A Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas
[comprehending the occurences met with from leaving Yoolee-Etea to the time of the ships departure from the coast of New Zealand]
On the 9th of August we weighed anchor, and proceeded from this bay to the southward, to see what discoveries we could make there, pursuant to the directions of the admiralty, and carried with us as many hogs from this island as we could stow, with a great number of Plantains, Taro, Eape, and Yams, to serve us instead of bread.
On the 13th, at noon, having had a brisk wind for three days, we discovered high land, and, toward night, approached near it. Toobaiah informed us that it was an island called Oheiteroah, being one of the cluster of nine, and bore the title of Oheite added to them.
We hauled in our wind, and, on the 14th, in the morning, bore down to the island, and hoisted out the pinnace, in which Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander went page 79on shore to seek for an anchoring place in a large bay formed by two points of land. They returned with an account that they could find none, nor any good landing for the boat: and that, when they got near the shore, several of the natives jumped into the pinnace, and attempted to seize on Mr. Banks, which obliged our people to fire, and some of the natives were wounded. They were armed with long clubs, and spears, made of the wood of a tree which they called Etoa; and their cloaths were red and yellow, made of bark, striped and figured very regularly, and covered with gum. They had also curious caps on their heads, and made a very martial appearance. Mr. Banks brought some wooden-work on board, very ingeniously wrought, and told us that they saw canoes which were carved with great ingenuity, and painted very neat.
These people are very tall, well proportioned, and have long hair, which they tie up, [see pl. VIII. fig. 5 and 6.] and are tataowed, or marked on different parts of their bodies, but not on their posteriors, like the people of the other islands. On one of our boats approaching them, they began to talk to Toobaiah, though they seemed very much intimidated, and begged that our people would not kill them; and said they would not furnish us with any eatables unless we came on shore, which they intreated us much to do. They saw no women among them. From the ship we observed a few houses.
This island does not shoot up into high peaks, like the others, but is more even and uniform, divided into small hillocks, like England, which are here and there covered with tufts of trees. At the water's edge there are many clists almost perpendicular. We saw no bread-fruit, and very few cocoas; but all along the edge of the beach was thick planted with Etoa, which served to shelter their houses and plantations of Meiya from the wind.
This island is situate in 22° 23' south latitude, and 150° 5' west longitude, and has no reef surrounding it, like the other islands.
On the 15th, in the morning, we passed the tropic of Capricorn, having a fine breeze from the north, with clear pleasant weather; and saw several tropic birds.page 80
On the 16th, we saw the appearance of several high peaks of land, which deceived us all: we bore away for them, but, the sky clearing up, we found our mistake, and so resumed our course to the south. Thermometer 72, and a cold air.
On the 17th, we were becalmed most part of the day, and had a great swell from the west in latitude 26° 25' S. Thermometer 70.
On the 20th, we had light breezes, and were often becalmed; but, toward night, we had a brisk breeze from the north, which increasing, we brought the ship to, under the two topsails, and remained so all night, and had a continual swell, which made the ship roll very much.
On the 21st, we had a stiff gale all day, with hazy weather, and some thunder and lightening from the west; we scudded before the wind, having the foresail and two topsails close-reefed set. The swell was so great that the ship rolled prodigiously, and every thing was thrown down. We saw several Pintado birds, and Shear-waters.
On the 22d, we had fine clear weather, and the wind much abated. We saw some Albatrosses, and several Pintado birds. This bird is barred on the wing with black and white, from whence the name in Spanish, a Cheque-board. We also saw several parcels of sea-weed. Latitude 31° 3' S. Wind S.W. and by W.
On the 23d, we had light breezes, and it was calm most part of the day. Toward night, it rained very hard, with the wind to the north. We saw a grampus, or young whale, and an albatross. Lat. 32° 5'.
On the 24th, we had heavy squalls, with rain, from the south, and saw a water-spout. The wind still continuing to blow very hard, we lay-to under our main-fail; and, in the night, the wind was excessive cold.page 81
On the 25th, we had fair weather, but the air was still sharp, though the wind was moderate, and came about to the S. W. Lat. 32° 3'. Thermometer 62.
On the 26th, we had variable weather, with a westerly wind, and saw a grampus and an albatross. Latitude 32° 15'.
On the 27th, we had clear weather, with the wind at north, but, toward the evening, it was squally. We saw several albatrosses, pintados, and shear-waters. Latitude 33° 35'.—On the same day we killed a dog, and dressed him, which we brought from Yoolee-Etea: he was excessively fat, although he had eaten nothing while he had been on board.
On the 28th, we had hazy weather, and a drizzling rain all day, with a faint breeze from the north, and saw a great many birds called Shear-coots. This morning, John Raden, the boatswain's mate, died. His death was occasioned by drinking too freely of rum the night before. In the evening the wind came about to the west, and, the next morning, the 29th, the weather being clear, at about four o'clock we saw a comet, about 60 degrees above the horizon. Latitude 37°.
On the 30th, we had a brisk breeze, and a great swell from the west, with fair clear weather, but very cold. The Thermometer, in open air, was at 52. One of Mr. Banks's servants saw a bird of a fine green colour, and likewise some sea-weed. In the night, we had heavy showers of hail, and sudden gusts of wind, which were very piercing, and so violent, that we were obliged to lay the ship to under the foresail. The same weather continued all the next day, the 31st, accompanied with a high swell from the west, which made the ship run gunnel-to under water. A vast number of birds, of different kinds, followed us all day, sporting on the surface of the water. These were Pintados, (a bird of a silver colour, such as we saw in the Atlantic ocean,) Albatrosses, and various sorts of Procellariæ. Several parcels of rock-weed were also seen by some of our people. Latitude 39° 25' S. Thermometer, in open air, 48.page 82
On the 1st of September, we had hard piercing gales and squalls from the W. and N.W. with violent showers of hail and rain. The sea ran mountain-high; and tossed the ship upon the waves: she rolled so much, that we could get no rest, or scarcely lie in bed, and almost every moveable on board was thrown down, and rolled about from place to place. In brief, a person, who has not been in a storm at sea, cannot form an adequate idea of the situation we were in. The wind still increasing, we laid the ship to under the foresail. The heavens, however, being clear, at four in the morning, we saw the comet again between Aldebaran and Orion. Latitude, by account, 40° and odd; and Thermometer 44.
On the 2d, we had hard gales, and squally weather. About noon we set the mainsail, and bore away N. N. W. the captain having, pursuant to his orders, gone in search of the continent as far as 40° south latitude, and determined to stand to the southward, to see what discoveries he could make in that quarter, apprehending that, if we continued much longer in these high latitudes, we should not have sails enough, to carry us home: besides, the weather was so tempestuous, that, had we made land, it would not have been safe to have approached near it.—The course which we have steered to the southward, has been mostly between 147 and 150 degrees, west longitude.
On the 3d, we had dark and gloomy weather, with a light westerly breeze, and the air was very cold.
On the 5th, we had variable weather, with some rain: we saw some Albatrosses with white beaks, and others all white, except the tips of their wings.
On the 6th, we had hard gales from the west, which obliged us to go under our courses; but the weather was clear, though cold.
On the 8th, we were becalmed most part of the morning; but, in the afternoon, the wind came about easterly, and brought with it some rain.page 83
On the 9th, we had a fine breeze, all day, from the south, with clear weather; and, toward night, saw some parcels of sea-weed.—This day a whole allowance of beef was given to the ship's company.
On the 10th, we had squally weather, with the wind at S.S.W. saw some sea-weed, and had several white squalls, which looked as is we had been near land.
On the 11th, we had some squalls, with light showers of rain, and the wind at S.W.
On the 12th, the wind varied between S. and W. and we had agreeable clear weather, with some few squalls. Latitude 33° 18'. Thermometer 57.
On the 14th, we had moderate, though variable, weather, with the wind at north. We saw several Albatrosses flying about the ship, and two very large ones, quite white, swimming upon the water.
On the 15th, we had hard gales of wind from the E. and S.E. the weather very hazy, with some rain, and saw a few Pintados.
On the 16th, the weather was squally, but clear, and the wind S.W.
On the 18th, we were becalmed most part of the day; however, the weather was clear, and the wind S.W.
On the 19th, it was calm till the afternoon, and then we had a short breeze from the east. Mr. Banks went in the boat, and shot some Pintados, and caught some Molusca, Doris, Phyllodore, and the fine purple Limax, which were swimming upon the water. At night the water was full of flashes of light, occasioned by the Molusca. Latitude 29° S. Longitude 159 W. and we had a great swell from the S.W.page 84
On the 21st, we had a smart breeze from the S.E. supposed to be the tail of the trade winds, with clear weather. This breeze continued till the 24th, with fair and moderate weather. We steered S.S.W. in hopes of discovering the continent. Latitude 31° 24' south, and 162 west longitude.
On that day the wind came about to the east: we saw some sea-weeds, and a log of wood about three feet long.
On the 26th, we had a fresh breeze from the north, with the weather gloomy. We saw several parcels of sea-weed, of that kind called Leather-weed, in latitude 35º 53' S. 162 longitude. In the night we had a very hard gale from the north, with heavy showers of rain.
