
Pass over the dark blue sea,
Trembling, in Whare-tuirm-te-rangi,
The multitude of the gods are asking,
Tane and Tangaroa enquire,
What is your great company seeking, O Tawhaki!
That you have come hither?
I come looking for Hema.
Over yonder in Tahiti, yonder in Uru-paupau,
Yonder by the 'A'aia, constantly fondled by Tane,
I have travelled to the "Pillars-of-Tahiti."

"Wahie-loa, son of Kaha'i, was born at Ka'u, and died at Koloa Puna-lu'u, and was buri ed at 'Alae in Kipa-hulu Maui.

"Laka (Maori Rătă), was born at Haili, Hawaii, and died at Kua-loa, Oahu, He was buried at Iao. A legend exists about the building of a canoe to search for his father," (as in Maori and Rarotongan story).

The Maori stories relating to Tawhaki, from whatever part of New Zealand they are collected, are extremely persistent in stating that his son was Wahie-roa, and his grandson Rătă. The first of these names does not appear in the Rarotongan Native History; indeed, no descendants of Tawhaki are given, and the incidents connected with Rătă's miraculous canoe are assigned to 250 years after the former flourished, when the name of Rătă is first

* Hawaiian story does not mention Karihi as a brother of Tawhaki, but both Maori and Karotonga history does.

In Maori story, this is the name of the hook let down from heaven, by which Tawhaki's wife was drawn up.

page 148mentioned. The persistency of these Maori stories, confirmed as they are by Hawaiian traditions, makes it clear that these people were one family—descending from father to son—and I am inclined to think this was the age (the years 700 to 775) in which they lived. To me, the whole series of stories the Maoris have preserved —and they are very numerous—about these heroes, point to the contact with another race, which can be no other than the Melanesian. From what has been said before, it was Fiji and Samoa in which they lived; and one of the Maori stories says that Tawhaki ascended a mountain called Whiti-haua, in which Whiti is the Maori pronunciation for Rarotongan Iti—Fiji. Connected with these heroes are the names Whiti, Matuku and Peka, all given, at different times, as the names of fierce semi-human monsters. In them I see the names of islands, used metaphorically for the people of those islands. Peka. is the Tongan name for Bengga, of the Fiji Group, and Matuku is also a well-known name of one of the Fiji islands. In one of the same series of stories is mentioned a place called Muri-wai-o-ata, and this is the name of a stream on the south coast of Upolu, as I quite accidentally learnt when fording it in 1897, with Mr. Churchill and our tula-fale who gave me the name.

Several places in Samoa are also connected with the name of Rata. Dr. Turner says, "Near the place where Fa'ataoafe lived (on the south side of Savāi'i) there are two hills, which are said to be the petrified double canoe of Lata. Lata came of old from Fiji, was wrecked there, went on shore, and lived on the land still called by his name in the neighbourhood of the settlement of Salai-lua. He visited Upōlu and built two large canoes at Fangaloa, but died before the deck to unite them had been completed. To Lata is traced the page 149introduction of the large double canoes united with a deck, and which of old were in use in Samoa. Seu-i-le-va'a-o-Lata (or 'steersman in the canoe of Lata') is a name not yet extinct in Samoa."*

The names of Wahie-roa and Rata are, however, known to the Earotongans, as Queen Makea told me, although not given in the history, from which most of this is taken. Dr. Wyatt Gill also mentions them, in "Myth and Songs from the Pacific," where the scene of their adventures is laid in Kuporu (Upolu), Iti-marama (Maori, Whiti-marama), or Fiji and Avaiki (Savai'i).

In Maori story the tribes defeated by Tawhaki on his ascent of the mountain are called Te Tini-o-te-Makahua and Te Papaka-wheoro; with reference to the last name, Papaka means a crab, and in Earotonga and Niuē, the words for crab (unga and tufa) are always applied to slaves, meaning Melanesian slaves.

