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Grammar of the New Zealand Language

Chapter IX. — Of the Adverbs

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Chapter IX.
Of the Adverbs.

The adverbs of Maori may be considered under two heads, primative and derivative.

The primitive are but few in number.

The derivative are very numerous, and may be thus ranked:

1st. Those which require some preposition to exhibit their application; e. g.,

  • Ki hea, no reira.

2ndly. Those which are derived from words of other parts of speech.

3rdly. Those phrases which supply the place of adverbs.

The last class is very large, Maori being deficient in the variety of adverbs; and though, strictly speaking, most of them cannot claim a place in this chapter, we shall mention them:

1stly. Because many foreigners are much perplexed from not being acquainted with them, and

2ndly. Because, being idiomatic phrases, a knowledge of them is of great importance to the composition of elegant Maori.

Note 1.—Some of the following adverbs might, it will be seen, have been easily classified under other heads. It was necessary, however, to have a classification, and it is not of much consequence under which head a phrase of equivocal character should be classed.

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Note 2.—Some of the adverbial particles are fully considered in the next chapter.

Adverbs may be reduced to the following classes:

—to those of time, place, order, quantity, quality, manner, affirmation, negation, comparison, interrogation, and intensity.

Adverbs of Time.*

  • Aianei, Anaianei, Akuanei, Akuaina. presently.

  • Moanaianei, for this present occasion.

  • Nonaianei, Inaianei, now, just now.

    * These adverbs of time are arranged according to their times, past present, and future. For the time of those adverbs which are compounded with prepositions, vid, the simple prepositions, chapter 8. The principal compound adverbs are hea, ahea, mua, muri, amata, apopo, reira, ko. They are chiefly adverbs of time and place. As they are of very common use, we shall give examples of their various combinations. Some of these combinations ought, perhaps, more properly to be considered as belonging to the class of substantives;

    A hea?Ko mua.I nahea?
    Ko hea?No mua.A muri.
    No hea?Na mua.Ko muri.
    Na hea?I mua.No muri.
    I hea?Mo mua.Na muri.
    Mo hea?Mo a mua.I muri.
    Ma hea?Ma mua.Mo muri.
    Ki hea?Ki mua.Ma muri.
    Kei hea?Kei mua.Ki muri.
    I hea?I mua.Kei muri.
    O hea?O mua.I muri
    Hei hea?Hei mua.O muri.
    A popo.A hea?Ko anaianei.
    Ko apopo.Ko ahea?Hei anaianei,
    Mo apopo.Hei ahea?Mo anaianei.
    Hei apopo.Mo ahea?I naianei.
    A mua.No nahea?O naianei.
    Ko amus.

    Reira ko and konei, &c., will take the same combination as muri. It will be observed that some of the above adverbs take n between them and the proposition.

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  • Inaianei-nei-ano, at, or since this present moment.

  • Nonai-akenei, a few minutes, days, &c., ago.

  • A moroki noa nei, down to this present time

  • A mohoa noa nei, down to this present time

  • A tae noa ki, taea noatia, teneira (lit. untilit is arrived to this day), down to this present time

  • A, e noho nei, (Waikato), [lit. down to this (time) in which (we) are sitting.] down to this present time

  • Rapua Te Atua i tona kitenga ai, karangatia atu kei tata ana ia, seek the Lord while he may be fonnd, call upon him while he is near.

While he may be found, might also be rendered by i tona kiteatanga.

  • Ahea? at what future time?

  • Apopo, to-morrow.

  • A tahi ra, the day after to-morrow.

  • A mua, hereafter.

  • Wawe, soon.

  • E kore e taro, it will not be long, soon.

  • E kore e roa, idem, soon.

  • E kore e wheau, idem, soon.

  • Tenei ake, (this afterwards,) by and bye, hereafter.

  • Kei taku kitenga i a ia, when I see him.

  • Tukua ake nei, or atu, (leave hence forward,) hereafter.

  • Apopo ake nei, idem.

  • A muri ake nei, henceforth.

  • Mo a mua, at a future period.

  • E takato ake nei, (it lies hereafter,) henceforward.

  • A, ake, ake, ake, for ever.

  • Kia mo—ata te maranga, rise early; (lit. let the rising be at dawn.)

  • Ko reira, on that occasion, then (future.)

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  • Meake, or perhaps more correctly mea ake, presently, or, was on the point of.

  • Kia mea (ka hoki mai au?) (shall I return) after a little while.

  • Ka mutu, when finished, by and bye.*

  • Ka mea, after a little interval, idem; e. g., ka mea ka haere ake, by and bye you will follow us.

