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The Whaling Journal of Captain W. B. Rhodes: Barque Australian of Sydney 1836 - 1838

Barque 'Australian' from Bay of Islands towards Coast of New Holland and from thence towards the Friendly Islands and Vavaoo cruizing for Sperm Whales 1837

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Barque 'Australian' from Bay of Islands towards Coast of New Holland and from thence towards the Friendly Islands and Vavaoo cruizing for Sperm Whales 1837

May 12th. Moderate breeze and fine. At 2 p.m. Capt. Clapham left the ship off the Ninepin. Employed unbending cables and stowing the anchor. Sunset, Cape [unclear: Bren] South; North extreme of the land W. by S. a.m. Brisk increasing gale, ship steering N. by W. Noon, gale increasing close-reefed the topsails. Lat. 34° 22′ S. From the 12th to the 19th inst. most part hard Westerly gales. Saw nothing worthy of notice, ship steering towards Macauley's or Green isle. At noon it bore E. by N.

May 20th to 21st. Most parts hard gales, ship labouring much. Noon, moderate. Green isle S.E. by E.; Sunda isle N.E. Lat. 29° 48′ S.

May 22nd. Light airs and calms. At 6 a.m. breeze sprung up from the Eastward, steering S.E. by S. Noon, Green island E. by S. wind E.N.E., steering S.E. People employed as most requisite. Lat. obsd. 30° 6′, Long. 17° 28′ W.

May 23rd. Light Easterly wind and fine weather. page 53Saw nothing worthy of notice, excepting the islands. At 10.35 a.m. Macauley's rocks E.N.E. dist. I league, and at noon North, dist. 5 miles. Lat. obsd. 30° 33′ S., Long, at 10.35 a.m. 178° 34′ W.

May 24th. Steady N.N.E. wind and fine weather. Steering W.N.W., endeavouring to get towards New Holland. Sunset, Green isle N.N.E., Macauley's rocks E.N.E. Lat. obsd. at noon 29° 49′ S., Long. 179° 45′ W.

May 25th to 27th. Northerly breezes, ship steering to the Westward. Saw nothing but fin-backs. Lat. 28° 58′, Long. 178° 24′ E.

May 28th to 31st. Most part Westerly and N.W. winds and cloudy weather. Saw nothing. Lat. obsd. 25° 06′ S.

June 1st. Variable winds and hazy. Saw nothing. Lat. obsd. 24° 30′ S., Long. 178° 8′ E.

June 2nd. Light Westerly winds, steering to the Northward. Kept a good look out, saw nothing. Lat. 24° 20′, Long. 178° 1′ E.

June 3rd. p.m. Steady breeze and fine weather. At sunset light airs from the South. At 7.30 a.m. saw a spout on the starboard beam. Stood towards it. At 8 lowered two boats and at 11 all boats in chase of the whale. The 2nd Mate fastened, but his iron drew again. At noon the Captain got fast to windward, all the other boats out of sight chasing whales to leeward. Wind Easterly with fine weather.

June 4th. At 1 p.m. the Mate got fast to the Captain's whale. At 2.30 got the whale killed. Took her alongside and went to dinner. At 4 began to cut in. At sunset got the page 54head partly off, and secured the whale for the night. Daylight, recommenced cutting in. Noon, moderate breeze and cloudy. The Mate sick and off duty.

June 5th. Moderate breeze and thick cloudy weather. Got the body in and hung the head astern for the night. At 8 p.m. began to boil out the whale. Daylight, began to cut in the head. Noon, employed baling the case. Lat. obsd. 23° 26′ S.

June 6th. Steady Southerly breeze. At 4 p.m. finished cutting in the whale. Made sail to the Westward.

June 7th. Moderate Southerly wind and haze. At 9 a.m. finished boiling out. At 10.30 saw a large whale going fast to windward. Lowered three boats after him without success.

June 8th. Wind hauled round to the Eastward. Employed clearing away the hold and stowing down oil.

June 9th. Fresh Easterly breeze and thick cloudy weather. Saw a strange sail standing Northward. a.m. Wind hauled round to the S.W. with hard squalls and rain. Employed stowing down oil &c. 70 barrels.

June 10th. Moderate S.W. breeze and cloudy weather. Ground lively with small fish &c. a.m. Employed cleaning the decks. Lat. obsd. 23° 3′ S., Long. 174° 56′ E.

June 11th to 18th. Most part S.E. winds and fine whaling weather, ground lively. Saw abundance of small fish and fin-backs, indeed all kinds of fish but sperm whales. Lat. 23° 53′, Long. 168° 37′ E.