According to Maori history, it was in the times of Tawhaki that cannibalism was first practised by their ancestors; and no doubt it was through their connection with the Melanesian people of Fiji, that they learnt the custom.

After Taaki's adventures above we hear no more of him in Earotonga story, and then the genealogical table gives the name of Karii's son Karii-kaa, and his grandson Turi, who married Varavara-ura, the sister of Papa-neke. There is an inconsequential story about Turi, but not worthy of note, and then the history is silent as to the descendants

* "Samoa, a Hundred Years Ago," by Geo. Turner, ll.d. 1844.

Whiti-marama is also mentioned in Maori traditions as an island visited by Turi—no doubt one of the Fiji group. Whiti-te-kawa, is another Maori name of some part of the Fiji group, from whence certain karakias were learnt.

page 150of Papa-neke for five generations, when we again come on Maori history in the person of Apakura. This lady fills a large space in Maori and Moriori tradition, but so far as I am aware, she is not known to those of any other branch of the race except the Rarotongans—a fact of some significance.

The period of Apakura is distinguished in Maori history by the burning of the house or temple named Te Tihi-or Uru-o-Manōno, and in Raro-tonga tradition by the first occupation of Rarotonga. According to the genealogical table appended hereto, we find that Apakura lived circa 875, or thirty-nine generations ago. Unfortunately the Maori traditions are contradictory as to the date of Apakura; that given at page 40, vol. vii, of the Journal Polynesian Society only makes four generations between her and Tawhaki, whilst the Rarotongan gives seven. For reasons which have been stated, we are safe in taking the latter as being the more correct. In Maori history the story of Apakura is probably the most noted of all their ancient traditions. There are numerous old songs about her, and many references in the ancient laments; indeed, she may be said to be the "champion mourner" of the race, so much so, that one species of lament or dirge is called an apakura after her. Judging from the length and detail of the Rarotongan story of her doings, she occupies an equally prominent place in their regards; but, strange to say, while the incidents of the story are nearly the same in both dialects, the name of Te Uru-o-Manōno is not mentioned in Rarotongan. The burning of this temple in the traditions of the latter people is apparently represented by Apakura's destruction of the unnamed marae by fire.

The scene of our story has now shifted from Fiji to the Atu-Apai, or Haapai group, some 380 miles east-south-east page 151from central Fiji, and 360 miles south-west from Samoa. In this name Atu-Apai we recognise the Ati-Hapai of Maori story, which, as it is written, means the Hapai people or tribe; but I think this is the common substitution of the i for u, and that the name was originally in Maori, Atu-Hapai, which would mean in most dialects, the Haapai group.

We will now follow out in brief the Rarotonga account of this period, for the final result was an important one. Apakura was the one sister of a family of ten brothers, whose names were Papa-neke, Papa-tu, Papa-noo,* Taūū, Tapa-kati, step-brothers, and Oro-keva-uru, the eldest. Apopo-te-akatinatina, Apopo-te-ivi-roa (the Hapopo of Maori story), Tangiia-ua-roro, and Iriau-te-marama, her own brothers, of whom Oro-keva-uru was the ariki or ruling chief of Atu-Apai, Vaea-te-ati-nuku being Apakura's husband. Her son was Tu-ranga-taua, known to Maori history as Tu-whaka-raro.

In their low tree-shaded home of Apai (Haabai, the Tongan form of the name) an island that is nowhere elevated more than twenty-feet above sea level, fierce jealousy sprung up in the heart of the ariki against Apakura's son Tu-ranga-taua, on account of his beauty and skill. The people engaged in the game of teka, or dart throwing, and Tu-ranga-taua's dart far exceeded the flight of the ariki's; and so hate grew up in his heart, and the handsome Tu-ranga-taua was demanded of his mother as a sacrifice to the cannibal lusts of the chief. But she, having in mind the near relationship of her son to the ariki, refused her consent. Then follows, as so often occurs in the Native history, a song, very pretty

* In all these names beginning in Papa, we shall recognise those of the Moriori story, beginning in Pepe.