  • Nonahea? since, or at what time (past)?

  • Nonanahi, Inanahi yesterday.

  • No tahi ra, the day before yesterday; (lit. from or on the other day).

  • I tahi ra, the day before yesterday; (lit. from or on the other day).

  • No tahi ra atu, a short time ago, (lit. from or on the other day besides, or beyond.

  • I tahi ra atu, a short time ago, (lit. from or on the other day besides, or beyond.

  • No mua, formerly.

  • I mua, formerly.

  • No nanamata, a long time ago, or in old times.

  • I nanamata, a long time ago, or in old times.

  • No-tua-iho, time out of mind.

  • Inamata (Waikato) immediately, directly, &c.

  • E haere ana tenei au, I will go immediately.

  • Penei i nanahi ka tae mai a Hone ma, it was this time yesterday when, &c.

    * Ka mutu, and ka mea generally denote future time, and imply a short interval between the time of speaking and the act. Though the former expresses an ending of something else, it does not always intend it; for it is often used when the person addressed is not engaged at any thing. As there is nothing in Maori corresponding exactly to the Hebraic mode of phrase which is translated “it came to pass,” “it shall come to pass,” some have adapted ka mea as a substitute, and in some cases, perhaps, it must stand for want of better. There are, however, cases in which we think a more correct and idiomatic form might be adopted; viz.:—a simple a, or nawai a or tensi ake, &c. We, for example, should have no scruple in translating the following sentences “so it came to pass when all the men of war were sonsumed,” &c., nawai a, ka poto nga tangata hapai patu katoa te mate, &c., “and it shall come to pass if ye hearken,” &c., a tenei ake, ki te whakarongo koutou, &c., “and it came to pass when he heard,” &c., a, te rongonga o, &c.

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  • Kia penei apopo ka u, we shall land about this time to-morrow

  • No muri afterwards.

  • I muri afterwards.

  • Muri iho, ake afterwards.

  • I te aonga ake, next day.

  • No te aonga ake, next day.

  • No te atatu, early in the morning.

  • No reira, from that time, occasion, &c.

  • I tenei ra i tenei ra, (lit. this day, this day), continually.

  • I te ao i te po, (lit. day and night,) continually.

  • Tena ano, do it again.

  • Ka turua, turoto waenga, at midnight.

  • Kahore i puta atu te kupu kua whakatika, I had not spoken, (i. e., immediately, as soon as I had spoken) he arose.

  • Haere po, go by night.

  • Haere awatea, go by day,

Of Place.

  • Ko hea, (whea Waikato), whither.

  • Hei hea, at what place (future).

  • No hea, I hea, from what place, whence.

  • Ki ko, thither.

  • No konei,*, from this (and that) place.

  • I kona, & kora, from this (and that) place.

  • Kei reira te pakaru kei reira te paru: lit., there the broken place there the repair, wheresoever it is broken there coat with raupo.*

  • Kei waho e noho ana, he is sitting outside.

Note 2. Ki reira, no reira, hei reira, &c., correspond, in most cases, with ki kona, no kona, hei kona, with this difference, however, page 78 that the na and ra follow the rule already noticed. Vide tena, Pronouns.

  • Haere iho te tokitoki, haere iho tetahutahu, burn off the felled timber, and immediately as soon as it has been chopped up, (lit. go down the chopping, go down the burning).

  • Ko te tahutahu ko te ko, ko te tahutahu ko te ko, immediately as soon as, &c.

  • Tokitoki iho, ko atu, dig it immediately as soon as it is chopped up, (lit. chop downwards, dig forwards).

  • Ora noa, all but, &c.

  • Me i kotahi, (lit. if it had been one), all but, &c.

  • Wahi iti, a little bit. all but, &c.

  • Whano. all but, &c.

  • He mea tatau a tau te utu, the payment is to be a thing counted per year; i. e. it is to be rented yearly.

  • I tenei tau i tenei tau, yearly.

  • He tau pea mahi atu, he tau pea mahi atu, this (manuring of the tree) is, perhaps, a work of every year, done yearly; kei te hauhake riwai, tuku iho kei te kumara, (we) are now (engaged) at digging up potatoes, afterwards (we shall be) at the kumara.

  • Ka maha nga haerenga, many have been his goings, i. e., he has gone frequently.

  • Hoki ake ko aua kupu, hoki ake ko aua kupu, he repeats the same words over and over again, (lit. return up, those very words, return up, those very words).

  • Na wai-a, at length, so it was, it came to pass.

  • Tatari noa, a, waited a long time.

