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Grammar of the New Zealand Language


page 136

Of the Verbal Particles.—The consideration of the verbal particles, and of the other means by which a verb is modified in Maori, has been reserved for the Syntax; chiefly because the investigation of those subjects will involve also that of compound propositions, and of other constructions which belong to this part of Grammar.

E (a) is sometimes used for the present, e.g., e noho mai, he is sitting there close at hand. (b) Most frequently it is joined with nei, &c.; e,g., e riri nei, who is angry with me, &c. (c) It is sometimes used to denote the future; e.g., ko wai ma e haere? who will go? He tokomaha e mate, many will die. (d) It is chiefly employed to denote contingency, or some future act on which something else depends; e.g., E riri ia, if he be angry; E tae mai a Hone tonoa ake, If John comes here send him after me; E hau, if there be a wind.

Note.—(1.) In such constructions as the last, it will be found that the latter verb will generally, except when it is in the imperative mood, be in the second person. In the following sentence, for example, E muri ka puta mai nga kuri ka puhia, henceforward if dogs come here they will be shot, e is wrongly used; puhia being in the third person. To this rule, however, there are exceptions,

(2.) There is a difference between e and ka, as particles of the future; ka being of much more extensive use; i.e., being used page 137 with all persons, and in all senses, whether absolute or contingent; vid. ka.

(3.) There are, however, some constructions in which e is always preferred; chiefly, we believe, when the verb is preceded by some word with which it is in connexion; i.e., when it is preceded by the negative adverb kore, and sometimes kahore; e.g., ka kore e pai, if he is not willing; kahore e tangi she did not at all cry, —by the preposition ma; e.g., ma wai e hanga? who is to build it? —and by no (sometimes), nohea e wera? Whence, i.e., why should it take fire?—by the pronouns tera and ehea; e.g., tera e mate, he will die perhaps, ko ehea e patua which are to be killed?—by the noun or pronoun in the possessive case (sometimes); e.g., taku e pai ai that which I like, he aha tau e tohe? what are you importuning about? — by taihoa and taria; e.g., taihoa e haere wait going; i.e., don't go for a while.

N.B.—For the distinction between e and ka, when prefixed to numerals; vid., numerals, chap. 17, sec. 5.

(e.) For e as prefixed to the imperative mood, vid. page 40 (c). It is generally omitted in that mood, when the verb is followed by atu, mai, ake, iho, &c.

Ana is a particle corresponding, in many particulars, with ka. It is most frequently employed, however, in the continuation of a narrative, and does not often except in abrupt and animated discourse, occupy a place in the leading clause of the sentence.

The following examples illustrate this last remark. Ki te kahore e homai, ina haere ana ahau, ka riro. If it is not given, certainly going I will depart; ko nga tangata o Taranaki, aia ana e matou ki te maunga, the men of Taranaki, driven were they by us to the mountain. It will be seen that the verb preceding in the above clauses gives a larger measure of emphasis than if another word had gone before it. In such animated sentences, as the above, the speaker will generally prefer ana to any other verbal particle. But another leading use of ana is to denote a continuance of action. The following extract from a translation of the first eight chapters of Genesis, made some years since by the Church Missionaries, will serve as an illustration of this, and our other remarks on this page 138 particle. We may add that, though we suggest a few trifling alterations in the part quoted, yet, considering the time in which it was made, it is very creditable to the Maori knowledge of the translators.

Ch. 1, v. i. I te orokomeatangs i hanga e te Atua te rangi me te whenua.

2. A kihai whai ahua te whenua, i takoto kau; a ngaro ana i te pouri te mata o te hohonu. Haerere ana te Wairua o te Atua ki runga ki te mata o nga wai.