The Poporo-kewa of Maori story.

page 152in the original, but the translation is not worth giving. At last, after due ceremony and many messengers had come and gone, Apakura, with tears and lamentations, adorns her son in all the finery of savagedom, preparatory to the sacrifice. The boy now gives his parting words to his parent: "O my mother! This is my last word to thee. Thou shalt lament for me, and in so doing thou shalt call on one to avenge me. Thus shalt thou lament; and thou must remain where thou art, for when the sere ti-leaf falls across our threshold, thou wilt know that I am dead. And when thou seest this sign, upraise the cover of our drinking spring, and behold, if the waters thereof are red, then surely am I gone for ever." Thus saying, he kissed (rubbed noses with) his mother, and, taking his spear, departed.

Coming to the crowd around the ready-prepared oven, the ariki said, "Take and smite him! Let not his feet tread the paving of the marae, lest it be defiled." And then Tu-ranga-taua, with the words of a brave warrior uttered his challenge: "Tis Tu-ranga-taua of the Atu-apai! The son born of the gods! Stand off, ye oven-builders; and ye of the long spears; ye off-spring of the oven's smoke! Ye all shall flee before my spear, and all your heads, be they five hundred, shall lie in the dust!" He had advanced to the steps of the marae, where the ariki and his five hundred men were standing. "Seize him! smite him to his death!" cried the chief; and again Tu-ranga-taua uttered his challenge, at the same time attacking the crowd, he put them to flight. Again he attacked the bands under Apopo-te-akatinatina and Apopo-te-ivi-roa, which surrounded him on all sides, but he defeated them all, and reached the central part of the marae. Then, being much exhausted with his efforts, the other uncles attacked him, and Tu-ranga-taua fell under their blows.

page 153

When the morning came, the mother went forth lamenting her son, and to burn her house and gardens, as a token of desolation. And so she came in front of the sacred place, where the people were assembled, who cried out to the ariki, "Alas! she has even reached our sacred spot." The chief, in answer, said, "Why do ye cry out? Is not the son of Apakura within your coconut food baskets?" After a time others said, "O! she is in the very marae itself. Alas! she has burnt it with fire!" Again the ariki spoke, "Why speaks the mouth? Is he not within your baskets?" Not one answered to that; all mouths were closed. After a time said one, "We are all partakers of the same sin." The ariki speaking, reproved them, "Ye are like green coconuts, and foolish withal—the high chiefs, the priests, the orators, the leaders, the lesser chiefs; indeed, even the very warriors. Not one has a word of wisdom; the whole land is in fear. Not one of us shall remain alive—not a single one—because amongst ye there is not one that can speak a word to save us. We shall serve—we shall be slaves." And their hearts all sank at those words.

And how Apakura returned to her home and took her clothes and rent them, tearing off a fragment, and dying it in tumeric, and blackened it with tuitui (candle nut). Then she passed through the length of the land, seeking aid to revenge the death of her son; but no one would receive her. Again she returned, and taking another fragment of her clothing, again dyed and blackened it, this time passing over the breadth of the land, from end to end, but no one would receive or listen to her mission.