On the 27th, early in the morning, the wind was moderate, but the sea ran very high, and the ship rolled so much that every moveable on board was thrown about; and it was with great difficulty that we saved ourselves from being tossed out of our cots. The night came on while we were in this situation, which proved very dark, and every thing conspired to make it dismal, and aggravate our distress. The next morning, however, was fair; the heavens cloudless; the sun rose peculiarly bright, and we had a fine breeze from the west. In the afternoon the wind veered to the north, and we saw many parcels of sea-weed of different sorts. We also saw a seal, and concluded that we were not far from land. Latitude 37º 30' south.
On the 28th, we had a fresh gale from the west, which continued till noon, and then chopped about to the S. W. We altered our course to W.N.W. having run to the south as far as 40º latitude, and longitude 166º west; met with some sea-weed; and saw several black-beaked Albatrosses and Shear-waters.
On the 29th, we had a smart breeze from the south, with clear, though sharp weather; thermometer 54;—saw several parcels of sea-weed, and a land-bird that flew like a plover; with a great number of Pintados, Shear-waters, and large white Albatrosses, with the tips of their wings black. We founded, but found no bottom, with 120 fathoms of line. The captain apprehended that we were near page 85land, and promised one gallon of rum to the man who should first discover it by day, and two if he discovered it by night; also, that part of the coast of the said land should be named after him.
On the 1st of October, the weather was fair, but very cold, and almost calm. In the morning, we saw a seal asleep upon the surface of the water, which had, at first, the appearance of a log of wood; we put the ship about to take it up, but it waked, and dived out of sight. Great stocks of Shear-waters flew about the ship, and several parcels of sea-weed floated by the side of it. We found, by this day's observation, that we had gone ten leagues farther to the northward, than what appeared by the log-account. The master was sent in quest of a current, but could find none. Latitude 37° 45' south, and 172º longitude, west from London.
Though we had been so long out at sea, in a distant part of the world, we had a roasted leg of mutton, and French-beans for dinner; and the fare of Old England afforded us a grateful repast.
This day we founded, and found no bottom at 120 fathoms.
On the 2d, the sea was as smooth as the Thames, and the weather fair and clear. Mr. Banks went out in a little boat, and diverted himself in shooting of Shear-waters, with one white Albatross, that measured, from; the tip of one wing to the other, ten feet, seven inches; and also picked up a great many weeds of various kinds: we saw also several sorts of rock-weed; and the water looked as green as it does in the channel.
On the 4th, we had light breezes from the S.E. with clear sharp weather. In the morning we saw some rock-weed; and, in the evening, a great shoal of bottle-nosed porpoises swam along side of the ship, with a great number of other porpoises, having sharp white snouts, and their sides and bellies of the same colour.
On the 5th, we had light breezes from the N.E. and pleasant weather: about two o'clock in the afternoon one of our people, Nicholas Young, the surgeon's boy descried a point of land, of New Zealand, from the starboard bow, at about page 86nine leagues distance, bearing W. and by N. we bore up to it, and, at sun-set, we had a good view of it. The land was high, and it appeared like an island. We regaled ourselves in the evening upon the occasion; the land was called Young Nick's Head, and the boy received his reward. The sea, on this coast, was full of a small transparent animal, which, upon examination, we called Beroe Coaretata. Latitude 38° 49'*.
On the 8th, we had light breezes and dead calms all day, and could not get in nearer the land than two or three leagues; but it appeared, at this distance, to be of considerable extent, with many small islands around it; and had rising hills like the coast of Portugal. We saw smoke ascend from different parts, and thence concluded that it was inhabited. The two extreme points of the land bore N. and S.S.W. We saw several grampusses, but few birds.
* As we have, in pl. XXV. given a map of the coast of New Zealand, in which the latitudes and longitudes, of the several places we explored, are correctly set down, we shall, in our account of that island, omit mentioning the situation of places in that respect, and, once for all, refer the reader to the map.
Plate XIV. View of the North Side of the Entrance into Poverty Bay, & Morai Island, in New Zealand. 1. Young Nick's Head. 2. Morai Island.
The water in the river was found to be brackish, in which we were disappointed; but they shot some wild ducks of a very large size, and our botanical gentlemen gathered a variety of curious plants in flower.
In the ensuing night, while we were all on board, the natives assembled on the shore, which was about three miles distance, talked loud, and were very clamorous. We ordered a strict watch to be kept all the night, left they should come off in their canoes and surprise us.
Early on the morning of the 10th, the, long-boat, pinnace, and yaul, went on shore again; landed near the river where they had been the night before, and attempted to find a watering place. Several of the natives came toward them, and, with much entreating, we prevailed on some of them to cross the river, to whom we gave several things, which they carried back to their companions on the other side of the river, who seemed to be highly pleased with them, and testified their joy by a war-dance. Appearing to be so pacifically disposed, our company went over to them, and were received in a friendly manner. Some of the natives were armed with lances, and others with a kind of stone truncheon; through the handle of it was a string, which they twisted round the hand that held it when they attempted to strike at any person. [See pl. XV.] We would have purchased some of their weagons, but could not prevail on them to part with them on any page 88terms. One of them, however, watched an opportunity, and snatched a hanger from us; our people resented the affront by firing upon them, and killed three of them on the spot; but the rest, to our surprise, did not appear to be intimidated at the fight of their expiring countrymen, who lay weltering in their blood; nor did they seem to breathe any revenge upon the occasion; attempting only to wrest the hanger out of the man's hand that had been shot, and to take the weapons that belonged to their other two deceased comrades; which having effected, they quietly departed. After having taken possession of the country, in form, for the king, our company embarked, and went round the bay in search of water again, and to apprehend, if possible, some of the natives, to gain farther information of them respecting the island. They had not gone far before they saw a canoe; gave chace to it, and, when they came up with it, the crew threw stones at them, and were very daring and insolent. Our people had recourse to their arms: the Captain, Dr. Solander, and Mr. Banks, fired at them, and killed and wounded several of them. The natives fought very desperately with their paddles, but were soon overpowered: their canoe was taken, three of them made prisoners, and brought on board the ship, and the rest were suffered to escape. They were, in person, much like the natives of Otaheite, and had their lips marked with a blue colour, but no other part of their bodies, in which they differed from the before-mentioned people. They talked very loud, but were rude in their address, and more unpolished than the Otaheiteans. We were much surprised to find they spoke the Otaheitean language, though in a different dialect, speaking very guttural, having a kind of bec, which some of the people of Yoolee-Etea have in their speech. Toobaiah understood them very well, notwithstanding they make frequent use of the G and K, which the people of Otaheite do not. Their canoe was thirty feet long, made of planks sewed together, and had a lug-sail made, of matting.
These men, while on board, ate an immoderate quantity of every thing that was set before them, taking pieces at one time into their mouths six times larger than we did, and drank a quart of wine and water at one draught. They informed us, that there was Taro, Eape, Oomara, Yams, and also a peculiar kind of Deer, to be found upon the island.
The natives on this side of the bay were tataowed, or marked, in various forms on their faces; and their garments, wrought of rushes, reached down below their knees, and were very thick and rough. They tie their foreskins to their girdle with a string, and have holes pierced in their ears, which shews that they sometimes wear some sort of ear-rings: they have also some bracelets; necklaces they well knew the use of; but they did not like our iron wares. We saw a piece of wood which looked as smooth as if it had been cut with an axe; but of what materials the instruments are composed, which they use for that purpose, we could not learn. We went into some of their houses, which were very meanly thatched, having a hole in the center of the roof to let out the smoke; but we saw nothing in them except a few cockles, limpets, and muscle-shells.
We found here a sort of long-pepper, which tasted very much like mace; a Fulica, or bald Coot, of a dark blue colour; and a Black-bird, the flesh of which was of an orange colour, and tasted like stewed shell-fish. A vast quantity of pumice-stone lies all along upon the shore, within the bay, which indicates that there is a volcano in this island.page 90
On the 12th, early in the morning, we weighed anchor, and attempted to find' some better anchoring-place, as this bay (which, from the few necessaries we could procure, we called Poverty Bay) was not well sheltered from a S. E. wind, which brings in a heavy sea. The natives call the bay Taoneroa, and the point of land, at the entrance on the east side, they call Tettua Motu.
In the afternoon we were becalmed, and fix canoes came off' to us, filled with; people; some of them-armed with bludgeons made of wood, and of the bone of a-large animal. They were a spare thin people, and had garments wrap about them made of a silky flax, wove in the same manner as the cotton hammocks of Brazil, each corner being ornamented with a piece of dog-skin. Most of them had their hair tied up on the crown of their heads in a knot, and by the knot stuck a comb of wood of bone. In and about their ears some of them had white feathers, with pieces of birds skins, whose feathers were soft as down; bat others had the teeth of their parents, or a bit of green stone worked very smooth. These stone ornaments were, of various shapes. They also wore a kind of shoulder-knot, made of the skin of the neck of a large sea-fowl, with the feathers on, split in two length-ways. Their faces were tataowed, or marked either all over, or on one side, in a very curious manner; some of them in fine spiral directions like a volute, [see pl. XVI.] being indented in the skin very different from the rest: and others had their faces daubed over with a sort of red ochre. The bottom of their canoes was made out of a single tree; and the upper part was formed of two planks, sewed together, narrowed both at head and stern. The former was very long, having a carved head at the end of it painted red, and the stern ended in a flat beak. They had thwarts to fit on, and their paddles were curiously stained with a red colour, disposed into various strange figures; and the whole together was no contemptible workmanship. After we had given them a variety of beads and other, trinkets, they set off in so great a hurry, that they left three of their people on board with us. We were at this time off a cape, which we named Table Cape: we made but little way that night.
