The Early Journals of Henry Williams
IV — March to December 1830
March to December 1830
“Girls' War” — Marsden Arrives — Fighting at Thames — School examinations.
Monday, 1 March, 1830. The brethren assembled from the Kerikeri and Rangihoua by eleven o'clock to attend the language meeting. Ururoa and the natives from Wangaroa, Matauri, &c., assembled at Rangihoua to come against Korararika.1 Commenced examining the translation of 10 chap. of St. Mathew. In the evening held the monthly prayer meeting.
Tuesday, 2. All day at translation. The Ann, Capt. Christie, and an American whaler arrived.
Wednesday, 3. The brethren returned. Natives passed through settlement to go to Kororarika in its defence.
Thursday, 4. Went up to Wangai. Only two sick men there and a few old women and some children. Many painful feelings at the hardness of the heart of the people. Almost every girl on board the ship. Had some very serious conversation with Pumuka while coming the river, who hung on to the boat in his canoe. He passed on to Kororarika to join the party there.
Friday, 5. Ururoa and his party came over from Rangihoua and pulled in to Paroa bay2 and landed at the back of Kororarika. Obs'd all Kororarika in motion. About 10 o'clock Messrs. Brown, Davis, my brother and self went over to learn the state of matters, and endeavoured to pacify the angry dispositions of the two parties. We found Warenui, Rewa and Titore sitting there, who usually page 156 belonged to the opposite people. They were well disposed. It was proposed that Warenui with us should go over the hill to Ururoa to learn their disposition. We found Tohitapu in the midst of the council making an harangue. As soon as we came in sight they received us in a most gracious manner and prepared the way for us. We took our station for the purpose of speaking to them which they desired us to do and commanded silence that all might hear. We communicated with them as freely as ever we had done and nothing was more satisfactory than the attention they paid. They afterwards turned out their forces that we might see their strength. Tohitapu who is on the opposite side greatly admired them and with feelings of great pride, pointing to the different tribes exclaimed, Those are mine, and those are mine. We returned after two hours to Rewa. There appeared a general understanding that peace would be made in the morng. Kiwikiwi3 and Toe4 expressed a wish that should the canoes come round in the morng. some of us should go over. I did not myself apprehend any mischief.
Saturday, 6. About 9 o'clock much firing at Kororarika and by our glasses could observe persons running in all directions and the canoes pulling off to the shipping filled with people. Mr. Davis and I immediately went over in the boat, and after communicating with Capt. King on board the Royal Sovereign went on shore to endeavour to put a stop to the firing. Landed at the scene of action, but could not see anyone of any rank, as all were concealed by fences and screens. The parties were about 20 yards apart. I made as much noise as I could, but to no immediate effect. Passed on to our old friend Tohitapu, who with the Roroa were resting on their arms at the extremity of the beach. I endeavoured to persuade him to accompany me to the opposite party to draw them off, but he would not move. Tuaiangi5 a young chief was deputed to accompany me. We had not proceeded far before the firing ceased. Rewa came forward and waved to the parties to desist. As we drew to the spot we learnt that many were killed and wounded. I was conducted to Ururoa, who was scarcely able to speak. However numbers surrounded me and all attention was given to what I had to say. They acknowledged the correctness of our argument with them, page 157 and that they were urged to this madness by Satan. In a short time the Boats landed from the shipping to witness the distressing scene. Many were dead, others dying, and the wounded no one knew. I here observed with great wonder the conduct of this people. Within a quarter of an hour after the firing ceased, very many of each party were dispersed indiscriminately amongst their opponents, and we found that parents, children and brothers had been fighting against each other.—After some refreshment on board of Cap. Dean's ship we returned on shore, and walked to Ururoa's party. When we had ascended the hill we heard a confused noise of crying, talking, dancing, and an occasional discharge of gun. We had an immediate assembly around us to hear what we had to say: every attention was paid. Before we left them they assembled their force and had a haka. It was generally understood that the party would go round in the morng. to Kororarika. On our return to Paihia we found a number of wounded waiting to be dressed. Noise of voices all night.
Sunday, 7. At first dawn of day was awoke by the firing of musketry at Kororarika, before sunrise it ceased. About seven o'clock observed Ururoa's canoes crossing the bay for Moturoa. Canoes from Kororarika arriving all day with men women and children, bringing with them all their possessions. Our service delayed on account of the wounded. The natives out-side making a great noise, but quiet in their behaviour. At 3 p.m. observed the houses on fire at Kororarika and all the canoes leaving the beach and pulling in various directions. At sunset the Roroa with Tohitapu came to our beach to take up their quarters with us, and shortly after Rewa with his family. All was commotion and various reports as to the intention of the Ngapui. Kept a watch through the night to observe the motion of friends and foes. At 11 p.m. my brother pulled over to Kororarika to learn the state of things. All quiet.