3. Mea ana te Atua, Kia marama; a kua marama.

4. A kite ana te Atua i te marama, pai ana; wehea ana e te Atua te marama i te pouri.

5. A huaina ana e te Atua te marama, hei ao.

In the first verse ana can have no place, it would give an unpleasant jerk, as well as the appearance of levity, to a commencement so methodical and dignified. Our translators, therefore, with good taste, employed i; I te timatanga i hanga, &c. In the second verse, however, in the clause commencing a ngaro ana, &c., it is very correctly used; because there is a close connection between that clause and the one preceding. In the third verse it is, we think, injudiciously used, because a new subject is now commenced. We should, therefore, have preferred na Ka mea te Atua. So also in the commencement of the fourth verse, A kite ana te Atua i te marama, pai ana. We should prefer, a ka kite, &c. Pai ana is, we think, objectionable. It is too abrupt, and unconnected, and makes the pai refer to the atua, rather than to marama. E pai ana, perhaps, or he mea pai, would be preferable. E-ana is strictly the sign of the present tense; e.g., e kai ana, he is eating. Sometimes when it follows a past time its meaning will also be past; as may be seen in our remarks on ana (vid. also page 38, and our remarks on compound times).

Ka is a particle of very extensive use. It is sometimes employed to denote the present tense; e.g., ka pai, it is good. It is the particle most frequently page 139 used in historic presents (vid. John iv., 1, 3, and N. T. passim). It is very frequently used to denote future events, and is often employed in hypothetic, or contingent propositions; e.g., ka mate koe i a au; you will be killed by me, ka haere ahau ka riri a Hone, If I go, John will be angry.

Note.—Ka, as a particle of the present, will often differ in meaning from e—ana. For example, ka tere te waka may signify the canoe will drift, or that it Drifts; e tere ana, that it is drifting.

For the distinctions between ka and e vid. e. Occasionally ka is followed by te. Vid. two examples page 57.

I, a particle of the past time; vid. kua.

(a.) Sometimes, however, it is employed to denote the present; e.g., koia i riri ai, for that cause is he angry? na te aha koe i tohe ai kia haere, why do you persist in going? Ka tahi ano te hanganga i pai, this house (which I am now roofing) is now, for the first time, properly done.

(b.) Sometimes i is employed where contingency is designed; e.g., he aha koa i pono he titaha, he titaha; i pono he hate, he hate well, it wont signify If an axe happens to be (my payment) let it so happen (lit. let it be an axe). If a shirt, &c.

Ka whiua te tahi wahi ki tahaki, hei whakahere i tona Atua. I whiua ranei ki te wahi tapu ranei; i whiua ranei ki te wahi noa ranei, he throws a portion to one side as an offering to his God. It may have been thrown (i.e., it matters not whether it is thrown) upon a sacred spot, or upon a spot not sacred.

Kua, the sign of the past tense; e.g., kua korero atu ahau ki a ia, I have spoken to him.

(a.) The leading distinction between kua and i is, we believe, that kua is unlimited (i.e., will not a limit of limitation), and i limited in construction; and that the former, when it precedes in the sentence, will be page 140 often found to correspond to the perfect, the latter to the imperfect of English; e.g., kua kitea te mea i kimihia e koe? Has the thing been found that Was sought for by you? Kua ora koe? Kahore, I ora ano auj a, hoki mai ana te mate; have you recovered? No, I did recover, but the sickness has returned.

N.B.—It would, however, be very incorrect to affirm, as have some good Maori scholars, that kua always corresponds to the perfect, and i to the imperfect.

In accordance with the preceding remarks, it may be observed, 1st, that kua is seldom used when the verb is preceded by the cause, time, or other qualifying circumstance of the action; i.e., when the verb is followed by ai. For example, we might say kua patua, he was killed; but we could not say, te take kua patua ai, the cause for which he was killed; neither would it be correct to say, koia kua riri ai ia, for that cause was he angry. 2dly. It will also, we believe, be found that, in secondary clauses, in which the relative is understood, i obtains a much more general use than kua. For example, in the following sentence,— “enei mea kua korerotia e koutou,” we should prefer i korerotia. 3dly. Kua will seldom, when denoting the perfect or imperfect tenses, be found associated with the particle ko; e.g., we very seldom hear ko Hone kua haere, it was John who went. In the following sentence, we disapprove of the use of both of these particles:—e pai ana matou ki a ia, no te mea ko ia kua atawhai mai ki a matou, we love him, because he was kind to us. We should have preferred mona i atawhai, &c.* (4.) When a preposition