  • A oti noa, until finished.

  • Kia tae mai ra ano, until he arrives.

  • Ka tahi ano, now for the first time.

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  • Ka tahi ano he mea pai, it is a good thing indeed.

  • Ka tahi au ka mea atu, then I said.

* For the difference between nei, na, and ra, vid. pronouns, page as.

Of Order.

  • I noho ai, he hau tetahi, he kai kore ka rua, (we) remained away 1st, (because of) the wind; 2ndly, (we) had no food.

  • Ka rua aku haerenga, I have gone twice, (lit. my goings have been two.)

  • Whakatepea te ko, kaua e pokapokaia, dig in regular progression, not here and there, (lit. ordina fossionem.)

  • Me haere wakatepe te korero, relate the matter in order, (lit. the speech must go in order.)

  • Hurihia ko roto, turn (it) inside out.

  • Hurihia kotuatia te papa, turn the board on the other side, upside down.

  • Matua, (Ngapuhi) first; kia matua keria, let it be first dug.

  • Mataati (Waikato) hopukia mataatitia, caught first.

  • Kua huri koaro te tangata wero,*

  • the tangata wero has turned adversely.

  • Ho mai ki raro nei, give it down here.

  • Kei haere ki tawhiti do not go far.

  • Whiua ki tua, throw it to the other side.

  • Neke atu ki tahaki, move to one side.

  • Kumea whakarunga, pull upwards.

  • Whakawaho, outwards.

  • Whakaroto, inwards.

  • A, tae noa ki te Pukatea, even to the Pukatea.

  • Haere iho, come down (to me).

  • Piki ake, climb up (to me).

  • Makā atu, thrown away.

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  • Rukea ake e ahau, throws away by me.

  • Makā mai, throw it here.

  • I te tahi taha i te tahi taha, (lit. on one side, on one side.) round about

  • A karapoinoa, (lit. until it surrounds) round about

  • A porowhawhe noa, id. round about

  • A potaipotai, id. round about

  • Pehea te mataratanga? how far?

  • A, hea atu ra ano? How far will you go?

  • A, hea noa atu, one knows not where. Tautauamoa rawa tana kai, tana kai, each man eats separately (i. e., by himself.)

  • Riri tautauamoa, fighting, each by himself. Kaua e ururuatia te whangai, don't feed (the child) in rapid succession, without any stop (tout de suite.)

  • Me whakahipahipa etahi rangi, (lit. let some days be made uneven,) i. e, do it every alternate day, or, at irregular periods.

  • Haere tahi, go together.

  • A, te tukunga iho, (well, the letting down, at last, finally,) i. e., the issue of such conduct, &c.

  • E kore e roko kainga kua ruaki, he vomits immediately, as soon as he has eaten (it).

  • I te orokohangaanga o te ao, when first the world was made.

  • Kati inanahi ka haere mai koe, stop yesterday you came here; i. e., you started about this time yesterday.

* The tangata were, is the person who advances to meet a party, and throws a spear at them. If, in turning to retire, he turns to the side different from that from which the spear was darted, it is a huri koaro, and a bad omen.

Of Quantity.

  • Ho mai kia maha, give abundantly.

  • Ho mai katoa mai, give entirely, or wholly.

  • Tena hoki te tahi taro, give me also, or besides, some bread.

  • Ho mai kia iti, give me (let it be little), paululum.

  • Kia penei, let it be so much.

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  • Poto rawa, consumed totally.

  • Koia ano te pai! how excellent!

  • Ano! &c., idem.

  • Roa poto nei ano, (long short,) i. e., moderately long.

  • Kahore atu, no other besides.

  • Tikina atu hoki, fetch another besides.

  • I ki mai ano hoki ia, he said moreover.

Of Quality.

  • Haere tupato, go cautiously.

  • Kia uaua ki te mahi, be strong to work, i. e., work industriously.

  • Kia kaha te hoe, pull (the oar) strong.

  • Noho whakaaro kore, sit without thought, i. e., thoughtlessly.

  • He aha i aweke ai te mahi? te tuku noa iho te tuku noa iho, why is the work done neatly and not (rather) heedlessly, (lit. and not rather let it down in any way, let it down in any way.)

  • Haere wehi, go fearfully.

  • Kai haere, go eating, i. e., eat as he walks.

  • Tu tahanga,* stand nakedly, i. e., naked.

  • — kau, idem.

  • Haere noa atu, go without guide, fear, &c., &c.

  • Tangohia huhua koretia iho, taken without cause, i. e. causelessly.