June 19th. Moderate trade wind and fine whaling weather. At 3.30 p.m. saw a spout ahead. Lowered 2 boats after it. At 4 down all boats. A great number of whales in sight. Chased till dark; the boats returned without page 55success. Hove the ship to for the night. Daylight, fresh breeze and cloudy, wind Westerly; steering S.S.W. Lat. 23° 52′ S., Long. 168° 38′ E.

Tuesday June 20th. p.m. Wind and weather as yesterday. At 4.30 p.m. saw breaches and spouts on the weather beam, distant about 5 miles. At sunset the two boats returned that had been sent after them. Saw no more of the spouts &c. Shortened sail for the night. Wind Westerly. a.m. Fresh breeze and cloudy. At 7.30 rose a school of sperm whales on the starboard beam about 4 miles off. At 8 lowered the boats after them. All the boats got fast. At 11 got the whales killed. The school took off. At noon the Captain got his whale alongside.

June 21st. p.m. Fresh breeze and cloudy with passing showers of rain. At 4.30 got the other two cow whales and a calf alongside. At 5 p.m. commenced cutting in. The hook tore out several times. At sunset left off for the night, having done nothing. At daylight began to cut in. Found that the calf had parted the fluke rope during the night and was lost. Noon, moderate breeze and fine weather. Began to try out. Lat. 24° 13′ S., Long 168° 0′ E.

June 22nd. At 1 p.m. finished cutting in the 3 school whales. Saw breaches to the Northward about 6 or 7 miles distant. Stood towards them but saw nothing more. Wind N.W. steady breeze and fine whaling weather. a.m. Employed boiling out the whales. Noon do.—Weather. Wind W.N.W.; steering to the Northward.

June 23rd. Fine whaling weather. Saw a great number of fin-backs, small fish and birds; ground very page 56lively. Employed boiling out the whales. Lat. 23° S.

June 24th. Moderate Northerly breeze and charming whaling weather. At 3.30 p.m. saw a large school of sperm whales distant about 5 or 6 miles. Lowered the boats after them. Finished trying out—barrels. At sunset the boats returned without success. a.m. At daylight broke out the hold and cleared away for stowing down the oil. Noon, moderate breeze and hazy; standing to the S.W. Lat. 23° 3′ S., Long. 169° 22′ E.

June 25th. Moderate breeze and hazy, ground lively. Employed stowing down oil. Noon, finished stowing down. Thick weather, winds variable.

June 26th. p.m. Weather as yesterday. Employed re-stowing the after hold and filling salt water. At 4 fresh gale, close-reefed the topsails. Wind shifted South to West. a.m. Daylight, made sail, wind S.W., steering W.N.W. At 11.30 saw a school of sperm whales. Lowered all the boats after them. At noon the Mate got fast; the whale sounded and his iron drew. The whales took to windward.

June 27th. Light breeze and hazy. All boats in chase of the whales. The Captain's boat got up to the school several times. Only one boat in sight the other boats gave in. At 4 the Captain's boat darted, but did not fasten. At 6 the boats returned to the ship without success. Shortened sail for the night. a.m. Fresh breeze and hazy weather.

June 28th. At 2.30 p.m. saw breaches to windward 6 or 7 miles off, ship beating to windward. Saw nothing more of them. a.m. Wind S.W. with moderate weather and clear, ground lively. Saw fin-backs and small fish. Lat. obsd. 23° 25′ S., Long. 170° 8′ E. page 57June 29th. Fresh breeze and cloudy, ground lively. Lat. 22° 34′ S.

June 30th. p.m. do. weather. At 4 saw Walpole's island.32 It is moderately high and extremely level, covered with stunted brushwood and has a pleasing appearance. Noon, steady E.S.E. wind and fine weather, steering S.S.W. Walpole's island N.N.E., 3 leagues. Lat. 22° 40′, Long. 169° 20′ E.

July 1st to 10th. During this time fine whaling weather, ground lively with fin-backs, porpoises, small fish, &c., indeed everything but sperm whales. Cruising off the South end of New Caledonia with the reef in sight at times. On the 3rd at 11a.m. South part of the reef North, dist. 2 miles. I made it in Lat. 23° 7′ S., Long 167° 2′ E. The reef appears to be placed too far to the Westward by the charts.