Plate XVI. The Head of a Chief of New Zealand the face curiously tataoued, or marked according to their Manner.
In the afternoon, more canoes came to us. Some of the people in them were disfigured in a very strange manner; they brandished their arms, and shewed signs of contempt, while the rest paddled hard to overtake us; and, at length, attempted to board us. The captain ordered one of the men to fire a musket over them, which they did not regard. A great gun, loaded with grape shot, was fired, which made them drop astern; but whether any of them were wounded, we could not discover. Several of the canoes had outriggers; and one of them had a very curious piece of ornamental carving at the head of it.
At this time we were doubling the west point of the land, formed by a small high island, and got into very foul ground, the sounding being from seven to thirteen fathoms, and were afraid of running upon it, but we happily escaped. After we had doubled this island, which was called Portland Isle, or, according to the natives, Teahowray, we got into a sort of large bay, and, the night coming on, we thought it best to drop anchor, designing, next morning, to make for a harbour in the corner of the bay, where there was the appearance of an inlet. Most of the country in view makes in flat table-hills, with cliffs of white clay toward the sea. In the evening, several of the natives came, in two canoes, to visit us: they seemed to be more friendly than the former; but were, however, so frightened, that we could not persuade them to come on board: we offered them various things, which they kindly accepted.
On the 14th, we made for the inlet, which we saw the night before, and, on coming up to it, found that it was not sheltered, having only some low land at the bottom of it. Ten canoes, filled with people, chased us; but our ship sailing too fast for them, they were obliged to give over the pursuit.page 92
We sailed round most part of the bay without finding any opening; and the soundings, all along the shore, were very regular. The country appeared more fertile hereabout, and well covered with wood, the sea-shore making in clayey cliffs, upon which the surf broke very high. This bay was called Hawke's Bay.
In the afternoon, a canoe followed us, with eighteen people in her, armed with lances; but as they could not keep pace with us, they gave up their expedition.
In sailing along, we could plainly distinguish land that was cultivated, parceled out into square compartments, having some sorts of herbs growing upon them.
On the 15th, in the morning, we bent our course round a small peninsula, which was joined to the main land by a low isthmus, on which were many groves of, tall strait trees, that looked as if they had been planted by art; and, withinside of it, the water was quite smooth. We saw some very high ridges of hills streaked with snow; and, when we had doubled the point of this peninsula, the low isthmus appeared again, stretching a long way by the sea-side. The country looked very pleasant, having fine sloping hills, which stretched out into beautiful green lawns, though not covered with wood, as other parts of the coast are.
* Pieces of this kind of stone were brought home in the Endeavour; on examination it appears to be a fine fort of Nephritic stone. This remark will serve for all their ornaments hereafter mentioned, said to be made of a green stone.
The weather was remarkably fine for some time before and after we came to this island, having light breezes, and clear weather, with some calms.
On the 16th, we had several fisher canoes come to us; and, after much persuasion, they gave us some fish for cloth and trinkets; but none of their fish was quite fresh, and some of it flank intolerably They went away very well satisfied, and then a larger canoe, full of people, came up to us, having their faces shockingly besmeared with some paint. An old man, who sat in the stern, had on a garment of some beast's skin, with long hair, dark brown and white border, which we would have purchased, but they were not willing to part with any thing. When the captain threw them a piece of red baize for it, they paddled away immediately; held a conference with the fisher's boats, and then returned to the ship.We had laid a scheme to trepan them, intending to have thrown a running bow line about the head of the canoe, and to have hoisted her up to the anchor; but, just as we had got her a-head for that purpose, they seized Toobaiah's little boy, who was in the main-chains, and made off with him, which prevented the execution of our plan. We fired some muskets and great guns at them, and killed several of them. The boy, soon after, disingaged himself from them, jumped into the sea, swam toward the ship, and we lowered down a boat and took him up, while the canoes made to land as fast as possible.
The speech of these people was not so guttural as the others, for they spoke more like the Otaheiteans. Many of them had good faces; their noses rather high than flat; and some of them had their hair most curiously brought up to their crowns, rolled round, and knotted.
In the evening, we were over-against a point of land, which, from the circumstance of stealing the boy, we called Cape Kidnappers. On doubling the cape, we thought to have met with a snug bay, but were disappointed, the land tending away to a point southward. Soon after we saw a small island, which, from its desolate appearance, we called Bare Island.page 95
On the 17th, we sailed along the coast, near as far as forty-one degree, bat, not meeting with any convenient harbour to anchor in, the land lying N. and S. when we came abreast of a round bluff cape, we turned back, being apprehensive that we should want water if we proceeded farther to the southward. We saw no canoes, but several villages, and, in the night, some fires burning upon the land. The coast appeared more barren than any we had seen before. There was clear ground, and good anchorage upon the coast, two or three miles from the shore; and from eight to twenty fathoms water. This cape we named Cape Turn Again.
On the 19th, in the afternoon, we were off Hawke's Bay, which we could not enter, the wind being foul. A canoe came to us with five people in it, who seemed to place great confidence in us: they came on board, and said they would stay all night. The man, who seemed to be the chief, had a new garment, made of the white silky flax, which was very strong, and thick, with a beautiful border of black, red, and white round it.
On the 20th, early in the morning, having a fine breeze, we made Table Cape; passed Poverty Bay, and came to a remarkable point of land, being a flat perpendicular triangular-shaped rock, behind which there appeared to be a harbour, but, on opening it, we found none: this point we called Gable-End Foreland. The country is full of wood, and looks very pleasant in this part; but, toward night, we saw some land that appeared very broken and dreary, formed into a number of points, over which we could see the back land.
On the 21st, we anchored in a very indifferent harbor, in eight fathoms and a half water, about one mile and a half from the shore, having an island on our left hand, which somewhat sheltered us. Many canoes came off to us, and two old men, of their chiefs, came on board. These people seemed very peaceably inclined, and were willing to trade with us for several trifles which they had brought with them. We saw many houses, and several tracts of land, partly hedged in and cultivated, which formed an agreeable view from the harbor, called, by page 96the natives, Tegadoo. Some of our boats went on shore for water, and found a rivulet where they filled their casks, and returned to the ship unmolested by the inhabitants, many of whom they saw near the rivulet.
On the 22d, in the morning, the boats went on shore again for wood and water; and, a short time after, Mr. Banks and some others followed them; and, while they were absent, the natives came on board and trafficked with us; having brought some parcels of Oomarra, and exchanged them with us for Otaheite cloth, which is a scarce commodity amongst them. They were very cunning, in their traffic, and made use of much low artifice. One of them bad an axe made of the before-mentioned green stone, which he would not part with for any thing we offered him. Several of them were very curiously tatowed; and one old man was marked on the breast with a large volute, and other figures. The natives, both on board and on shore, behaved with great civility, and, at night, they began to heivo and dance in their manner, which was very uncouth; nothing could be more droll than to see old men with grey beards assuming every antic posture imaginable, rolling their eyes about, lolling out their tongues, and, in short, working themselves up to a sort of phrenzy.
The surf running high, the men who went on shore found great difficulty in getting the water into the long-boat, and, in coming off, the boat was swampt; we therefore enquired of the natives for a more convenient watering-place, and they pointed to a bay bearing S. W. by W. On receiving this information we weighed anchor; but, the wind being against us, we stood off and on till the next morning, the 23d, and then bore away to leeward, and looked into the bay which we had passed before. About noon we dropped anchor, and one of our boats went into a little cove where there was smooth landing and fresh water, and we moored the ship about one mile and a half from the shore. This bay is called, by the natives, Tolaga, and is very open, being exposed to all the violence of the cast wind. Several canoes came along-side of the ship, of whom we got some fish, Oomarras, or sweet potatoes, and several other things; but the natives were very indifferent about most of the things we offered them, except white cloth and glasses, which suited their fancy, so that we found it difficult to trade with them. They had some green stone axes and car-rings but they would not part with page 97them on any terms; and as to their Oomarras, they set a great value upon them.
The country about the bay is agreeable beyond description, and, with proper cultivation, might be rendered a kind of second Paradise. The hills are covered with beautiful flowering shrubs, intermingled with a great number of tall and stately palms, which fill the air with a most grateful fragrant perfume.