Monday, 8. A few guns fired in the night. Had much conversation with Rewa and Tohitapu; but neither was disposed to interfere in this matter. They said they were angry and tired; they had endeavoured to preserve the peace, but notwithstanding all, they had fought and many were killed. They said it would be well for us to go to the parties and endeavour to keep them apart. After breakfast I went across to Tarea and Moka, &c., &c., and inquired their disposition. They were very unsettled in their opinion and wished to know the tone of the enemy and proposed that we should see them. Pulled on board of Cap. King. While there the Elizabeth Brig from Port Jackson arrived with Mr. Marsden and his daughter. No tidings of the Haweis ! !—But few letters.
Tuesday, 9. Mr. Marsden and I went up to the Pa where the page 158 Kawakawa natives were assembled. Every attention was paid to what we had to say and it was unanimously agreed that Kororarika should be given up to the opposite party, as a payment for Hengi6 and the numbers slain. The universal word was peace. We afterwards pulled to Kororarika, when they appeared desirous for peace, and it was agreed that Tarea and Titore should accompany us to Ururoa, who was at Moturoa. The wind being favourable we soon arrived, and had a very pleasant conversation. All with the exception of one or two appeared disposed for peace.
Wednesday. 10. At daylight the Urikapana passed through the settlement. They stopt for a short time to hear the news and to see Mr. Marsden. After dinner went over to Kororarika to see Ururoa, who had just come from Moturoa. He said it would be needful to wait till all had assembled before peace was made. He appeared apprehensive that the opposite party was not sincere.
Thursday, 11. After breakfast Rewa, Mr. Marsden and I went up to the Pa. We hoisted the white flag by Rewa's request as a signal that we were come to treat for peace. On our arrival all assembled; and I told them that we were come to receive their instruction as to the message to Ururoa. Whether peace or war, it was now high time, before the assembling of the multitude. They replied that it was very good, but that Ururoa must depute some Chief to meet them in the pa, and afterwards some one from the pa should go to them. This being concluded, we proceeded to Kororarika and met Ururoa and other chiefs. They appeared of one opinion, but they waited the arrival of Mango and Kakaha, the sons of Hengi, the chief of Tako who was killed, as the duty of seeking revenge now devolves upon them for the death of the father. I told Ururoa we were weary of going about, but he and others replied that we must not be weary, but strong and courageous, that should these two men come in the course of the night, they would send a canoe over to us, and peace should be concluded in the morning.—Every appearance of bad weather.
Friday, 12. Blowing strong from the Northd. with occasional rain. Could not move from the settlement.
Saturday, 13. Rain through the night. At breakfast Tohitapu came and spoke about the necessity of making peace; that the distant tribes would arrive and then there would be no restraining them.
Sunday, 14. Tohitapu and Rewa very urgent that communication should be held with Ururoa and others at Kororarika, as several page 159 canoes were observed to pull over from Moturoa. I therefore went over by myself and took the opportunity speaking to them upon their present state, and offers of eternal peace held out by Jesus Christ. All were inclined for peace. In the evening service as usual. Rewa and Warerahi came from the Pa apparently under much concern by the delay in making peace.
Monday, 15. Rain during the whole day. Did not move out of the settlement.
Tuesday, 16. After breakfast Mr. Davis and I went to Moturoa to see Kakaha and Mango, the sons of Hengi. When in the middle of the bay we picked up old Kopiri who was in a small skiff of a canoe and would certainly have been upset had we not gone to his assistance. The natives at Moturoa appeared disposed to hear all we had to say, and before we left they said they should pull over in the morning and perhaps might go up the river.
Wednesday, 17. At sunrise observed a great number of canoes and that many were pulling towards the entrance of the river. Launched two boats, each having a white flag, and pulled to the canoes which had landed. The natives had run to an eminence, from which they could have a view of the pa. They danced for some time and fired their pieces. Tetore with the canoes from Kororarika joined us, and all pulled some distance up the river.— It appeared that Kamera7 was deputed as the principal person to make peace, he and Uhu were in a small, broken canoe which would but just hold them. He told us that as we had brought them for the purpose of making peace, should the pa fire upon them and kill them we should be killed as a satisfaction. We pulled on and with much hesitation the peace makers landed. We were conducted up the hill, and after some time the speeches began. They consisted in disconnected sentences. The general tenor was desire for peace. Some said they should go to Kaipara some to Wangari; after which they all assembled, danced and discharged their guns several times, and appeared highly delighted at their fine appearance. We were now glad to depart. After dinner commenced our committee business.