July 11th. p.m. Light airs inclinable to calms. At 4.30 p.m. two large sperm whales rose up close alongside the ship and were alarmed by the ship passing over them. Lowered the boats but saw no more of them. At a little after sunset the boats returned.

During supper in the cabin the Captain remarked that it was a great shame the whales were not seen rising before ′Wm. Walter, 3rd Mate, being the officer at the masthead at the time). Walter said: 'D——m his heart, they were not whales.' The Captain replied as well as the Mate that not only themselves but 5 or 6 others had seen them, and that there was no doubt but they were of the sperm kind. Walter then assumed a very insolent tone at the cabin table, and amongst other things said it was a page 58dam'd lie and that all who said so were bloody liars. The Captain ordered him out of the cabin and told him that he should no longer act as 3rd Mate.

Made Wm. Hitchings, boat-steerer, 3rd Mate in the place of Walter. a.m. Steady breeze and fine whaling weather, ground lively. Lat. 23° 24′ S., Long. 164° 17′ E.

July 12th. At 2 p.m. saw breaches to the Southward about 10 miles off and at 4 saw spouts about 4 miles off going fast W.N.W., ship steering after under all sail. Could not come up with them. Sunset, shortened sail. Wind N.N.E. At 10 a.m. saw breaches to the Southd., 8 or 10 miles of. Stood after them, and at 11 saw spouts to windward. Lowered three boats after them. Noon, strong breeze and cloudy, in top-gallant sails. Lat. 22° 58′ S., Long. 162° 52′ E.

July 13th. p.m. Boats in chase of whales going fast to windward. At 2 p.m. boats returned. Hoisted them up and steered W.N.W., wind North. At 9.30 a.m. a heavy squall took the ship aback from the Southward. Noon, strong breeze and cloudy.

July 14th & 15th. Most part fresh breezes and variable, ground lively. Saw fin-backs and hump-backs and small fish. Lat. obsd. 23° 1′ S., Long. 160° 24′ E.

July 16th. At 2.30 p.m. saw spouts ahead. At 3 lowered the boats after them, and at 4 the Second Mate got fast to a large whale. Shortly after the Mate fastened to another, which took to windward. At 6 got both whales killed and one alongside. The Captain's boat went to assist the Mate. At 9 p.m. all the boats towing the whale, and page 59at 2 p.m. got her alongside the ship. At daylight began to get ready to cut in the whales. Noon, fine weather.

July 17th. Light airs and calm throughout. At 4 p.m. finished cutting in one whale and hung the head astern. Began to cut in the other whale. At sunset left off for the night and commenced boiling out. Daylight, recommenced cutting and at noon finished the body. Lat. 23° 3′ S., Long. 160° 38′ E.

July 18th. First part calm weather. Employed trying out the body of the whales and cutting in the junk. At 6 p.m. got one case baled and junk cut up. Hung the other head astern, with a fluke chain for the night. Midnight, variable unsettled dark weather, with heavy rain. At 3 a.m. fresh Southerly gale, with heavy squalls at times. Towards sunrise the gale increased with a heavy sea; the head astern parted the chain; blowing too hard to lower after it. Noon, hard gale with heavy rain.

July 19th. As yesterday. At 2 p.m. it moderated. Made sail and stood in quest of the lost head. At 3 p.m. the head was seen about 2 miles from the ship by a great number of birds being around it. At 4 got it alongside and secured it for the night. a.m. Moderate. Noon, finished getting in the head; fine weather.

July 20th. p.m. Light Southerly wind and fine weather. Employed boiling out the whales. Steering by the wind to the Eastward. a.m. Wind variable, steering S.W. Ground livery; kept a good look out. Lat. 22° 8', Long. 160° 28 E.

July 21st. Light breezes and calms throughout. At 4 p.m. finished boiling out—106 barrels. a.m. At daylight began to clear away for stowing down oil. Lat. obsd. 22° 00′ S.

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July 22nd. Light Easterly airs and calms, steering to the Southward. Employed stowing down oil. a.m. Ground lively; saw several fin-backs and other fish. 2 men sick. Lat. obsd. 22° 45′ S., Long. 160° 7′ E.

July 23rd. Wind and weather as yesterday. At 4 p.m. saw a sail to the Southward. At sunset finished stowing down. a.m. Employed cleaning the ship. Noon, light Northerly breeze, standing towards the brig. Lat. 22° 56′ S.

July 24th. Spoke and interchanged visits with the brig Tigris of Sydney, Capt. Terry. Wind South, steering to the Eastward in company with the Tigris. Noon, moderate breeze and cloudy. Capt. Terry came on board to dine.