* It is true that when had represents the pluperfect, or the priority of one action to another, it may be frequently found in connexion with ko. But this, we think, is a further confirmation of the distinction for which we contend. For the expression “he had loved us” is clearly more definite than “he loved us,”—the former implying that that affection had been entertained before some past act,—the latter simply affirming that it was entertained, without reference to any date. Ko we defined, page 106, as the article of specification and emphasis, and it is quite natural that it should be associated with a perfect to denote a pluperfect,—its office, in such a construction, being to point out the individual who may be emphatically said to have performed the act—whose was the act which was antecedent, or past. The sentence “ko ia kua atawhai,” means he is the person who was first kind. This emphatic use of the word ko has been already illustrated under the head of comparison, adjectives; the sentence “ko tenei te nui o nga rakau” meaning this is the large one of the trees; i.e., this is the one of which we may (emphatically) say, It is large. So, also, in the following,—“akuanei ko Hone kua tae,” the meaning is presently, it will be John who (emphatically) Has Got there; i.e., John will have got there first.

page 141 immediately precedes, kua will seldom be employed to denote the tenses; e.g., nonahea i mate ai; Since what time, or, at what time did he die? Nana ano i haere noa mai, he came of himself.

(5.) Kua is never used after the negative adverbs kahore, kihai, and kiano; e.g., kahcre ahau i rongo, I have not heard; kiano i mate noa, he has not yet died.

(6.) The following, also, are constructions in which kua will be found to give place to i: Me koutou hoki i whakarere i to koutou kainga, as ye also left your country; me i kahore koe, if it had not been for you, &c.

In the following constructions, however, kua is prefixed: penei kua ora, in that case he would have lived; ano kua. mate, as if he were dead; me te mea kua waruhia, as if it had been planed; Me i kahore koe kua mate au, if it had not been for you, I should have died. In the following, however, i is preferred: me i kahore koe i ora ai ahau, If it had not been for you, (the cause) why I was saved; i.e., I should have been lost, but for you.

(b.)Kua is sometimes employed where a present would be used in English; e.g., kua mate, he is dead; page 142 kua po, it is dark, or, is past sunset; kua riro, he is gone.

(c.) In animated narrations of past events, kua is sometimes employed to give variety; e.g., te taenga atu o Hone, kua mau ki te hamanu, e tatua ana, te tino haerenga, so John goes, he Has taken (his) cartouch box, (he) is girding it on; the instant marching.

(d.) Sometimes, also, when the speaker wishes to convey the idea of a certain, and speedy accomplishment, he will (as did the Hebrews) employ the past tense; e.g., E pa, he aha i kaiponuhia ai to warn? kua whakahokia mai apopo, Father why do you withhold your plane? It will Surely be returned to you to-morrow; E hoa, reia atu; kua hoki mai koe, Friend, run (and tell them) you will be back (in quite time enough); e noho ana tenei; kua pata iho te ua, e rere ana ki roto ki te whare, we are sitting here, but, immediately as soon as it rains, we run into the house.

(e.) Kua is often prefixed to denote an action which is to take place, or has taken place previous to something else—in which latter use it will sometimes correspond to the pluperfect of English; e.g., I a koe kua riro, after you had gone. Mo te ara rawa ake kua maoa, that, exactly as he awakes, it may have been cooked; i.e., it may be cooked against he awakes. Me i noho kua wha na rakau e toia, if I had remained, four logs would have been dragged. Akuanei mau nga riwai kua kainga, presently, the potatoes that have been first eaten will be yours; i.e., your crop will be the soonest ripe. Huatu ko tena kua ngakia, no, but let that be first dug.

Vid. our remarks on ko, when associated with kua (note to a) (3).