We saw the tree that produces the cabbage, which ate well boiled. We also found some trees that yielded a fine transparent gum: and, between the hills, we discovered some fruitful valleys that are adapted either to cultivation or pasturage. The country abounds with different kinds of herbage fit for food; and, among such a variety of trees as are upon this land, there are, doubtless, many that produce eatable fruit. Our botanists were agreeably employed in investigating them, as well as many other lesser plants with which the country abounds. Within land there were many scandent ferns and parasaitic plants; and, on the sea shore, Salicornias, Misembrean, Mums, and a variety of Focus's. The plant, of which they make their cloth, is a sort of Hemerocallis, and the leaves yield a very strong and glossy flax, of which their garments and ropes are made. Adjoining to their houses are plantations of Koomarra * and Taro †: These grounds are cultivated with great care, and kept clean and neat.
* A sweet potatoe, which the Otaheiteans call Oomarra.
The men have a particular, taste for carving: their boats, paddles, boards to put on their houses, tops of walking sticks, and even their boats valens, are carved in a variety of flourishes, turnings and windings, that are unbroken; but their favorite figure seems to be a volute, or spiral, which they vary many ways, single, double, and triple, and with as much truth as if done from mathematical draughts: yet the only instruments we have seen are a chizzel, and an axe made of stone. Their fancy, indeed, is very wild and extravagant, and I have seen no imitations of nature in any of their performances, unless the head, and the heart-shaped tongue hanging out of the mouth of it, may be called natural, [See pl. XXVI. fig. 16.]
Plate XX. View of a curious arched Rock, having a River running under it, in Tolago Bay, on the East Coast of New Zealand.
We saw many beautiful parrots, and birds of various kinds, one in particular that had a note very much like our blackbird; but we found no ground fowl, or domestic poultry. Of quadrupeds we saw no other than dogs, which were like those on the island of Otaheite, and of them; but a few, though it cannot be supposed that so large a country, as this appears to be, should be destitute of deer, and other kind of four-footed animals.
This bay abounds in a variety of fish, particularly shell and cray-fish; some of the latter, which we caught, weighed eleven pounds; these are found in great plenty, and seemed to be the principal food of the inhabitants, at this season of the year, though they have a kind of fern, the roots of which, roasted, make a good substitute for bread, especially when their Koomarra is young and unfit for use.
Most of the rocks, which are many on the sea shore, are composed of a sandy stone, through which the surf had worn several passages. One of them, in particular, was very romantic it had the appearance of a large arch which led from the sea-side into the vallies, and through it ran a stream of water. The whole formed a very uncommon view, [see pl. XX.] peculiarly striking to a curious spectator.
From the view which we had of the coast, and the observations made, we might judge that the country is well situated, naturally fertile, and capable of great improvement by cultivation, especially as the climate is distinguishably mild and favorable.page 100
We had clear and fair weather all the time we were upon the coast, excepting one day, and, though the weather was hot, yet it seemed, by what we observed, that a sea breeze constantly set in about eleven o'clock in the forenoon, which moderated it.
On the 30th, having obtained a sufficient quantity of wood and water, we left the bay, and, sailing along the coast, about noon came up with a point of land before an island: this point we called East Cape; and the island, East Island, from which the land altered its direction, and tended away to the west. This day the land appeared to us considerably higher than the rest. It was divided by fine deep valleys, and had all the appearance of a rich fertile country, being cloathed with large verdant trees, had some parcels of ground cultivated, and several rivulets among them which lost themselves in the sea. We could also discover several villages, which seemed to have been fenced in by art. We passed a bay which we called Hicks's Bay, after our first lieutenant.
On the 31st, we sailed along the coast, and had light breezes, and pleasant weather. In the forenoon seven canoes came off to us in a hostile manner, brandishing their lances, and waving their paddles. One of these canoes was very large, and had between fifty and sixty people in her; some of them gave us an heivo; and one of them, a priest, as we supposed, talked very much. They kept paddling about us, calling out to us Kaka kee, no Tootwais, barre yoota patta pattoo; that is to say, if we would go on shore they would beat us with their patta pattoos; and, being apprehensive that if we suffered them to approach nearer to us, we might be obliged to offer violence to them, the captain ordered a gun, loaded with grape-shot, to be fired over their heads, the report of which terrified them so much, that they paddled away till they had got, as they supposed, out of our reach, and then they stopped, and held a consultation; after which they seemed as if they intended to return, and we fired another gun loaded with ball, and then they made as fast as possible to the shore. These were the same sort of people, and their canoes of the same kind with those we had seen before. Being at this time off a cape, we named it, from the hasty retreat of the natives, Cape Run-away. This day we discovered land to the N.E. of us.page 101
On the Ist of November, a great number of canoes came off to us, one of which had part of a human skull to throw out the water with. We prevailed on some of the natives to come along-side of the ship, and traded with them for cloth, crayfish, and muscles. They gave us severl Heivos, but some of them seemed to threaten us. A breeze springing up, we left them; and, a little farther on the coast, another squadron of fisher-boats came off to us, with whom also we had some traffic. These, as well as the rest, were very ready to snatch any thing they could lay their hands on; and, watching an opportunity, they stole a pair of sheets that were tied by a line at the ship's stern, and were going off with them, upon which we fired several muskets, but they did not much regard them; we then fired some grape-shot amongst them, and they paddled away something faster, till they imagined themselvcs out of our reach, and then they held up their paddles, and seemed to defy us. We fired another gun loaded with round and grape-shot, which passed between two canoes, and narrowly missed them; on which they hesitated no longer, but repaired immediately to the shore.
Toward night, we were near a small high island, called by the natives Mowtohora, about three leagues from the land. In going between this and the main land, a canoe came off to us from the island. This canoe was double, and differed in other respects from those we had seen before. After we had talked with the people which came in it a considerable time, they gave us several heivos, then looked at us very stedfastly, and, having threatened us, they stood off toward the main land. Opposite to this there is a high peaked hill, which we named Mount Edgecombe; and a small bay, which we called Lowland Bay, and the two points thereof, from their situation, Highland Point, and Lowland Point; the latter of which stretches a great way, and is covered with trees; near it there are three small islands, or rocks, and it was with difficulty that we steered clear of them in the night, and got into six fathoms water; soon after which we made a point of land, which we called Town Point: this was at the entrance of a little cove.page 102
On the 2d, in the morning, we discovered three sorts of land; but, as the weather was hazy, could not make many observations. We also passed three other islands: one of them was rocky, high and barren, which we called White Island. The other two were lower; one of them we named Flat Island, in which which we saw a village. A canoe pursued us, but, having a brisk breeze, it could not overtake us. Toward night it blew pretty hard, right on shore we, therefore tacked about, and sailed backward and forward till the next morning, the 3d: then the canoe which we saw the night before gave us chace again; having a sail, they at length came up with us; sailed along-side of us for a considerable time, and now and then gave us a song, the tune of which was much like the chant which the popish priests use at mass: they also gave us a heivo, but soon after threw some stones at us: we fired a musket, loaded with small shot, at a young man who distinguished himself at the sport, and he shrunk down as if he had been wounded. After a short consultation they doused the sail, and stood back for an island.
We sailed along with a moderate breeze, and passed an island, or cluster of rocks, which we called the Court of Aldermen: and, from the vicinity of one of the three last mentioned islands to them, we gave it the name of The Mayor.
This cluster of rocks lies off a point of land, and terminates the bounds of this large bay to the N.W. which, from the number of canoes that came off to us, bringing provisions, we named The Bay of Plenty.
The coast hereabout appeared very barren, and had a great number of rocky islands, from which circumstance we named the point, Barren Point. The land is very grotesque, being cleft, or torn into a variety of strange figures, and has very few trees upon it. About noon, several canoes came off to us, and the people in them were so daring as to throw a lance into the ship, but we fired a musket, and they paddled away from us. Their canoes were formed out of one tree, and shaped like a butcher's tray, without any ornament about them. The people, who were naked, excepting one or two, were of a very dark complexion, and made a mean appearance. We stood in for a bay, and, at night, anchored in it, having seven fathoms water. Several canoes, like the former, followed us; the people in then; page 103cut a despicable figure; but they were very merry, and gave us several heivos, or cheers.
This bay, which the inhabitants call Opoorangee, is the best harbour we have found, being well land-locked; and we found good landing at the watering-place, in a salt-water river, which winds a great way up into the country. At the bottom of the bay there is another river, which also seems to extend very far within land. The name the natives gave to the country, about the bay, is Konigootaoivrao.
On the 4th, early in the morning, we were visited by several canoes; the people in them, about one hundred and thirty-five in number, had a few arms, but seemed unresolved what to do; sometimes staring at us in a wild manner, and then threatening us: but, at last, they traded with us, exchanging the few trifles they had brought for cloth. They were very sly, and attempted to cheat us. We fired several muskets at them, and wounded two of them; the rest, however, did not seem to be alarmed till the captain shot through one of the canoes, which struck them with a panic; and, on firing a great gun, they made off to land.