Thursday, 18. The natives, who went up with us yesterday to make peace, came down this morning with some from the pa on their way to Kororarika to ratify the peace. We accompanied them in two boats, as yesterday, and every mark of native respect was page 160 shewn to us. The speeches were much better than yesterday. After all was concluded we returned to Paihia and resumed our committee business.
Friday, 19. A considerable number of natives in the settlement from the Pa and from Kororarika returning to their respective places.
Saturday, 20. Rain nearly the whole day.
Sunday, 21. Heavy rain till the afternoon.
Monday, 22. Fine. Mr. Marsden went to the Kerikeri. Many flying reports respecting the Natives inland.
Wednesday, 24. Ururoa, Tarea, and other chiefs came over from Kororarika—extremely polite. In the afternoon a large party from Taeamai, to see a wounded man who is here. At sunset all the Ngateraheri took up their abode in the settlement on their way to the pa, which they intend to make strong. Much jealousy existing amongst all parties. We alone and our natives appear to sit in the midst of all this commotion without a single care or anxious feeling, tho every tribe is under arms and ready for immediate destruction. The conduct of the natives belonging to the settlement most pleasing, all circumstances considered: each at his occupation through the day, and in the evening the greater part assembling at one house or other for spiritual instruction and prayer: the natives without gaze and wonder.
Thursday, 11 November. Many weeks have now passed since I have been enabled to sit quietly down to note the many gracious dealings of the Lord with us, and those immediately around us. I have again and again desired to state to you all which has gladdened our hearts, but the multiplicity of interruptions and engagements and duties which continually occur to us have hitherto prevented me. In my last communication I mentioned that we were about to enter our new dwelling. We have been in it nearly a month. The change is very great, and Mrs. W. already experiences an important change in her domestic duties. The children also are more orderly and correct in their behaviour, also the Native girls and boys. We trust we shall experience much saving of time in every branch of duty, beside the comfort of having our household ordered according to the good english fashion. The little building which we have so long inhabited, my brother at present occupies, but we purpose to convert it into a girls school as soon as vacant. I shall now endeavour to give you particular accounts of our progress in the good work, of which we have encouragements. This people may be said to have been a stiff necked and rebellious people, but the changes which have been wrought are page 161 very manifest. All at present are quiet, tho there has been in some a strong disposition to bloodshed, in consequence of that painful affair at Kororarika, but the Lord hath overruled even that for good, and hath given us much grace in the sight of the people. But you will more particularly rejoice to hear of several of those living in the settlement becoming sincere children of God, and walking as becometh their high calling. Some few have been called to their eternal home, and evidenced a clear and steadfast faith to their dying moments, rejoicing in the prospects before them. Their language was simple and very pleasing.