Note.—The student will see, in the above examples, that kua, when employed in this sense, will often enter into combinations which would not be admitted under other tenses.

page 143

Kia.—This particle has been already considered, as far as it is connected with the imperative mood (vid. page 40). There are, however, other uses of it, which are both varied and important.

(a.) It may, in asking a question, be used for the future; e g., Kia haere ahau? Ne? Shall I go? shall I?

(b.) It may, also, be found where an hypothetic statement is made, or an expectation, or other reference to some future event, is implied—a use in which it will sometimes be found to correspond to the second future indicative and perfect potential of English; e.g., E noho ki konei; kia hoki mai ra ano ahau, stop here until I shall have returned; Kia titiro atu matou, ka patua to matou hoa, hei reira ka whakatika atu matou, let us have seen (i.e., if we had but seen) him strike our friend, we should then have risen; me noho kia ora, ka haere, you had better remain, and when you are well, depart; e hoe katoa ana ratou, kia oti te waka o Nini, they are all going when Nini's canoe is finished; I raro ahau e whakarongo mai ana, kia mate, kia mate; a ka ora noa ano, I was at the northward waiting for news from here of his death; but he has recovered.

(c.) Often, when intensity of negation, doubt, &c., is intended, it will be used instead of the proper particles of the present, past, and future; e.g., horo rawa kia tika, by no means is it correct; kahore kia kotahi, not even one; Ko au kia mate, ko ia kia ora? must I (by feeding this pig) starve, while he has food? Kahore ano kia haere noa! not yet gone!

(2.) It is often found, also, in exclamations of wonder; e.g., Kia nui! How large!

(3.) In the same sense, also, it is used where an infinitive would be employed in the learned languages; particularly where contempt, disregard, &c., are denoted; e.g., Kia whakarongo atu ahau ki o korero page 144 bei aha? why should I listen to your talk? lit. that I should listen to your talk is for what? Kia ho atu taku poaka mo tena! that I should give my pig for that! i.e., I will not give it.

(d.) Kia is frequently employed to denote the infinitive; e.g., haere kia kite, go to see.

(e.) It will also be employed when the latter verb is an amplification of the meaning of a preceding one; e.g., ahea hanga ai tou whare, kia oti? When will your house be built, that it may be finished? Te tangata e whiuwhiu ana i ana tikaokao, kia wawe te mate! The man who is pelting his fowls that they may be soon dead! Tanutanu rawa kia ngaro, bury, bury deep, that it may be concealed; (a song.) Whiua, kia mamae, beat it that it may be pained; na koutou i aki mai kia tata, it was you who pressed forward so as to be near.

Note.—There is a distinction between kia and kia te, when prefixed to a verb in the infinitiye, which should be noticed. Kia is very seldom prefixed to a verb in the active voice,—ki te almost always; e.g., Haere ki te to i te waka. We could not say kia to.

(2.) Kia is almost always prefixed to the passive verb; ki te very seldom; e.g., Tikina atu kia tirohia is fetch it to be seen. Tikina atu ki te titiro is fetch him to look at it. The following sentence is erroneous:—arahina ki te patu, led to be killed. It should be kia patua, or e arahina e patua ana.

Sometimes, before neuter verbs, either kia or ki te will be employed; e.g., I mea ahau kia, (or ki te) haere

Kia will most frequently be used when the former of the two verbs is in the passive voice. Verbs following adjectives, by which ability, habit, &c., are denoted, will take ki te; e.g., uaua ki te mahi, strong to work; e kino ki te tahae, is displeased at thieving.

Between the uses of kia and ki te there may be often a very material difference; e.g., e riri ana ki te page 145 ata noho means that he is angry at the stopping quiet,—i.e., that he wishes for war; e riri ana kia ata noho, means that he is repressing (them) that they may stop quiet; ka tohe ki a maua kia waru i te kai i te ra tapu, they pressed us to scrape food on the Sunday. If it had been, Ka tohe ki te waru, &c., the speaker would have implied that they (the persons toheing) persisted in scraping, &c.