On the 5th, in the morning, two of the natives came on board, and seemed to be very peaceably inclined: we made them some presents; they exchanged what trifles they had for small pieces of cloth, which they were very fond of, and went away highly pleased, promising to bring us some fish. Some people, it seemed, came to them now-and-then from the north, plundered them of every thing they could find, and carried their wives and children away captives; and not knowing who we were, nor our design in visiting their coast, was the reason that they were at first so shy of us. To secure themselves from these free-booters, they build their houses near together on the tops of rocks, which, it seems, they can easily defend against the assaults of their enemies; but, being so subject to the ravages of those ruffians, they are much dispirited, and that may be the principal cause of their poverty and wretchedness.page 104
We sent the pinnace to haul the seine, and caught a large draught of mullets, and other kind of fish. In the mean time the yaul drudged for shell-fish, and met with indifferent success.
On the 9th, a great number of the natives came in canoes about the ship, and brought us a large quantity of fish, mostly of the mackrel kind, with a few John Dories; and we pickled down several casks full of them.
Some of these canoes came from another part of the country, which were larger, and of a better sort than the rest: the people in them, too, had a better appearance; among whom there were some of superior rank, furnished with good garments, dressed up with feathers on their heads, and had various things of value amongst them, which they readily exchanged for Otaheite cloth. In one of the canoes there was a very handsome young man, of whom I bought some things: he seemed, by the variety of his garments, which he sold one after another till he had but one left, to be a person of distinction amongst them: his last garment was an upper one, made of black and white dog-skin, which one of the lieutenants would have purchased, and offered him a large piece of cloth for it, which he swung down the stern by a rope into the canoe; but, as soon as the young man had taken it, his companions paddled away as fast as possible, shouting, and brandishing their weapons as if they had made a great prize; and, being ignorant of the power of our weapons, thought to have carried it off securely; but a musket was fired at them from the stern of the ship: the young man fell down immediately, and, it is probable, was mortally wounded, as we did not see him rise again. What a severe punishment of a crime committed, perhaps, ignorantly! The name of this unfortunate young man, we afterwards learned, was Otirreeoònooe.
The weather being clear all day, we made a good observation of the passage of Mercury over the sun's disk, while Mr. Green made an observation on shore. From this circumstance the Bay was termed Mercury Bay.
On the 11th, it blew very hard all day from the N. and N. by E. and a great swell tumbled into the bay, which rendered our situation a very favourable page 105one; for, had we been out at sea, we should have had a lee-shore. The inhabitants did not venture out in their canoes this day; and, the night before, we were almost swamped in coming off in the long-boat, being upon the shoals, and the tea running high.
While we lay in this bay the natives brought us a great number of cray-fish, of an enormous size, which were very good. These were caught by women, who dived for them in the surf amongst the rocks. A long-boat full of rock oysters, too, were brought on board of us at one time, which were good food, and tasted deliciously. A little way up the river there were banks entirely composed of them. We also got abundance of parsley for the ship's use; and, at the place where we watered, we found a great quantity of fern, the root of which partakes much of a farinaceous quality: the natives dry it upon the fire, then beat it upon a stone, and eat it instead of bread.
On the 16th, in the morning, the weather being very fair, we weighed anchor, and stood out to sea, but, having a strong breeze from the west, which was against us all this day and the next, being the 17th, we did nothing but beat to windward. The country in view appeared rather barren, and had but few signs of inhabitants. We saw several islands, which we named Mercury islands.
On the 18th, in the morning, we passed between the main and an island which appeared to be very fertile, and as large as Yoolee-Etea. Two canoes came to us from the main, having carved heads, like those we had seen in the bay of Opoorangee: one of them was longer than the other, and had sixty of the natives in her: they gazed at us awhile, and then gave us several heivos; but the breeze freshening, they were obliged to drop astern, and we soon left them. The coast hereabout is full of islands: the name of the largest is Waootaia; and one of the small ones is called Matoo Taboo. After we had passed this island, (the passage between which and the main we named Port Charles,) it seemed as if we were in a large bay, the land surrounding us on every side, excepting a-head, where we could discover none: we bent our course that way, and got, at length, inclosed between two shores, which seemed to form a kind of strait. Night coming on, we anchored here, not daring to venture farther, as we knew not whether we were page 106in a strait a bay. The land on both sides of us appeared very broken, and had a high and bold shore, tolerably well cloathed with verdure; but it appeared to be thinly inhabited; nor did we see any signs of cultivation. There are many small islands along, the shore, among, which are some good harbours.
On the 19th, in the morning, several of the natives came on board of us: their canoes were the largest we had seen, and the people in them behaved very friendly. By what we could learn, they had got intelligence of us from the people that inhabit the country about Opoorangee Bay, which is not very distant. They told us this was not an entrance into the main, but a deep bay. Some of them presented us with a large parcel of smoaked eels, which tasted very sweet and luscious. We observed that the natives mode of salutation was by putting their noses together.
We failed along till we came to six fathoms water, and then let go our anchor. The weather being hazy, we could not have so good a view of the land upon the coast as we wished to have; but it appeared to be well covered with wood, and some parts of it cultivated. This day we caught a considerable quantity of fish, with hook and line, of the scienna or bream kind. The natives call this harbour Ooahaowragee.
On the 20th, early in the morning, the Captain, Mr. Banks, and Dr. Solander, set out, in the long-boat and pinnace, for the bottom of this gulph, to see in what manner it terminated: and, as it blew very fresh, and a great swell rolled into the bay all day, they did not attempt to return till the next morning, the 21st; then, with some difficulty, on account of the swell, they reached the ship again, and reported, that they had been a considerable way up a fresh-water river, at the end of the gulph, in which they found three fathoms water. It was about half a mile broad, and. would make an excellent harbour. Near the entrance of this river, which they named the Thames, there was a village, and a Hippa, or place of refuge, erected to defend it, which was surrounded by piquets that reached above water when the tide was up; and, at low-water, it was unapproachable on account of a soft deep mud. The inhabitants of the village behaved civil and obliging, and promised to bring some provisions to the ship; but, the weather proving unfavourable, they could not fulfil their engagement. On that day they also met page 107with the large tree of which we had seen so many groves formed in different parts of the coast. This tree has a small narrow leaf, like a juniper's, and grows to the height of ninety feet, and is nine feet in girth. It is generally found in low land, and has a very dark-coloured appearance at a distance. The natives, it is thought, make their canoes of this tree. They also saw several young cabbage palm-trees, and a new species of Pardanus, or palm-nut.
In the afternoon we weighed anchor, proceeded down the gulph with the tide, the wind blowing hard from N. N. W. and, toward night anchored pretty near the shore.
On the 22d, in the evening, several canoes, full of people, some of whom we saw the night before, came on board, brought us some provisions, and parted very readily with their cloaths, and any thing they had about them, for pieces of waste paper and Otaheite cloth, which they put about their heads and ears, and were very proud of their dress.
The wind being still against us, we were obliged to tide it down the river, and anchored between tides, and passed a point of land which we called Point Rodney.
The next day, being the 23d, we had heavy rains, accompanied with thunder.
On the 24th, we had a smart breeze from the S. W. and, failing along shore, passed between the main and a number of islands of several sizes. The appearance of the coast was very different at different places; well cloathed and verdant in some parts, and barren in others; but we saw no signs of inhabitants in any. We anchored in an open buy, and caught a great number of large fishes of the scienna or bream kind; we therefore named this Bream Bay; and the two extreme points which formed it, Bream Head and Bream Tail. Off this bay lies a parcel of recks, to which we gave the appellation of the Hen and Chickens.
On the 25th, we had clear weather, with the wind at S. W. The coast we passed. along that day was mostly level, having, but few signs of inhabitants: to-page 108ward night several large canoes came off to us, filled with people, armed with a variety of weapons; they paddled round the ship, singing and dancing; sometimes grinning, and then threatening: we trafficked with them for some things; but they went off with some others, meaning to take an advantage of us. While they were parlying among themselves we fired several muskets at them, loaded with small shot, which they attempted to skreen themselves from with their ahavos, or cloaks. We fired again, and splintered one of their canoes, which seemed to alarm them much, and they paddled away from us as fast as possible, till they thought themselves out of our reach, and then they stopped and threatened us; but we fired a great gun, which so thoroughly disconcerted them, that they made the best of their way to the shore. These people were much like them we had seen heretofore, excepting that they were more tataowed: most of them had the figure of volutes on their lips, and several had their legs, thighs, and part of their bellies, marked. One woman, in particular, was very curiously tataowed. The tataow upon their faces was not done in spirals, but in different figures from what we had ever seen before.
On the 26th, many canoes visited us. The people in them were much the same as the former. They had a variety of things on board, and about them, but were 10th to part with any of them excepting fish, of which we obtained a large quantity.
The coast we sailed along this day, was generally barren, and broke into a number of small islands, among which we presumed there might be safe and good anchorage. We had calm and pleasant weather.
Plate XXI. Head of Otegoowgoow. Son of a New Zealand Chief, the [gap — reason: illegible] curiously tataoued.