July 25th. Steady S.S.W. breeze and cloudy, steering to the Eastward. At 8 p.m. Capt. Terry left the ship. He said he was bound to Tanna for yams. Shortened sail for the night. a.m. Fresh breeze and clear; steering to the Westward.

July 26th. Strong breeze and clear. Saw fin-backs. At 9.30 a.m. saw breaches; made sail for them. Noon, fresh gale; close-reefed the topsails. Lat. 23° 4′ S., Long. 160° 48′ E.

July 27th to 29th. Most part fresh Southerly and S.E. gale with a heavy sea. Saw breaches and fin-backs, etc.

July 30th. p.m. Moderate breeze and cloudy. a.m. Daylight, wind E.S.E.; steering South. Saw two brigs to the Northward. At 8 wore ship and stood towards them. At 11 spoke the Scamander, 800 barrels, and Mic-Mac, 4 months out 550 barrels. Steered again to the Southward. Lat. 24° 06′, Long. 156° 18′ E.

July 31st. Moderate breeze and fine. At 2 bore away page break
Trying out the Blubber[From W. M. Davis, Nimrod of the Sea]

Trying out the Blubber
[From W. M. Davis, Nimrod of the Sea]

page 61for the Mic-Mac, and at 3.30 p.m. I went on board. The brig steered to the Southward. At 7 p.m. returned on board and shortened sail for the night. Daylight do weather. The Mic-Mac, Scamander, and a strange barque in Company. Employed getting up the bread to re-cooper. Lat. 24° 29′ S., Long. 155° 51′ E.

August 1st, 1837. Moderate Easterly breeze and fine weather. Kept a good look out, saw nothing worthy of notice; sun obscured.

August 2nd. Light airs and fine whaling weather. A barque in company. Lat. obsd. 24° 20′ S., Long. chr. 156° 21′ E.

August 3rd. At 3 p.m. Capt. Barber of the barque Jane came on board; reported 80 barrels of oil. Steering to the Eastward, wind S.S.E. a.m. Steady breeze and fine whaling weather. At 9 I proceeded on board the Jane; got some firewood from her. Lat. 23° 55′, Long. 157° 14′.

August 4th. Fresh breezes and cloudy. Saw fin-back. Jane in company. Lat. obsd. 23° 13′ S.

August 5th. Fresh breeze and cloudy. At 3.30 p.m. saw spouts on the larboard beam. Lowered the boats after them without success. Lat. 23° 7′, Long. 157° 52′ E.

August 6th. Light airs and fine whaling weather. Saw a fin-back and bile fish. Lat. 23° 24′ S.

August 7th. p.m. Light winds and fine whaling weather, a.m. At 7.15 saw a spout to the Southward 5 miles off. At 9 lowered the boats after it. At noon the boats in chase of the whale.

August 8th. At 2 p.m. the 2nd Mate got fast and killed the whale. At 3.30 took the whale alongside and began to cut in. Sunset, left off cutting for the night. Daylight, page 62recommenced cutting. Noon, light airs and fine, a sail in sight. Lat. obsd. 23° 53′ S., Long. 157° 15′ E.

August 9th. p.m. Light airs and fine. At 4.30 finished cutting in and began to bale the case. Got the try-works under weigh. At 6 finished the case. At noon fresh Northerly breeze, steering S.E. Lat. 23° 18′ S.

August 10th. Fresh breeze and cloudy throughout. Employed boiling out the whale. Saw nothing.

August 11th. Fresh breeze and cloudy, steering S.E. and S.W. At 8 p.m. finished boiling out the whale. Daylight, began to clear away for stowing down the oil. Saw nothing. Noon, Lat. obsd. 23° 7′, Long. 156° 33′ E.

August 12th. Fresh breeze and cloudy. Saw nothing worthy of notice. Employed stowing down oil. Lat. 22° 59′ S., Long. 157° 5′ E.

August 13th. Fresh S.S.E. wind and fine weather. At 6 p.m. finished stowing down barrels. Lat. 23° 3′, Long. 156° 23′ E.

August 14th & 15th. Strong S.E. winds and squally weather. Saw nothing. At noon, Sandy Cape W. by S. dist. 52 miles. Lat. obsd. 24° 29′ S.

August 16th. Moderate E.S.E. breeze and fine weather. At daylight saw the coast of New Holland. At noon, Indian Head N.N.W. ½ W., Double Island Point S.S.W., off shore 6 or 7 leagues. Lat obsd. 25° 27′ S., Long. chr. 153° 36′ E. Lat. p.m. bearings 25° 31′ S., 153° 34′ E.