Some foreigners seem remarkably careless in the use of this particle. We subjoin a few instances in which it has been omitted, or introduced erroneously. Ko tana hanga kia korero, his custom was to speak, &c.; it should be, he korero. E kore ahau e ahei kia mea atu; it should be, ahei te mea atu. Ko te aroha e whakahauhau ana i te tangata hei mahi; it should be, ki te mahi. Whakatika hei patu; it should be, whakatika ki te patu, or whakatika atu, patua.

It may be here observed that (1) some verbs have a partiality for certain particles; e.g., hua noa ahau, or, ka hua ahau, I thought; e kore e ahei te patu. (2.) Some verbs very rarely take any verbal particle into connexion with them. Of this sort are heoi, or heoti, kati, taihoa, penei (in that case), and, sometimes, rokohanga, or rokohina.

(3.) Many constructions will be met with in which the verbal particle is omitted. (a.) A common adverb of quantity or quality following the verb will often cause the verbal particle to be dispensed with. (b.) It is also omitted in constructions like the following:—meake haere; whano mate; kei te ata haere ai; taihoa maua haere atu; &c. (c.) In animated discourse, the common verb will sometimes be used without any kind of auxiliary; e.g., kaiponu noa ia, kaiponu noa, tangohia e au. Withhold it, withhold it as he might, yet I took it away.

Ai.—The Aborigines sometimes appear to vary in their use of this particle; some introducing it into page 146 sentences in which others would omit it. These instances, however, may, we believe, be reduced to one class:—viz., to that in which ai is used in connexion with kia.

When kia is prefixed to a verb which is merely an explanation, or some other enlargement of the meaning of a preceding one, it will seldom take ai after it; as may be seen in our examples of kia, (rules d and e). But when the intention, cause, &c., are to be specifically denoted, then ai will be used. Thus, in the following sentence, haere kia kite, go to see, kite is a plainly natural effect of haere, and ai, therefore, is omitted. If, however, some unusual act is to be done that he might see, then ai, most probably, would be employed; thus, e piki ki runga ki te rakau kia kite ai koe, climb up the tree that you may see. The distinction is the same as that between the two following in English:—go and see; climb that you may see. Again, in the last example of kia (rule e), na koutou i aki mai kia tata, “nearness” is a natural effect of “pressing forward,” even though they had no specific intention of being near: ai, therefore, is not used. If, however, the speaker wished to say ye pressed forward that I might be angry, he would employ ai; kia riri ai ahau; because here we have two acts, not necessarily connected, and one specifically performed to produce the other.

The following are a few out of the many instances that might be adduced of the erroneous introduction, and erroneous omission, of this particle:—e kore koe e pohehe me ratou, kia roa ai taku korerotanga, you are not ignorant (as they are), that I should be long explaining it to you; it should be, e roa ai. As it stands it means, you will not make yourself “pohehe,” in order that, &c. Aua e whakaara ake i tetahi rakau kia tu ai, erect not any stick that it may stand; it should be rakau, tu ai. Kihai i page 147 tonoa kia uia ai matou, he was not sent to question us; it should be, ki te ui i a matou. Ko nga mutunga o ia waiata, o ia waiata, kia whakahuatia ai tenei waiata, at the end of each song let this chant be repeated. As this stands, its meaning is, in order that this chant may be repeated; it should be, kia whakahuatia tenei, &c., or ka whakahua ai. Ka puta te kupu o Hone kia haere atu ai ratou, when John speaks, let them proceed; it should be, me haere, &c., or ka haere. A wrong use of this particle may often seriously misrepresent the meaning of the speaker. For example, if we were to say, e inoi ana ahau kia murua ai oku hara, we should mean, I pray that (in consideration of my prayer) my sins may be forgiven. Prayer, here, is made the immediate and effective means by which this end is obtained. If a Native were to say, “E inoi ana ahau kia homai ai tetahi paraikete,” absurd as would be the remark, it would mean that the blanket is to be given to him, not as a favor, or as due on other grounds, but simply as a reward for his asking. The Bible tells us of another consideration, by which pardon is obtained, and prayer answered; and, therefore, in such passages as the above, we must carefully abstain from ai. Koia nga tamariki a Hone i haere tahi me ratou; it should be, i haere tahi ai. E kore ia e poka ke i tana i mea; it should be, i mea ai; te tangata i he ai, the man who had committed the offence. In Waikato this will mean, the man throuyh whom they had erred; it should have been, te tangata nona te he.