The wind having been against us for several days, and as we could get no farther with our heavy ship, on the 29th, in the morning, having weathered a long point of land, which we named Cape Brett, we bore away to leeward; got into a very large harbour, where we were land-locked, and had several pretty coves on every side of us. We passed a small island which we named Piercy Island, and soon after cast anchor. Many canoes came off to us; and the people in them, according to custom, behaved somewhat unruly: while I saluted one of them, in their manner, he picked my pocket. Some of our people fired upon them, but they did not seem to regard it much. One of our boats went on shore, and then they set off all at once, and attempted to seize her, in which, however, they failed; but soon after Mr. Banks got on shore, he had like to have been apprehended by one of the natives, but happily escaped. The marines fired upon them; five great guns were fired from the ship, and Otegoowgoow, [see pl. XXI.] son to one of their chiefs, was wounded in the thigh. The natives, affrighted, fled precipitately to a Hippa, where our people followed them; and, at length, they became very submissive. Had these barbarians acted more in concert, they would have been a formidable enemy, and might have done us much mischief; but they had no kind of order or military discipline among them. They gave us some large mackarel, which ate very deliciously, and that was almost the only article they would part with.
On the 5th of December, we weighed anchor, but were becalmed at the entrance of the bay, which we called the Bay of Islands, from the many islands in it. However, as it frequently happens in life, a lesser evil secured us from a greater; being detained here, we escaped a severe gale at sea, that might have proved very dangerous to us, as the wind blew a perfect hurricane, one day, accompanied with heavy showers of rain.
The natives (being more sensible of our power) behaved very civil, and brought us a great many fish; and while we lay here, we caught some ourselves with hook and line.page 110
A canoe came into the bay that had eighty people in her, most of whom paddled; the chiefs wore garments of dogs skins, and were very much tataowed; the men upon their hips, and the women on their breast, necks, and bellies. We saw many plantations of the Koomarra, and some of the Eaowte, or cloth trees.
At night, again, it was almost calm, and we were near the shore. We designed to tack about, but were hurried, by an eddy-tide, upon the breakers, off a point of land called, by us, Point Pococke, before we were aware of it, which threw us into a panic, and occasioned great confusion. Not having room to anchor, we hoisted out the pinnace to tow her off: we thought we had seen a whale, but it proved to be a rock, and we struck upon it twice. We got clear of it again, and streamed the buoy, but luckily did not let go the anchor. Soon after we saw several small islands, which we named Cavalle Islands. We passed two points of land which formed a bay, to which we gave the appellation of Doubtless Bay; and the two points which formed it were called by us Bay Point, and Knuckle Point. We were now got into a very long open bay, which, from the appearance of the country, we named Sandy Bay.
We beat to windward four days, and made but little way, having continual breezes from the west; and, on the 19th, many canoes came off to us, of which we bought a good quantity of fish. The land hereabout looked very barren, and tends away to the north.
On the 10th, the wind was N.W. we beat to windward, and made but little way. The land in fight was very low, and very barren, being mostly sandy, having here and there a few bushes, but scarce a tree to be seen, yet it appeared to be inhabited.
On the 13th, the N. W. wind still prevailing, we could do nothing but lie on and off the land, without. making any way. It blew very hard, and we had some fierce squalls, attended with heavy showers of rain, which drove us back to where we had been four days before.page 111
On the 14th, we were quite out of sight of land; the wind continued to blow very strong; we had great swells from the west; and our sails being very tender, many of them were much torn in the gale.
On the 17th, in the morning, we were near land again, which seemed to be the farthest north, the land tending away from this point, which we called the North Cape to the South West. This land was pretty high, with a table top. We saw no canoes, nor any inhabitants; but, in the evening, we saw some smoke on the high land.
On the 20th, the wind still continuing westerly, we got no farther than the last bluff point. We had some violent squalls of wind, with heavy rains, thunder, and lightening.
On the 21st, in the morning, the wind came about to the south; but, as we were a considerable distance from shore, we could only stand to the westward without being able to get near the land.
On the 24th, after having beat about for three days, we discovered land, which we supposed was the island of the Three Kings, though we could not bring it to appear any thing like the described figure of that island in Dalrymple's Book, having nothing of that broken appearance which that figure exhibits, forming one large clump of land, rather flat at the top, with eleven small rocks lying in a row from it. It being calm, Mr. Banks went out in the small boat; and we saw some birds so much like our island geese; that we could not have distinguished the difference. We caught, several of them, made them into a pye, and they tasted excellently.
On the 27th, in the morning, it blew very hard from the east, all day, accompanied with, heavy showers of rain, and we brought the ship to under a reef main-fail.page 112
On the 28th, the wind veered about to the S.W. and blew from that quarter fiercer than it had done the day before from the east; the sea also ran very high, and we brought to under a balanced mizen, and a mizen stay-fail.
On the 30th, we discovered land to leeward of us, which we took for Cape Maria Van Diemen; but as the wind continued still very boisterous, and the sea ran very high, we did not venture to approach near it; we therefore tacked about, and stood to the N. W. intending to stand backwards and forwards till the weather should be more moderate. In the evening, we discovered the island of the Three Kings, on our lee-bow, and tacked about, without attempting to weather it.
On the 31st, the wind blowing from the S. W. we did not approach the shore, but, in the afternoon, we saw the land very plain, and discovered a mountain which we had seen on the other side of the land; we called it Mount Camel, from its likeness to that animal: to the north of which it appears very sandy and barren, having only here and there a green plat. The same neck of land we saw on the other side, which reaches to Cape Maria Van Diemen, and this tends to the S. E.
On the 3d of January, 1770, in the forenoon, we saw the land again; this was high flat table land, and tended away to the S. E. where we lost sight of it; the wind still continued between the south and west.
On the 4th, we stood along shore: the coast appeared very low, sandy, and barren. About noon, the wind began to frisk and blow from the S. W. and fearing if it should blow fresher, that we might get soul on a lee-shore, we tacked about, and proceeded to the N. W. Before we tacked, we observed a bending of the land which we thought might be a bay, but it proved otherwise, and we therefore named it False Bay.
On the 7th, we had light breezes and calms for several days, with fair weather, and were out of sight of land. On that day we saw a sun-fish, very short and thick, having scarce any tail, but two large sins; it was as big as a shark, and of the same colour.page break page 113
On the 9th, we had a pleasant breeze from the N. E. the weather gloomy; the land in view low and level, tending away to the S. E. In the evening it appeared higher, and tended suddenly to the west; but we were not near enough to distinguish any thing upon it.
On the 10th, we had a fine breeze from the north, and passed a high sloping land, covered with wood, where we had seen some smoke. A few leagues farther from this point, which we called Woody Point, we saw a small flat island, or rock, which was almost covered with gannets, or soland geese; and therefore called it Gannet Island. Soon after we passed a point of land, at which time, seeing a number of albatrosses on the sea, we named it Albatross Point: This point stretched out a great way, and formed a small harbour. As we proceeded on our course, the land, though level, appeared much higher, and pretty well cloathed with verdure. We saw a point of land which we called, from its appearance, Sugar-Loaf Point, near which are several small islands; and, from their vicinity to the point, we named them Sugar-Loaf Isles. The weather being still gloomy, and the wind veering about to the S. W. we were obliged to stand off and on the land.
On the 11th, in the evening, we discovered a very peaked hill, which appeared to be as high as the peak of Teneriffe; [see pl. XXII.] and all the bottom part of it was covered with clouds in the same manner; we named it Mount Egmont.
The next morning, on the 12th, we approached nearer to it, but could not see the top of it, which was lost in the clouds. From this peak the land declined gradually to a point on each side, one ending in the sea, and the other stretching to the coast north of it, which was, in general, low and level, but covered with trees, as were also both sides of the peak. When we were abreast of it we had very heavy showers of rain, with thunder and lightening; and, at length, the peak itself was totally inveloped in darkness. In the night we saw a large fire. The point off this peak we called Cape Egmont.page 114
On the 13th, early in the morning, we descried the top of the peak, which was streaked with snow, and, finding the land tended away to the east, we. concluded that we were in a large bay.
On the 14th, we saw land ahead of us, and still apprehended we were in a large bay. We also discovered several islands and very deep breaks in the land: The coast hereabout is very high, and the tops of the hills are covered with clouds; but, the weather being hazy, we saw nothing on the land excepting a fire lit up at night.
On the 15th, in the forenoon, having reached to the farther end of the supposed bay, we entered into a smaller, or rather a harbour, it being land-locked on every side. At the entrance of this harbour there are two islands, on the smallest of which, we discovered a Hippa: we passed very near it, and the natives flocked in crouds to gaze at us. We stood in for a little cove, and anchored within two cables length of the shore, opposite to a small rivulet which ran into the sea. Some of our people went on shore, and shot some birds: we also hauled the sein, and caught a large draught of fishes, some of which weighed twenty-one pounds; and, on the shore, we found muscles, and other sorts of shell-fish, in great plenty.
All the coves of this bay teem with fish of various kinds, such as cuttle-fish, large breams, (some of which weighed twelve pounds, and were very delicious food, having the taste of fine salmon,) small grey breams, small and large baracootas, flying gurnards, horse-mackarel, dog-fish, soles, dabs, mullets, drums, scorpenas or rock-fish, cole-fish, the beautiful fish called chimera, and shaggs.