August 17th to 31st. Most part moderate; and good whaling weather. Saw fin-backs and small fish occasionally, but no sperm whales. Steering for the most part to the Eastward towards the South end of Caledonia, or page 63rather the cruising ground. Lat. obsd. 25° 35′ S., Long. 164° 45′ E.

September 1st to 3rd. Most part fresh breeze and cloudy. Saw nothing worthy of notice. Lat. obsd. 23° 47′ S., Long. 168° 5′ E.

September 4th. Fresh S.W. wind and fine weather, ground lively with small fish and birds. At 6.30 a.m. saw Walpole's island bearing N.N.E. At noon the island W. by S. dist. 3 or 4 leagues. Lat. obsd. 22° 25′, Long. 169° 12′ E.

September 5th & 6th. Steady breeze and fine whaling weather. Kept a good look out but saw nothing worthy of notice. Lat. obsd. 22° 22′ S.

September 7th & 8th. Fine whaling weather. Saw fin-backs and small fish. At 2 p.m. saw Hunters Island bearing E.S.E. Steering E.N.E. at sunset the island bearing S.E. At daylight, moderate E.S.E. wind; stood to the Southward. Matthews Island S.S.W. It is high and barren. Saw smoke issuing from it in many places. It is no doubt a volcano but no fire was seen to issue from it during the time we were off it.

September 9th. Moderate breezes and cloudy with passing showers of rain. Steering to the Southward, wind E.S.E. At 3 passed Matthews Island at the distance of 2 miles. At 5 saw breaches about 5 miles off. Stood towards them. Turned out to be a school of fin-backs. At 8 a.m. saw spouts on the weather bow. Lowered three boats. At 11 the boats returned; they proved to be hump-backs. Noon fresh breeze and fine. Saw breaches. Lat obsd. 23° 00′ S., Long. 171° 03′ E.

September 10th. Fine whaling weather, ground page 64lively. Saw hump-backs; steering N.N.E., wind East. Noon, saw a fin-back. Lat. obsd. 24° 09′ S.

September 11th 1837. p.m. Steady breeze and fine weather. Midnight, the wind hauled round to the N.E.; steering E.S.E. At 8 a.m. saw a large sperm whale on the starboard beam, about 2½ miles off. Lowered 3 boats after it. Noon, fine weather; boats in chase of the whale.

September 12th. Fine whaling weather. At 3.39 p.m. boats returned without success, whale going too fast to windward. At noon fresh Westerly breeze, steering East. Lat. 24° 45′, Long. 172° 53′.

September 13th. Fresh breeze and cloudy. Saw finback, blackfish and porpoises. At noon fresh breeze and fine, steering E. by S., wind S. by E. Lat. obsd. 24° 49′ S., Long. 174° 57′ E.

September 14th to 16th. Fresh breezes and fine whaling weather. Ground live; saw fin-backs, &c. Lat. 22° 46′, Long. 179° 25′ E.

September 17th & 18th. Fresh trade wind and fine weather; beating to the Eastward. Lat. 23° 57′, Long. 179° 33′ E.

September 19th & 20th. Light variable airs; steering to the Eastward. Kept a look out but saw nothing worthy of notice, excepting Nickolson's Reef at noon—a circular reef, from E. by N. ½ N. to S.E. by S. nearest part, about 5 or 6 miles from the ship. Lat. obsd. 23° 27′ S., Long, by Walpole's Island 178° 39′ W.

September 21st to 23rd. Most part strong Easterly and Southerly breezes; steering to the North. Saw nothing worthy of notice. Later part strong Easterly gale. No observations.

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September 24th to 29th. Strong breezes and fresh gales at times from the Eastward. Ship trying to get to windward. Kept a good look out; saw nothing. Lat. 26° 1′ S., Long. 177° 56′ W.

September 30th. Strong E.S.E. breeze and cloudy weather.

October 1st. Steady breeze and cloudy; steering to the North-east. At 7.30 a.m. a ship under American colours passed to leeward. Saw blackfish and porpoises. Lat. obsd. 24° 25′, Long. 176° 21′ W.

October 2nd to 5th. Most part steady breezes and fine whaling weather. Saw breaches and killers. Spoke the Elizabeth of London, Capt. Currie. Lat. obsd. 22° 10′ S., Long.—

October 6th to 11th. Most part strong breezes and squally. Saw nothing worthy of notice. Steering to the North. At 6 p.m. on the 11th instant saw Savage Island33 bearing East, distance about 20 miles. Lat. obsd. 18° 31′ S., Long. 169° 56′ W.