  • Ohia noa iho au ki te patu, I struck (him) unintentionally.

  • E hara i te mea totika, not intentionally.

  • Patua maoritia, killed intentionally, in the common way, &c. marietia, intentionally (sometimes).

  • I tukua whakareretia, let down by a dash, not with care.

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  • Te kaha te tuku, don't let it down violently, i. e do it gently.

  • Tukua marietia, let it down gently, peaceably.

  • Kia ata tuku, gently.

  • Kahore ano kia ata maoa, not quite done, (i. e. in cooking).

  • Te ata pai marie o te rangi i nanahi! what an exceedingly fine day was yesterday!

  • He pupuhi noa, firing without an object.

  • Tu kau ana, stand empty, idle, &c.

  • Marie ano ahau i haere mai ai i ora ai koe, I have came fortunately, by which you were saved; i. e. I have come just in time to save you, or, it is well that I came to, &c.

* Tahanga it only to be found as adverb.

Of Affirmation.

Maori is very well supplied with affirmative and negative particles, all of which differ by very slight shades of meaning from each other, and the uses of which will be best learned by practice.

  • Ae,* yes.

  • Ina, idem.

  • Aana, idem.

  • Koia, idem.

  • Ae ra, idem.

  • Ae ra hoki, yes truly, &c.

  • Ae ra pea, idem.

  • Koia ha hoki, idem.

  • Ae ko, yes (you are correct).

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  • Koia pea, yes, perhaps; (sometimes used ironically for a negative) yes indeed!

* Ae, and ina do not always strictly imply affirmation; e. g., Kahore he kete? He kete ano; ae ra, tikina atu. Is there no basket? There is a basket; yes, then, go fetch it. The word answer in Hebrew, and that corresponding to it in the Greek Testament and Septuagint, affords, we think, a parallel to this use of ae. (vid. Parkhurst's Greek Lexicon, by Rose.) It is putting a command, &c., into the form of an assent to some previous sentence.—N.B. Ina is often used to denote energy, certainty, &c.; e. g. ina ka riri au, certainly, in that case, I will be angry.

Of Negation.

Negative adverbs partake of the nature of verbal particles. We have given some examples of them in chapter vii., (vid. paradigm of the tenses,) and we shall have occasion also to notice them in the Syntax.

  • Hore, no; hore rawa, by no means.

  • Kahore, not and no.

  • Kaho, no.

  • Kao, no.

  • Kihai, not.

  • Kore, idem.

  • Tē, idem; tē whakaaro ia, who did not remember.

  • Aua, do not.

  • Auaka, do not.

  • Kaua, do not.

  • Kauaka, do not.

  • Kei, do not, and take care lest, or lest.

  • Aua hoki, (used in some parts of Waikato for) no, no; not at all.

  • E hara koe i te rangatira noku, you are not my master.

  • Kiano, (Ngapuhi) not yet.

Haunga,* not, (denoting exclusion, or exception); e.g.,

  • Haunga tena, not that, (but the other.)

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  • Aratakina mai te poaka; haunga to mea purepure, lead the pig here; not the speckled, (but the other.)

  • Kahore haunga, (Waikato) used sometimes instead of haunga.

  • Aua, & Au, I do not know.

  • Meho, (Waikato,) not at all, (used in abrupt replies.)

  • Hori, not at all, (used in abrupt replies.)

* Some, we believe, maintain that the adverb besides should be always rendered by haunga. It is true that, wherever exclusion or negation is indicated by that word, haunga will generally answer; e. g., E rus tekau ratou. haunga nga wahine, they were twenty, besides (that is not counting) the women. In the leading sense, however, of besides, vis., that of more over, addition to, haunga will, we are sure, seldom find an use; as in the following examples: “Besides you know,” “nobody thinks so besides yourself,” “There is nothing there ides the box,” “besides her he had no child.”

Of Comparison.

  • Meatia, or peneitia, do it thus,

  • Meatia, or penatia do it in that manner.

  • Meatia, or peratia do it in that manner.

  • Penei, kua ora, thus, (in that case, if that had been done) he would have been saved.

  • Koia ano tena, exactly so.

  • Me mahi motuhake, work separately.

  • Haere ana ia, ko tona kotahi, he went by himself, alone.

  • Waihoki, likewise, also.

  • Ano kua mate, as though he were dead.

  • Mo te mea, &c. (Waikato) idem.

  • Koia ano kei te wai, exactly as if it were water.

  • Haere a parera, walk like a duck.*

  • Kia wakatangata nui, act manfully.

  • Wakatupu tangata, idem.