Two in my own family have died lately in a very happy state. The first, whose name was Rape, had been in the settlement about 5 years, had always shewn a careless disposition towards the school and spiritual instruction, tho evidently attached to us. For several weeks previous to his dissolution he appeared much changed in disposition. He used to join the little assemblies which met in the evening for prayer and religious conversation. When he became too unwell for this he would request some who had been baptised to come to him and converse on the love of Jesus Christ to sinners, and would express his delight in him and his assurance of forgiveness through his atoning merits. He was very patient, and his general conduct so entirely changed, his desire so evident for religious conversation, that his mind might be stayed on the Lamb of God, that he might be preserved in peace while passing through the valley of the shadow of death—as to cause a considerable effect upon many of the other natives. We considered it proper to comply with his desire that he should be baptised previous to his death, as there was no prospect of his recovery. I was not at home when he died but the accounts were very encouraging, and afforded many opportunities of conversation upon these important subjects. The second boy I mentioned was Wakawehi one of the first lads in the school, always desirous of instruction, but by no means seriously disposed a few months since. About eight months ago he left us in a moment of displeasure, and went and resided with his relatives in the interior. After about four months' absence he returned ill. His friends remonstrated with him for returning to us. He replied that we should take care of him, but that no one would if he remained at the native place. He attributed his first impression of spiritual things to the visit of one of my youths, Matiu8, a baptised native, to a little boy who lay sick in the same house with him. He then began to see his state by nature, and to feel the need of a Saviour. page 162 Tho with great difficulty he moved from place to place, as his complaint was dropsy, he would come and converse about the one thing needful. He would state his ignorance and desire to be taught, he would say that he cared not to die, and towards his end would sometimes shed tears when speaking upon the love of the Saviour towards sinful people. He would remark, “Some may say that these tears are vain boasting, and that I do not feel what I say. I do not want to talk with them, but I desire to see you all. When I converse upon these subjects my mind is filled with light and joy, but when I am left I grow faint.” He gradually grew worse, yet the state of his mind was evidently clear. He had a great desire to be baptised, that he might more particularly be devoted to the Lord. He had long spoken of this, and it gave him much pleasure to speak upon the subject. I was with him when he died. He had inquired for me, and when I entered his little appartment he held out his hand, and appeared pleased. He desired some of those who were present to provide a seat for me, that he might see me better. He was unable to enter into conversation, but observed, “You perhaps think I am going to the Po, but I am not. I am going to Jesus.” Having said this he immediately died. Most of the baptised natives were present. They were greatly struck at his peaceful departure. Tho it was a mournful circumstance to us that this lad should be removed from us, owing to the great mortality which has taken place for many months amongst us, that is generally through the land, and which the natives attribute to us, yet we rejoiced in the belief that another was gone to glory. Oh I trust the reflection upon these things will excite us to greater diligence, and to more earnest prayer that the Lord may be with us to direct us in all our ways. We have nine natives baptised in this settlement and several who are candidates. Though this number is small the time was when that number of natives would not remain with us, but now we are extending and are nearly 200 souls here. The citadel of the great enemy is giving way, and we have great cause to rejoice. When we look back and compare the present day with those we have witnessed, we cannot but thank God and take courage. His promise is sure, we have found it so, and His arm has been very manifest on our behalf, for nothing but the spirit's operation could have wrought upon the minds of this people. In another month our examination is to take place here of which I shall give you a particular account, as also of all other circumstances.
Messrs. Fairburn and Chapman with my brother went up the Waikari for the purpose of purchasing a portion of land, on which is standing a considerable quantity of timber, for the use of the page 163 settlement, which was accomplished to satisfaction. In the evening I met the natives in the Chapel, those of them who are more especially desirous of spiritual knowledge.
Friday, 12. A Brig anchored at Kororarika. For several months past have suffered considerably from the Rheumatism, and these last two days have been unable to do anything but write and read, tho my presence is much required amongst my boys.
Saturday, 13. The Brig proved to be the Industry from Port Jackson. No particular news.
Monday, 22. Mr. Mair went to Wangaroa, to make arrangements for projected departure from the service of the mission.
Tuesday, 23. Much better in my health, the rheumatism much removed. Messrs. Brown Fairburn and I went to the Pa, to visit the natives there. Considerable alarm had been expressed by the Natives of a renewal of hostilities concerning the late battle at Kororarika. Great number of them assembled there to meet an attack. The Brig Bee arrived from the Southd. Accounts of much fighting in that quarter. The natives attentive.
Wednesday, 24. The City of Edinburgh Cap. Clendon9 arrived from the River Thames, with accounts of fighting amongst the natives there. All had behaved respectfully to his ship. By messengers from Hokianga we learnt, that some Chiefs had been killed there but a day or two before, which had thrown them into considerable commotion.
Thursday, 25. Several canoes obs'd early this morning pulling towards Kororarika. Learnt in the course of the day that the friends of Hengi had paid them a visit, to cry at the spot where he had fallen, and to perform some further ceremonies.
Friday, 26. Fine sea-breeze. The Prince of Denmark arrived from the Southd. No news. All in the settlement in considerable consternation, owing to news just heard, which we consider as relating to the sufferers of the Hawies. Capn. Brind when last here brought an account that he had communicated with some natives at Tongatapu, who were just from the Navigators Islands, who stated that a Brig had touched there and landed some people, and that amongst them were two females, one of whom had died, and one had been delivered of a boy. Upon enquiries, it appeared that several persons had heard Cap. Brind speak of the circumstance, and also that he page 164 had mentioned the same to Mr. Mair, who communicated the same to Mr. Fairburn, but here it appeared to stop.