Disappointed in obtaining the succour she sought, Apakura now crossed to Avaiki (Savāi'i) to the brave descendants of Tangaroa-maro-uka: to Te Ariki-taania, to Tama-te-uru-mongamonga and to Rae-noo-upoko, the first page 154of whom welcomed her, and enquired her mission. "My child has been killed by my own brothers; Tu-ranga-taua is dead! Hence came I to you to avenge his death, the fame of your deeds and that of your brothers having spread afar. The opportunity has come, three canoes full of them are at sea this moment engaged in fishing." Then Te Ariki-taania arming his men, put to sea, and reached the Apai group where he met the brothers fishing. With pleasant words he inveigled them all into his own canoe, saying: "Let us all fish together, my brethren, and then proceed to your home; or, if you prefer it we will go to mine." "Where is thy home?" "Savāi'i!" "That is right; we will go to Savāi'i." Then with smooth words and cunning heart, the Ariki placed his guests in convenient order in his own canoe, where, having arranged his weapons, he threw a rope round their necks, and arising, "was soon cutting off their heads." Te Ariki-taania now returned, and reaching shore, gave the three heads to Apakura, saying, "Here are Tangiia-ua-roro, Te Mata-uri-o-papa, and Iriau-te-marama. But first let us swallow their eyeballs, as a token of what will be the fate of Orokeva-uru; so may he be crushed in my mouth."* But Te Ariki-taania now thought he had done enough, so sent Apakura away to his brothers, to Vakatau-i'i and Rae-noo-upoko, in the first of which names we recognise the Maori Whakatau, of whose deeds their histories and songs are full. The story goes on to describe her welcome at Savāi'i, and the lengthy preparations made by the brothers to avenge the death of their young relative—for the story says Apakura was their tuaine, a cousin probably. Then brave and warlike words were spoken as the expedition mustered and was reviewed on the beach, where

* Here we recognise a well-known Maori custom, often alluded to also in the Native history of Rarotonga.

page 155the swiftest and bravest were chosen, mustering 500 all told. The canoes were recaulked, new arms were hewn out, slings and stones collected, spears and clubs of many kinds made. Two months were occupied in these preparations, and then the canoes sailed for the Haapai group, off which they anchored some distance from the shore. Then came a messenger from the island saying, "Do not let us hurry, tomorrow we will fight," to which all agreed.

On the morrow, the shore was lined with the warriors of Haapai, and Orokeva-uru was heard giving his orders and directions to his people. It was now that Vaka-tau sent ashore his challenge to Orokeva-uru to fight in single combat, both being chiefs of equal rank. And so they commenced their long combat. At the same time Papatu of the Haapai people swam off to attack the canoes, but as soon as his head appeared above water it was cut off. Then followed Papa-neke, and Papa-noo, who shared the same fate. Now came Tāuu and Tapa-kati, thinking they would succeed, but their severed heads soon sank to the bottom, amidst the cheers of the invaders, whilst the hearts of those on shore sank within them. Vaka-tau and his opponent were all this time bravely fighting on the shore, whilst the former's people remained on board; and so it went on— "for seven nights" says the story, a little instance of Polynesian imagination—until Vaka-tau was wounded in the little finger by Orokeva's club, on which he returned on board to recruit before renewing the contest. Rae-noo-upoko, taking advantage of the night, went ashore, where he devised a cunning snare in the place where Orokeva was to stand next morning when the fight again began, and carried the end of the rope attached to the snare on board his vessel.

page 156

When the two warriors met again on the beach in the morning, a fiercer struggle than ever set in. "They strove from early dawn till the sun was high in the sky," says the narrative," and then came the pulling of the rope from the vessel; Orokeva was caught; he fell; Vakatau sprang on him, and soon Orokeva's head was on board Vakatau's vessel." And now it was arranged that Vakatau should remain aboard with 100 men, whilst Rae-noo-upoko proceeded ashore with 400 followers to destroy the people of Atu-Apai, root and branch. A great destruction followed—the houses were burnt, much booty was obtained, and many were killed. Apopo-te-akatinatina and Apopo-te-ivi-roa fled before Vakatau's brother, Tama-te-ura-mongamonga, until they reached the far side of the island, where, hastily lading a canoe, with a few of their people they took to the sea, and eventually made their way to Rarotonga, where they were the. first inhabitants, or tangata-uenua, whose descendants were found there 375 years after by Tangiia in the year 1250.

And now, the warriors having done their work, they set up Apakura's youngest son, Vaea-ma-kapua, as ariki over the Haapai group.