October 12th to 17th. During these six days most part light airs and sultry weather. Saw porpoises. Lat. 18° 55′, Long. 173° 6′ W.

October 18th 1837. Steady breeze and fine whaling weather. At 8 a.m. saw the island of Vavaoo34 bearing N.W. Stood towards it. Noon, North end W. by S., dist. 2 leagues.

October 19th. p.m. Steady breeze and fine. Bent the cables and got the anchors over the bows. At 3.18 p.m. entered the heads, bearing E.N.E. and S.S.W., beating page 66up the harbour against a fresh breeze. It became quite dark at sunset, and no pilot on board. Sounded, but could get no bottom. At 8 p.m. found we had got into narrow channel. Sounded and found 30 fthms. Brought the ship to anchor in 25 fthms. about half a mile off shore, in the proper anchoring place as it turned out. Found the American ship Independence at anchor. She has been here since last February, when she was dismasted and received such damage during a hurricane as caused her to be condemned. At daylight began to break out the after hold and sent a raft of casks for water; also after breakfast sent a party to cut wood.

Vavaoo, one of the Friendly Isles, is now in a state rapidly approaching to civilization. I was surprised the morning after anchoring here to have a visit paid me by the Harbour Master, bringing with him a printed Harbour Regulations intimating—viz. His Majesty King George35 requiring $21 to be paid for anchorage, pilotage, &c., before the vessel would be allowed to communicate with the shore, which amount I had to pay. Two Wesleyan missionaries with their families are located here; and it is astonishing to what a state of discipline they have reduced the natives. Old and young spend the principal part of their time in the schools learning to read the Scriptures, and in religious exercises. They are compelled by law to assume an outward sanctity, to spend the greater part of die day in devotion, and in no part of the world is the Sabbath kept with such strictness. The natives are entirely prohibited the use of tobacco or spirits; the page 67Government is absolute and the least appearance of outward wickedness, either in man or woman, is severely punished by flogging with the bight of a piece of whale-line—indeed women with child are not spared; and ladies of the highest rank for the least breach of chastity do not escape punishment. It is inflicted by a man in the presence of His Majesty or his deputy over the woman's bare back, she being naked to the navel and fastened to a tree in the palace square. Under these circumstances there can be no illegal connection between the sexes, and in fact very little personal intercourse except in religious affairs.

King George has lately returned from an expedition to Tongataboo.36 It appears there is a party in that island who will not put themselves under the yoke of the missionaries. They are called the Devil's Party. His Majesty is determined, if they will not be converted to the Wesleyan religion, to exterminate them. During the late war old men, women, children, and women with child have been massacred in cold blood, they having been left in the native forts and surprised by the invaders. The King is now actively preparing for another visit to Tongataboo to convert the heathen. He is a local preacher as well as a great warrior, and an extremely sensible and clever man. It is a great shame that he should be led to such excesses through a mistaken religious zeal. There is no end to his ambition; he is determined to conquer and convert all the neighbouring isles.

October 21st. Arrived the ship Ann of London, Capt. Ball, out 17 months, 600 barrels imperial. Owing to a late hurricane the natives were very short of provis-page 68ions: consequently we could procure very little vegetables for the ship. His Majesty paid me a visit on board and made an exchange with me for pigs, and I let him have what muskets and powder we could spare to convert the heathen with.

The Friendly Islanders are shrewd intelligent men, extremely cleanly in their persons, of light colour and pleasing European countenances. The women are very prepossessing, and good figures, but for reasons abovementioned must be reserved. Both sexes wear only a piece of tappa round the loins, excepting on rare occasions when they display what European clothing they are possessed of, the gentlemen wearing coats without pantaloons, and the ladies as many gowns one over the other as they are owners of, no other kind of female clothing being known to them. They are not allowed, however, any ornaments or adorning of the hair, as it is supposed it would only tend to make them proud. They have not yet any idea of the needle excepting some few who are employed by the missionaries.

32 Walpole Island, south of the Loyalty Group, and east of the southern end of New Caledonia.

33 Niue Island.

34 Vavau, in the northern part of the Tonga Islands.

35 The chief Taufa' ahau, known as King George Tubou I. See Introduction, p. xi.

36 Tongatabu, in the southern part of the Tonga Group.