Saturday, 27. Wind from Eastd. Hazy, appearance of a gale. The Tranmur Brig arrived from the Southd. Concluded to hold some communication with the owner of the Bee to go to the Navigators Islands, to discover if possible any of our friends, and to offer him £500 should he succeed in rescuing them, and to land them in Tongatapu, but himself to run all risque. Mr. Fairburn went over to him. He appeared very ready to go. Nothing concluded, as the weather is bad.
Sunday, 28. The master of the Bee came on shore: did not appear disposed to go to the Navigators.
Monday, 29. A gale from the eastd, much rain through the day.
Tuesday, 30. Gale continued, heavy rain all day. In the afternoon the master of the Bee came on shore. Could not come to any conclusion with him. The Prince of Denmark sailed.
Wednesday, 1 December. The gale broke. At Noon the Bee and Industry sailed.
Thursday, 2. Mr. Hobbs from Kerikeri and Mr. Shepherd from Rangihoua arrived. All well.
Friday, 3. Mr. and Mrs. Hobbs and family arrived, also Mr. Yate from the Kerikeri. In the afternoon the Active10 hove in sight. Went on board. A good passage from Sydney. No English letters.
Friday, 10. Strong breezes during these last few days from the Westd. Closely engaged in preparation for the meeting in repairing the plaster of the Chapel—white-washing—painting, repairing fences, and putting all in order—the natives as much interested as ourselves—that our visitors should be received as respectfully as our circumstances will allow. Cap. Clendon sailed this morning for England. The Prince of Denmark for the Colony. Mr. and Mrs. White arrived from the Kerikeri to attend the meeting.
Saturday, 11. Very fine—wind W. This eveng. everyone unusually tired. The prospect of a quiet Sabbath quite refreshing—closed all work by six o'clock.
Sunday, 12. After morning service we went to the Pa—found all in a sad state of preparation for our purpose owing to a large party of Ngaterairi having landed, in the midst of the relation of the noble deeds they had accomplished to the Southd. just having ret'd from thence. Considering that Satan and his emissaries would flee page 165 when pursued, and that we spoke by authority of the Lord of Hosts, we immediately proceeded to call off their attention, and reproved them quietly for this abuse of the sacred Day of God. Maru-po a great savage was delivering his speech at the time. He said but a few words in reply to our observations and sat down. We then divided, and kept the whole party closely engaged in conversation for an hour. Many of the people were from Wangaree, and appeared well pleased to hear us. We could not remain longer with them. Upon the whole we had a gratifying visit, and tho they might renew their conversation, we broke the heart of the meeting, and were enabled to declare the name and promise of the Lord. They made several enquiries as to when our Meeting would take place. We did not give any invitations, lest we should have four or five hundred of our friends to see us independent of the Schools. The attention shewn by our boys and girls to the catechism and to their learning generally is well deserving of mention. For many days we hear them repeating, morning, noon and night—indeed they are most indefatigable, and most of them have today assembled themselves of their own accord in groups for this purpose. It is more striking as we have been obliged from the pressure of work greatly to neglect the school of late.
Monday, 13. Very fine. Sea breeze through the day. Several parties of natives arrived from Kororarika, the Pa and elsewhere, evidently to attend the meeting. They were exceedingly quiet. All the boys in high glee and hard at work. I was much astonished this afternoon at witnessing two persons having a native cry, and several of the girls, relatives of the parties, sitting close repeating the catechism, apparently regardless of what was taking place: nothing can exceed their desire to perfect themselves for the examination. Very hot.
Tuesday, 14. A fine, pleasant morning. No wind. After breakfast went and paid my respects to our friends outside the fences, calculated them at near 500, all sitting as quietly as possible. About 8.30 the boats hove in sight, and came forward in a very pleasing manner. The uniform appearance of the boys gave an imposing effect. Our own boys formed a line of their own accord to receive them, and each saluted the other with three hearty cheers. All was immediate bustle on conducting our visitors to their respective quarters. Several more canoes arrived in the course of the day. At 3 p.m. the European Service. Mr. Yate preached—after which the sacrament was administered. In the evening all the children were assembled together to tea, 49 in number—an important part of our community.
Wednesday, 15. All in motion at break of day preparing for the page 166 dinner. Were enabled to commence service at 9 o'clock, and conclude the examination a little after 12. With great difficulty all were admitted into the Chapel, a very imposing sight. The out-door natives appeared highly gratified, and gathered near that they might see all that was going forward. Several parties arrived this morning, and at 2 o'clock when the food was served there were not less than 1000 strangers, besides the schools. And as they were the same people who had fought at Kororarika, every one was armed, yet perfect order was observed. A more gratifying sight had never been witnessed in this land. In the evening the natives of the schools were regaled with tea and gingerbread—retired to rest exceedingly tired.