A reference to page 161 of vol. iv. of the Journal of the Polynesian Society, will show the Moriori account of this incident, which differs merely in detail from the above brief abstract of the long Rarotongan story. In "Polynesian Mythology," p. 61, is one of the Maori versions of the same event; but there are many others, and, but for the account of the burning of the temple or house—Te Uru-o-Manono—they are remarkably like that just given, derived from Rarotonga.

Through Apakura, the connection between the Raro-tongan tangata-uenua, or first settlers there, and the Maoris can be shown. Thus, Apakura's two brothers, both named page 157Apopo (the Hapopo of Maori History), fled to Rarotonga, and there settled; and as Apakura has plenty of descendants amongst the Maoris, the connection is clear. These events occurred about the year 875.

In the times above mentioned, some of the people were still living in Fiji, whilst—as has been shown—others were living in Tonga, Haapai, Savai'i, Upōlu, and no doubt also in Vavau, though there is little mention of this island about this period. One of the contemporaries of Apakura was Tuna-ariki, and he lived in Fiji, where a war broke out at this time about Ava-rua, a place which appears to have been one of the principal settlements there, and after which, it is probable, several other places of the same name in Eastern Polynesia were named. This war was between Tuna-ariki and Tu-ei-puku, the latter being beaten in the struggle, and the au, or government, seized by Tuna-ariki, Tu-ei-puku being finally killed by a puaka-uru-kivi, which means a boar striped like a tiger.

Tu-ei-puku's son was Kati-ongia, about whom is the saying Kua ariki Kati-ongia; kua au Kuporu ("Kati-ongia became the ruling chief; Upōlu secured peace," or Upōlu ruled), showing that—probably after his father's defeat— he had removed to and become chief of Upōlu. Kati-ongia is one of the few names that can be recognised on Samoan genealogies; its Samoan form is 'Ati-ongie, identically the same name, but, as has been shown, the difference in the genealogical period precludes their being the same individual.

Kati-ongia's grandson was the famous Atonga, who also was a great chief in Upōlu, and in whose time was built the celebrated canoe, which made the many voyages over so large an extent of the Pacific Ocean as related in the Rev. J. B. Stair's "Samoan Voyages."* In his time

* Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol. iv., p. 99.

page 158also flourished Rătă-vare—according to Rarotongan history the guardian of the forest in which the canoe was built, but in Maori story the actual builder and navigator of it. Atonga's son was Te-Ara-tanga-nuku, the first navigator to use this wonderful canoe, and he flourished in Upōlu in the year 950. In Atonga's time lived Tupua-ki-Amoa,* who was possibly one of the early members of the Tupua family of Samoa, whose descendant is Mataafa, now living.

It is clear that from about this epoch Fiji ceased to play the important part it had done since the times of Tu-tarangi (a.d. 450), or for 500 years, and that the people had spread out from there to most parts of the Pacific. Since the times of Ui-te-rangiora in 650, if we may judge from the silence of the Native History as to any notable voyages, or the mention of any lands other than those in the Western Pacific, it would appear that there had been a partial cessation of expeditions undertaken for the purpose of colonization, though, no doubt, com-munication was kept up with Eastern Polynesia. It is also clear that just about the times of Te Ara-tanga-nuku, or in 950, a fresh impulse was given to navigation, and from this time forward for many years these Rarotonga-Maoris were frequently passing from east to west, and to the south, but communication does not appear to have been re-opened yet with Hawaii for nearly two hundred years from the period of Te Ara-tanga-nuku.