* Some foreigners, we observe, give this adverb a more extensive meaning than we have allowed it. In such phrases, for example, as the following; “Held by the hand,” “built by the hand,” &c., they would say “purutia a ringaringatia,” “hanga a ringaringa.” We are, however, decidedly of opinion that such expressions are very rare in genuine Maori. “Purutia ringaringatia, hanga a it ringa,” are, we consider, in every way preferabl

Of Interrogation.

Maori has many particles which indicate interrogation, and which correspond, in some particulars, with page 85 the enclitic particles ne and num of Latin; e. g.,

  • E pai ana? ne are you inclined? are you?

  • Ine, (Waikato,) differs but little in its use from the above.

Ranei, ianei, iana, and iara, are always incorporated into the sentence, and generally denote a question, e. g.,

  • E pai ana ranei koe?

  • Koia? Indeed? (when used by itself.)

  • Oti, else.

  • Na-te-aha? why?

  • Me pehea? How must it be done?

Ranei is very frequently used in the sense of whether.

Ianei, iana, and iara, are sometimes pleonastic in Waikato.

Koia, when part of an interrogative sentence, is, as far as we have obeerved, (although we are aware that some respectabie speakers of Maori have not followed the rule,) almost always used in rejoinder; e. g., I pehea koia ahau? what then did I say? The speaker here supposes that the hearer had disputed his statement, and uses koia. Oti is used in a some what similar construction with the meaning of else, e. g., He aha oti? what else then is it?

Of Intensity.

Pai rawa, tino tika, tino pai rawa, kino whaka-harahara, tika pu, he noa iho, tini whakarere, tika tonu; all these adverbs stand for very or some modification of it; e.g.,

  • I hoki rawa mai koe ihea? what is the exact, or last place from which you have returned?

  • Pokuru iho, pokuru iho te namu, densely clustered the sandflies.

  • Kahore kau, not at all.

  • Haere ra pea, go now, I say, &c.

  • Haere ra, idem.

Maori, as might be expected in the language of a rude people, abounds in adverbs of intensity. We shall have to mention some of these hereafter, (vid. adjective, comparative degree, Syntax.) They sometimes elegantly supply the place of verbal particles, as page 86 we shall have occasion to show when we treat on the Syntax of the verbs.

From the preceding table the student will see that Maori has the power of increasing its adverbs to any extent, and that the chief process by which a word may be converted into an adverb, is by placing it in immediate connexion with the rerb or adjective,

It, should, perhaps, be here noticed, 1st, that Maori inclines to this mode of construction. Thus, where we should say, the women and the children must all roll the log; a native would most probably employ the adverb; e.g., Huri tane huri wahine. Such a mode of construction, though loose, is, however, concise and emphatic.

2ndly. That the adverb, in this case, admits of the same variations as the verb—admits of number, voice, and the form of the verbal noun. For this, however, vid. Syntax.

3rdly. That another process for the creation of adverbs is by prefixing whaka, or a to the preposition, noun, or adverb.

4thly. That the compound prepositions, especially when time and place are denoted, will very often take the adverbial form.*

5thly and lastly. It would be a very useful exercise for the student to examine those sentences, the place of which would be supplied by an adverb in English, and notice the nature of their construction. Some, for example, he will find rendered by the verb, some by the verbal noun, some by the substantive in the possessive case, some by the pronoun, &c.

We have dwelt so long upon this subject, that we are unwilling to occupy his attention any further with it.

* It has been objected by a learned friend that the compound prepositions are more properly adverbs, and that in such a sentence as “ket roto i te whare,” i is the governing preposition, and reto is an adverb, With all deference, however, to his very superior critical abilitles, we submit, that if a preposition be “a particle denoting the relation of one substantive to another” then roto is a preposition; for it clearly indicates a local relation between roto (or i roto, if you plcase,) and the thing spoken of. Those who feel sceptical on this point, we would beg to examine the composite prepositions of Hebrew. For example, the Hebrew preposition under (tahuth) is recognised as a preposition by grammarians, even though it may require the prepositions from and to in combination with it to exhibit its meaning. So also, in English, such prepositions as according to, out as, out of, &c., are not considered as disfranchised by the supplementary prepositon annexed to them. At the same time it is to be noted, that where there is a break between the compound preposition and its supplement, then the former must be considered as an adverb; thus, in the sentence, “Kei raro, kei te whare,” it is below, it is in the house; raro is here, as it is in English, an adverb joined to is; the line of connection being broken by a comma. In such a construction as this, the same preposition that precedes the compound preposition, (or rather, in this case, the adverb,) must also follow it.