The manner in which the natives of this bay catch their fish is as follows:— They have a cylindrical net, extended by several hoops at the bottom, and contracted at the top; within the net they stick some pieces of fish, then lot it down from the side of a canoe, and the fish, going in to feed, are caught with great ease.page 115
The country, about the cove where we lay, is entirely covered with wood, and so full of a sort of supple-jack, that it is difficult to pass through it: there is also a little sand-fly which is very troublesome; and the bite of it is venomous, raising a bump upon the skin which itches very much. The tops of some of the hills, which at first appeared to be bare, we found covered with the fern plant, which grows up to about a man's height. The hills decline gently to the water's-edge, and leave no flat land excepting one place.
The woods abound with divers kinds of birds, such as parrots, wood-pigeons, water-hens; three sorts of birds having wattles; hawks; with a variety of birds that sing all night. We also found a great quantity of a species of Philadelphus, which makes a good substitute for tea. At one particular place we met with a substance that appeared like a kid's skin, but it had so weak a texture, that we concluded it was not leather; and were afterward informed, by the natives, that it was gathered from some plant called Teegoomme: one of them had a garment made of it, which looked like their rug cloaks.
The air of the country, one would imagine, is very moist, and endued with some peculiar putrescent qualities, as we found maggots in birds a few hours after they had been shot.
The natives came to us sometimes, and behaved peaceably; but, to our surprise, we had adequate proofs that they are Cannibals. Some of our people, in the pinnace, went into a little cove, where one family resided, and saw several human bones which appeared to have been lately dressed and picked; and were told, that a little while before, six of their enemies had fallen into their hands; four they killed and ate; the other two jumped into the water and escaped from them, but they were unfortunately drowned, and our people saw one of their bodies floating upon the water. The natives also brought us several human bones on board, and offered them to sale, sucking them in their mouths, and, by the signs which they made to us, evinced that they thought human flesh delicious food. One day, in particular, they brought four skulls to sell; but they rated page 116them very high. These skulls had their brains taken out, and some of them their eyes, but the scalp and hair was left upon them. They locked as if they had been dried by the fire, or by the heat of the sun. We also found human bones in the woods, near the ovens, where they used to partake of their horrid midnight repasts: and we saw a canoe the baler of which was made of a man's skull. The natives seemed even to take pride in their cruelty, as if it was the most laudable virtue, instead of one of the worst of moral vices; and shewed us the manner in which they dispatched their prisoners; which was to knock them down with their patta pattoos, and then to rip them up.
The natives, in this part of New Zealand, [see pl. XXIII.] wear large bunches of feathers on their beads, and their garments in a singular manner, just as Abel Tasmen, the person who, about one hundred and fifty years ago, discovered this land, has figured in his work. They were not desirous of any thing we had except nails, which they soon discovered to be useful.
When these people are pleased on any particular occasion, they express it by crying Ai, and make a clack with their tongues not unlike a hen's when she calls her chickens.
We heard a great cry, or howling, at the Hippa every night, and, most likely, at that time they were cutting and slashing themselves, according to their custom, which is done with a piece of green stone, shell, or shark's tooth, which they drive into their flesh, and draw it along, beginning at their feet and continuing it to their heads.
Plate XXIII. The heads of six men, natives of New Zealand, ornamented according to the mode of that Country.
Plan XXIV. View of an arched rock, on the Coast of New Zealand; with an Hippa, or Place of Retreat, on the Top of it.
There are many small islands around that appear to be entirely barren; and we saw no inhabitants upon this excepting those that belong to the Hippa; and they neither sow nor plant any thing, but live chiefly on fish, and on their neighbours when they can catch them.
We saw one of their Hippas which was situated on a very high rock, hollow underneath, forming a most grand natural arch, one side of which was connected with the land; the other rose out of the sea. Underneath this arch a small vessel might have sailed [See pl. XXIV.] It was near a pleasant bay, and almost inaccessible: one of the natives came out and waved a large garment, or piece of cloth, to us as we passed along.
Their canoes were very stately ones: very few of the natives are tataowed: we asked them if their ancestors had not told them of such a ship as ours that they had seen in their time, but they appeared to be entirely ignorant of it. These cannibals told us, that the people, who belonged to those they had slain and eaten, were coming to them, over the hills, to kill them the next day, but it proved a false alarm.
On the 1st of February, we had a strong wind from the N.E. The hawser with which we moored the ship was broke by the strain of the sea, it being fastened on shore to a tree, and we were obliged to let go another bower. It rained all this day and part of the next, continuing, without intermission for thirty-two hours.
On the 6th, we left the bay, which we called Cannibal Bay, having been in it about three weeks. The captain called it Charlotte's Sound. The two points, which form the entrance, were named Cape Koomarroo, and Point Jackson. The natives call the land about it Totarranooe. We bent our course to an opening at the entrance of this bay, on the east, which, we saw on our coming into it, concluding it a passage between the north and south part of this island. In the evening we were in the mouth of the straits, where we were becalmed. On page 118a sudden we were carried toward a parcel of broken islands, or rather rocks, which lie at the entrance of the straits; the two largest we named the Two Brothers. Being alarmed, we ran to the poop of the ship, where we heard a great noise, and saw the appearance of breakers, upon which we drove bodily aftern; neared the islands quickly; let go our anchor; and, before we had veered away 150 fathoms of cable, we found ourselves amongst these supposed breakers, which proved to be a strong tide that let through the straits; it made a very great ripling, especially near the islands, where the water, running in heaps, bears, and whirlpools, made a very great noise in its passage. These straits run nearly in a north and south direction.
On the 7th, we weighed anchor, and proceeded along the straits with the tide and a fine breeze, which set us through with great rapidity. At the entrance into the straits, from the north, there is a small island on the north side, near a point of land on the main; this island we called Entry Island. The land on the south side is very high, and but thinly clothed, though we saw here and there a fine level. At one part, in particular, the land was very low, and seemed to form an entrance. We saw a very long row of high trees, like those at Hawke's bay, and at Ooahaowragee, or the river Thames; and it is probably the mouth of some river. We called this bay Cloudy Bay; opposite to which, on the other side of the straits, is a cape or point of land which the natives of Cannibal Bay call Teerawitte. Here is also a great number of hills, and one much higher than the rest, having its summit covered with snow, which we saw at a great distance. The north coast tended away eastward; and the south to the S. S. W. which we followed till the night closed in upon us; then the wind chopped about; and, being willing to satisfy ourselves whether the north part of this land was an island, we resolved to sail as far north as Cape Turnagain, These straits, which we named Cook's Straits, are about thirteen miles long, and fourteen broad. The two eastermoit points of which we called Cape Campbell and Cape Palliser. The flood tide comes strong in from the southward, and, on the days of new and full moon, it is high water about eleven o'clock.
On the 8th, we sailed along the southern coast of this island: the weather was hazy, but we discovered many extensive lawns, with some high hills, the tops of page 119which were mostly flat. In the afternoon; three canoes came off to us; two of them were large and handsome. The natives in them, who seemed to have been cut and mangled in several parts of their bodies, behaved peaceably; and, by asking for nails, we concluded they had heard of us from the people of some other islands where we had been. They were much like the natives of Mataroowkaow, a village in Tolaga Bay; being very nearly drest, having their hair knotted on the crown of their heads in two bunches, one of which was Tamoou, or plaited, and the wreath bound round them the same. In one of the canoes there was an old man who came on board; attended by one of the natives; he was tataowed all over the face, with a streak of red paint over his nose; and across his cheek. His brow, as well as the brows of many others who were with him, was much sorrowed; and the hair of his head and beard quite silvered with age. He had on a flaxen garment, ornamented with a beautiful wrought border; and under it a petticoat, made of a sort of cloth which they call Aooree Waow: on his ears hung a bunch of teeth, and an ear-ring of Poonamoo, or green stone. For an Indian, his speech was soft, and his voice so low that we could hardly hear it. By his dress, carriage, and the respect paid to him, we supposed him to be a person of distinction amongst them.
We observed a great difference betwixt the inhabitants on this side of the land, north of Cook's Straits, and those of the south. The former are tall, well-limbed, clever fellows; have a deal of tataow, and plenty of good cloaths; but the latter are a set of poor wretches, who, though strong, are stinted in their growth, and seem to want the spirit or sprightliness of the northern Indians. Few of them are tataowed, or have their hair oiled and tied up; and their canoes are but mean.
On the 9th, at noon, latitude south, we had a good view of Cape Turnagain. We hauled in our wind to S. W. to make the land on the other side of Cook's Straits. The coast we failed along was lower, and had many white clayey and chalky cliffs upon it. We passed two points of land to which we gave the names of Castle Point and Flat Point.page 120
On the 14th, we passed Cook's Straits, without seeing them, on the east side of * Toaipoonamoo. The land consists of high ridges of mountains, whose tops, streaked with snow, had but little verdure upon them; and, at the bottom of them, we saw but little low land.
In the afternoon, four double canoes, in which were fifty-seven people, came off to us; they had some leaves about their heads, but few cloths on their bodies, and seemed to be poor wretches. They kept aloof from us, nor could we persuade them to traffic with us.