Thursday, 16. Fine—Distributed the prizes this morning—did not hear a single murmur, or expression of disapprobation—all was concluded by noon. After dinner the respective families left, being much fatigued by the exertion of the last week. Tatai, a baptized native, belonging to Mr. Fairburn, was buried, having died in the night. In the evening went to Tohitapu, had some conversation respecting the disturbance at Hokianga. He proposed to hold communication with Titore in the morning.
Friday, 17. Messrs. White and Hobbs with myself and Tohitapu went to Titore. After much talking it was proposed that Messrs. White and Hobbs should proceed by themselves and learn the true state of affairs. If the Chiefs should be disposed to treat for peace then Titore and others with some of us should go over. Near midnight before we returned.
Saturday, 18. Mr. Hobbs proceeded to Hokianga, leaving Mrs. H. and the two children. Mr. and Mrs. White returned to the KeriKeri.
Sunday, 19. After service went up to the pa—not many natives there. Kawiti11 and Morunga12 paid their usual attention—a daughter of each returned with me to the school. They spoke of the very unsettled state of the Natives.
Monday, 20. Fine—a strong sea breeze. Tohitapu and I went up the river to see the extent of his land, in order to purchase to sufficient distance to prevent Europeans coming too close to settle near the settlement. Did not come to any treaty with him. Had page 167 considerable conversation with the Roroa. They are very hard, but behaved well. But very few children amongst them.
Tuesday, 21. Went up the Kerikeri at daylight—called on Titore in the way—his remarks very pleasing—had some considerable conversation with him and those with him.
Wednesday, 22. In the afternoon ret'd from the Kerikeri. Mr. Yate came down with me—arranged for his departure.
1 This is the beginning of what became known as the “Girls' War”.
2 “Called at Paroa Bay formerly the residence of Korokoro whom Mr. Marsden has often mentioned, and of Tuai who visited England. It is a pleasant spot, but is now entirely destitute of permanent inhabitants; the settlements were broken up by Hongi's party three years ago. Instead of two populous villages we now find only one family which is at the mercy of any person who may choose to plunder them.… There are sites of several villages in the same neighbourhood now lying desolate. The former inhabitants have either been cut off in wars with the natives at the southward or are dispersed among the neighbouring tribes.” [W.W., Journal, 13 April 1829.]
3 Kiwikiwi, a chief of the Uritaniwha tribe, living at Kororareka. The action of his wife in attacking and burning the hair of one of the girls living with Captain Brind caused the “Girls' War”. Peace was achieved by the intervention of the missionaries, and by Kiwikiwi ceding Kororareka to Ururoa as utu.
5 Tuaiangi, of the Roroa tribe.
6 Hengi, a chief of the Ngati-Rehia, who lived at Te Ngaere, Takou. He was killed at Kororareka in the “Girls' War”.
7 More correctly, Te Kemara, a famous tohunga much trusted by Hongi Heka. His name originally was Tareha [not to be confused with Tareha of Waimate]. As a result of an incident in Hick's Bay in one of Hongi's expeditions, he was named Kaitieke, and later assumed the name Te Kemara, or Campbell. He owned Te Ti at the mouth of the Waitangi River. [Kelly, The Conquest of the Ngare-Raumati: J.P.S., vol. 47, p167.]
9 Captain James Reddy Clendon, a London merchant and ship-owner, began trade with New Zealand in 1828. Purchasing land from Pomare and others in 1832, he opened a trading station at Okiato in partnership with Samuel Stephenson. During Busby's Residency he reached a position of influence, and was the first U.S.A. consul in the Bay of Islands [1832–41]. Okiato was selected by Felton Mathew in 1840 as a seat for the New Zealand Government, but this was rejected by Governor Gipps.
10 The schooner Herald had proved so valuable that the C.M.S. bought the Active to take her place. Although built in England she was not a very seaworthy craft.
11 Kawiti, chief of the Ngati-Hine hapu of Ngapuhi, whose kainga was at Waiomio. An able and courageous warrior, he shared in the Ngapuhi war expeditions. At first friendly to the pakeha, he later joined in Hone Heke's rebellion. After peace was made, he went to live at Pakaraka in order to be near Henry Williams. He was baptized in 1853 and died a year later. His son, Maihi Paraone Kawiti, succeeded him as chief.