We can only surmise the cause of this apparent increase of nautical adventure at this time, for the Native History is silent about it. I would suggest that it was due to the increase of the Melanesian half-caste element in Fiji, which must have been growing for some time past, and that

* Amoa is the name of a place on the north-east coast of Savãi'i.

page 159it was due to their pressure on the Polynesians that they began about this time to move eastward. It is abundantly clear, from physiology and language, that there was a time when the Melanesians and Polynesians mixed in marriage. I suppose this would occur by the conquest of the latter to a certain small extent, and the People of Niue, Polynesians slightly mixed with Melanesians. capture of Polynesian women, for I think the racial dislike of the Polynesians for black people would prevent a large number of free connections. The result of this mixture is the present Fiji people, which is most noticeable in the Eastern or Lau Group of the Fiji Archipelago, where, it is said, the people are lighter in colour, and where the Polynesians must have been in strongest numbers.
page 160

It seems to me probable that Polynesian cannibalism is traceable to this period of their history, and that they learnt it from their Melanesian neighbours in Fiji. The branches of the race that have been most addicted to this practice are the Maoris, the Rarotongans, the Paumotuans and the Marquesans. In Samoa it was unknown, and was very little practised in Hawaii* and Tahiti. The reason for this would appear to be—in the case of the Samoans, that they occupied their group before the subsequent arrival in Fiji of what we call the Maori-Rarotongan branch, who mixed more with the Melanesians than did the Samoans. It is true that there was an old custom in Samoa of offering a prisoner to a chief, tied up in coco-nut leaves, ready for "baking" but he was never eaten. This has been stated to be a relic of the time when they were cannibals; but once cannibals, why not always cannibals, as were Maoris and others? Rather, I think, is this a custom that was introduced into Samoa as a mark of humiliation and degradation, based on the known fact that their Maori-Rarotongan and Melanesian neighbours adopted this custom, not that the Samoans themselves were ever cannibals any more than their remote ancestors in India and Indonesia were. The very few references to cannibalism in Samoan traditions may, I think, be traced to a recollection of the Maori-Rarotongan occupation of the coasts of that group.

With respect to the Tahitians; if, as seems likely, their genealogies show only from forty to fifty generations of residence in that group, then they spread there somewhere about the period of the great Rarotongan navigator, Ui-te-rangiora, and therefore before the closer connection of Polynesians and Melanesians took place in

* Professor Alexander says, not at all.

page 161Fiji, or at any rate before this intercourse was sufficient to influence Polynesian customs. The prevalence of cannibalism at Tahiti to a small extent would be due to the influence of later migrations from Fiji (of which there appear to have been several), and after the original settlers in Tahiti had become numerous.

It is the same with Hawaii. It has been shown that it was about A.D. 650 that this group was first settled, and the strong inference is, from Fiji.* This, again, would be before the time of the Melanesian connection. Fornander has shown that the Hawaiians remained, isolated until about the year 1150, when the southern Polynesians again appeared on the scene, and these southern visitors, who have been shown to be frequently Maori and Rarotongan ancestors, must have been well acquainted with cannibalism. That their customs did not spread in Hawaii—at any rate, to any extent—is due probably to the original inhabitants being in sufficient numbers to make their objection to it felt.

In the Marquesas, if we take the period of Nuku of their genealogies—about 50 generations ago—as that at which the islands were first settled, this would be before Melanesian customs affected Fiji. Therefore we may accredit the later and frequent visitors from Fiji

* I judge from Fornander that the Hawaiians have no tradition of any Hawaiki (Savāi'i) in the Pacific, but in their word Ka-hiki we may probably trace the name Fiji as well as Ta-hiti. Dr. Turner quotes Tafiti as a Samoan name for Fiji. Again, it is probable that the Hawaiian expression, Kukulu-o-Kahiki, is meant for the Fiji group. In Maori this is Tuturu-o-Whiti, a name, I feel convinced, they applied to Fiji, meaning the original or true Whiti (Fiji) in contradistinction to Tawhiti (Tahiti), the second place of their sojourn in the Central Pacific. The Hawaiian word has since become generalised, as with the Maori Hawaiki.

page 162with having introduced the custom there. In the early years of last century they were as inveterate cannibals as either Maori or Rarotongan. It is very clear, from the Rarotonga histories, that the connection between the Marquesans and the Maori-Rarotongans is very close, and has been continued from early days down to the thirteenth century. The connection was that of blood relations, and also frequently as bitter enemies— conditions which do not conflict in Polynesia.