On the 16th, we sailed along shore, and had frequent calms. About noon we passed a broad opening which seemed to divide the land; on the N. W. side of which is a small bay, which we named Gore's Bay. In the evening the land tended away to the S.W. and formed in various bluff points, and was, within, of a middling height, very broken, and somewhat bare. We saw some smoke, but were not near enough to make any accurate observations. We passed also the appearance of several good harbours.
On the 17th, we saw more land which still tended away to the S.W. and, it is probable, the straits we saw is a passage between the main or land we sailed along the day before and the island or land we saw this day; or this may, perhaps, be a continuation of the larger. About the middle of this island, which we called Banks's Island, there seems to be a fine large bay. We hauled in our wind, and stood to the east, one of the lieutenants being persuaded that he saw land in that quarter; but, in the evening, we bore away to the south, and, on the 18th, Latitude 45º 16', we hauled in our wind, and stood to the west, being certain that we could not miss the land if there was any so far to the south. In the evening we saw vast shoals of grampusses and bottle-nosed porpoises.
* Or the Land of Poonamoo, which is the name by which the natives distinguish the southern division of this island, and where the Poonamoo, or Green Stone, is found. The northern division of New Zealand is called by them Eaheino-Mauwe.
On the 20th, in the morning, we were near the land, which formed an agreeable view to the naked eye. The hills were of a moderate height, having flats that extended from them a long way, bordered by a perpendicular rocky cliff next to the sea; but, when viewed through our glasses, the land appeared very barren, having only a few trees in the valleys, or furrows of the hills, and had no signs of inhabitants. The air was very sharp and cold.
Having beat to windward for several days without gaining any way, with the weather gloomy and very cold, on Saturday, the 24th, we had a fresh breeze from the north, which carried us round the outermost point, which we called Cape Saunders: beyond which the land tended away to the S. W.
The next day, the 25th, we had variable winds and calms till the afternoon; and then we had the wind from the S. W. which was directly against us: it blow very violently, and we were obliged to go under fore and main sails; and tore our fore-sail in pieces. The land thereabout was pretty high, indifferently well covered with trees, but had no signs of inhabitants.
On the 27th, it continued blowing hard from the S. W. we lay to all day: at length the wind abated, but continued still in our teeth. Thermometer 46.
On the 4th of March, after having beat about near a week, by the favour of a breeze from the north, we got fight of land again, which tended away to the S. W. and by W. and appeared to be of great extent. We had a continual rolling swell from the S. W. and saw the appearance of a harbour, which we named Moulineux's Harbour, after the name of the master of our ship. We had light breezes and calms till the ninth; and, at the dawn of that day, we narrowly escaped running the ship upon a ledge, or parcel of craggy rocks; some of which were but just seen above water. They were luckily discovered by the midshipman's going to the mast head. The breeze being moderate, we put the helm a-lee, and were delivered from this imminent danger by the good providence of God. The land, page 122which we then saw at a considerable distance, seemed to be an island, having a great opening between it and the land which we had passed before; but, the captain designing to go round, we steered for the south point, hoping it was the last. This large opening we named South-East Bay; on the N. W. side of which there is a small long island, that we ca11ed Bench Island. We stood out to sea, but, meeting with contrary winds, we beat to windward for a considerable time: at length, the wind coming fair; we steered westerly, and, unexpectedly, found ourselves between two large shoals, which had some rocks upon them; but we fortunately escaped them. We called these shoals The Traps. Toward night, we got so far round as to make the point bear N. N. E. and then we saw some kind of stuff upon it that glittered very much, but could not discover what it was composed of. This day the weather was more moderate than it had been for many days; and being one of the inferior officers birth day, it was celebrated by a peculiar kind of festival; a dog was killed that had been bred on board; the hind quarters were roasted; and a pye was made of the fore quarters, into the crust of which they put the fat; and of the viscera they made a haggis.
On the 10th, we stood out a considerable way to sea; and, on the 11th, in the morning, fetched the land, and approached near it. It had the appearance of a cluster of islands, or a bay with a large break, being divided by a number of valleys and peaked hills, many of which were pretty well covered with wood, and had some snow on the tops of them; but we saw no signs of inhabitants. We called this bay South-West Bay, near which lies a small island, that we named Solander's Isle. Having contrary winds we were driven back as far as 47° 45' south latitude; but, the wind coming round again, we steered north-westerly, and made a point of land, which we named the West Cape. We went round this cape; on the N.E. side of which there is a small bay; we called it Dusky Bay; and the N. W. point of it we called Five Fingers Point, about which we saw several rocks.
On the 13th, we sailed along the western coast with a very brisk breeze from the south. The land appeared very romantic, having mountains piled on mountains to an amazing height; but they seemed to be uninhabited. We saw the appearance of some good harbours, one of which, larger than the rest, we page 123called Doubtful Harbour; but night coming on we did not venture into any of them.
On the 14th, we sailed along shore with a pleasant breeze; the land rose immediately from the water's edge to a very great height. Some of the highest hills were covered with snow, and the others with wood; but we saw no signs of inhabitants. We passed several breaks in the land, which might be good harbours, but we did not enter into any of them. We saw, this day, a great number of albatrosses.
On the 16th, having a breeze, we sailed along the shore of the land we had passed the day before, which appeared as wild and romantic as can be conceived. Rocks and mountains, whose tops were covered with snow, rose in view one above another from the water's edge: and those near the shore were cloathed with wood, as well as some of the valleys between the hills, whose summits reached the clouds. We saw a break in the land which we thought might be a good harbour, but it proved only a small open bay, we therefore called it Mistaken Bay. As we sailed along we passed a broken point, that had a flat top, from which the water poured down into the sea, and formed three grand natural cascades. This point we named Cascades Point. On the N. E. side of it there was a bay which we called Open Bay.
On the 20th, we met with contrary winds, which carried us away to the west-ward; but, the wind coming favourable again, we resumed our former course, and came up with a head of land which we named Cape Foul Wind.
On the 24th, we saw a point of land which we called Rock's Point, and soon after met with a Cape; and, when we got round it, found ourselves in a large bay, but did not anchor in it. The land tended away to the S. E. and, at the bottom of the bay, there is probably a river. We continued our course to the S. E. and came up with a large tract of land stretching a good way from the main to a point, near which there is a small island. We named this point Cape Stephens; and the island Stephens Isle. Having weathered the point we found ourselves in a page 124large bay, which we called Admiralty Bay. In the mouth of this bay there are several small islands, which we named Admiralty Isles.
On the 26th, in the evening, we anchored in the Bay, which, we found was about ten leagues N.W. of Charlotte's Sound, or Cannibal Bay, after having endured the dangers of soul winds, and the tedious suspense of many calms*. The inhabitants of Cannibal Bay, where we were on the 6th of February, told us, that we might sail round the south land in four days, but we had been near seven weeks in making the tour. There is no low land hereabout, the hills rising from the water's edge. Since we came from Charlotte's Sound, we saw no signs of inhabitants, except one smoke, which, perhaps, arose from some other than the hand of man; for it would seem that this land was almost entirely uninhabited, except Charlotte's Sound; and it has all the appearance of a cluster of islands, through which there are various straits, though we had no time to discover them. This second part of the land is about the size of the other, and the whole together is as large as Great-Britain.
In this bay we saw some deserted houses, but no inhabitants; and the land about it is more wild and not so flat as Charlotte's Sound; but the bay abounded as plentifully with fish, and we caught a great quantity with hooks and lines, which were distributed amongst the ship's company. We had now passed near six month, on the coast of New Zealand; had surveyed it on every side, and discovered it to be an island near three hundred leagues in length; inhabited by Cannibals, accustomed to the carnage of war from their infancy, and peculiarly undaunted, as well as insensible of danger.
* The Map annexed, in which the ship's track is accurely marked, will give the reader an idea of the fatigue and danger which attended our traverse. [See. XXV.]
Plate XXV. Map of the coast of New Zealand discovered in the year 1769 and 1770. By I Cook commander of His Majesty's bark Endeavour.
Something has already been mentioned respecting the language of the New-Zealanders, and of its affinity to that of the people of Otaheite; the following Vocabulary will more fully shew this agreement, which is a very extraordinary circumstance, and leads us to conclude that one place was originally peopled from the other, though they are at near two thousand miles distance, and nothing but the ocean intervenes, at least to our knowledge; and such a long navigation, we should hardly believe, could be practicable in their small canoes, the only vessels that they appear to have ever possessed; yet what should lead too distinct people, having no communication with each other, to affix the same sounds to the same things, would be hard to account for in any other manner. This opinion is farther corroborated, by comparing their customs and manners, as also their instruments of war and household utensils, which will be found to agree in many particulars. The migration was probably from New-Zealand to Otaheite; as the inhabitants of the former place were totally unacquainted with the use of bows and arrows till we first taught them; whereas the people of the latter island use them with great dexterity, having doubtless discovered the use of them by some accident after their separation; and it cannot be supposed that the New-Zealanders would have lost so beneficial an acquisition, if they had ever been acquainted with it.