With regard to cannibalism amongst the Maoris, there are several clear allusions in their traditions to one of their female ancestors named Whaitiri, the wife of Kai-tangata, having been the first cannibal. Maori and Hawaiian genealogies are concordant as to the position Whaitiri genealogythese people occupy in their histories, which is as noted in the margin. It has already been shown that the period of Tawhaki as deduced from both Maori and Rarotongan sources, is 46 and 48 generations ago, or in other words, about the year a.d. 700. This date is about from 200 to 250 years after the first occupation of the Fiji group by the Polynesians, and it therefore seems a fair inference that the tradition as to Whaitiri being the first cannibal, is true, and that it was in Fiji that she and her husband lived. It is probable that she was a Melanesian, and that she induced her husband to become a cannibal and thus receive the distinguishing name of Kai-tangata, or man-eater.

It is a somewhat remarkable thing that, in the numerous Polynesian traditions with which we are now acquainted, so few positive statements can be found in reference to the black Melanesian race, with which the Polynesians must so page 163often have come in contact. The only precise statement I know of is that mentioned in the Supplement to the Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol. v, p. 6,* where they are faithfully described, and said to have been living in a neighbouring island to Waerota, the then home of the Maori branch of the Polynesians, an island which is known to be in the vicinity of Fiji, but which island is uncertain. There are also a few statements in old Maori chants, which probably refer to the Melanesians, but they are very obscure. Some of the very many meanings of the Maori words tupua, "odd, out-landish, demon, weird-one," found so often in their chants and traditions, seem to me to be names for these people. It is just such a name as they would give them at the present day. It is similar in meaning to the Rarotonga taae, which has been already suggested as a descriptive name for the Melanesians.

Fornander, writing of this period, says, "Of that intercourse, contest and hostility between the Papuan (Melanesian) and Polynesian races, there are several tra ditionary reminiscences among the Polynesian tribes, embodied in their mythology or retained as historical facts, pointing to past collisions and stimulating to future reprisals," but he does not particularise the statements.

In this connection, another question arises: Why did not the Polynesians use the bow and arrows? For they must have seen the effect of them with the Melanesians. Of course, they did use them as an amusement, and for shooting birds &c, but I believe never in war. It is due to the conservatism of the race that they did not use the bow and arrow. Their system of fighting—with few exceptions, was always hand to hand; and this was so much ingrained in the race, like other customs, that they never used the

* Already quoted, see ante.

page 164bow—only useful in fighting at a distance. It was against the custom of their ancestors of India and Indonesia, and hence improper in them. They did, however, use the sling-stone of which mention is often made in the Rarotongan history, but it is probable that they did not learn this from the Melanesians—it was an old custom. The Rarotonga and Niue name for a sling-stone, is maka, the Maori word People of Tonga, Polynesian type. to sling or throw; it was cast by the hand without the use of the sling. In Niuē the stones are polished and shaped like eggs.

According to Mariner, the Tongans ate human flesh occasionally, but it was a custom apparently of recent introduction from Fiji as, no doubt, was that of their use of the bow and arrow. Besides the Rarotongan and Maori element in the Tongans, which may be inferred from what has preceded, there was a Samoan one also. The Rev. J. E. Moulton told me that in the time of Ahoeitu, or about page 165thirty-two generations ago, there was a migration of Samoans to Tonga, who settled near Ha'amonga on the N.E. end of Tonga-tapu and who were the builders of the Langi, or stone graves with steps. From that place they subsequently removed to Mua. This would be about the year 1050. But if these migrants were Samoans—properly so called—why do we see no trace of the Langi in Samoa at the present time? It is more likely that these fresh settlers on Tonga were some of the Maori-Rarotongans, who had a knowledge of this step-form of structure, as is shown in the Tahitian marae.