(a.) Whaka.—The leading property of this particle is causative; e.g., tu is to stand, whakatu is to cause to stand (vid. etiam, page 50, under pai, kau, and kakahu, and Syntax of Numbers, under Ordinals).

Note.—In this use of it, adjectives, and neuter verbs, will be converted into active verbs; e.g., toe, to be left; whakatoe, to put by, as a leaving; e.g., whakatoea etahi ma mea ma, put by some for our friends.

page 148

In the following example, the adjective is made improperly to retain the form of a neuter verb, he mea whakapirau i ie han, a thing blasted by the wind. Its meaning, as its stands, is, a thing that destroys the wind.

Considerable variety may sometimes be found in the nature of the causation implied by this prefix. Thus, puru, to cork (a bottle, &c.). Whakapurus nga pounama, to stow, or pack (wick straw, &c., between) them. Waha, to carry on the back; whakawaha, to take up the load on the back; e.g., waiho atu e au e whakawaha ans, as I came away they were loading themselves with their burdens.

(b.) Sometimes it will imply the becoming, or the being like to, or the feigning, or exhibiting the root to which it is prefixed. Frequently, also, it will indicate an origin or propriety in the root; e.g., Kei te whakariwai a Hone i roto i te rua, John is making himself potatoes, i.e., (is occupying the place of) in the rua (or potatoe house); ka po, ka whakaahi; ka awatea, ka whakakapua, at night it became a fire, by day it became a cloud; kia whakatangata to act like a man; ka riro, ka whaka-Hone ki te wai, he will be off, and become like John in the water; i.e., will be drowned as John was; he kupu whaka-te-Kanaua, a speech made by Kanaua; i.e., any promise, &c., made by him; he tangata whaka-Ngapuhi, a person belonging to, or that frequently visits Ngapuhi; he aha kei to tatou hoa? Kahore pea. E whakamate-mate noa iho ana, kia kiia e mate ana, What is the matter with our friend? Nothing at all. He is feigning sickness, that he may be regarded as unwell.

(c.) Sometimes it will denote reciprocity; e.g., ko ratou whakaratou hoki, he is one of themselves! (d.) Sometimes it will denote an action either inceptive or gradually declining; e.g., e whakatutuki ana te tai, the tide is beginning to get full; e whaka-hemohemo ana, he is sinking; i.e., is on the point of death. (e.) Sometimes it will denote towards; vide page 71. (f.) Occasionally it will indicate some page 149 action corresponding to the sense of the root; e.g., ka whaka-ahiahi ratou, they act at sunset; i.e., they wait for sunset to make their assault.

The other auxiliaries of the verb.—These, it has been already observed, are adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, and the articles he and te, placed in connection with the verb. We proceed to make a few remarks upon them, and some other forms which the Maori verb occasionally assumes:—

On the adverbs as auxiliaries.—These chiefly are the adverbs of intensity and negation; we may add, also, the particles atu, mai, ake, iho.

The adverbs of intensity, as well as the last mentioned particles, will frequently lose their distinctive force, and either in some way modify the meaning; i.e., denote rapidity and certainty of effect, succession or connection of events, &c., or be redundant. The following examples will, it is hoped, sufficiently illustrate their use:—te whakaarahanga ake o te ra, tahuri tonu iho, the putting up of the sail forthwith was it upset; akuanei, ahiahi noa, ka tata ta maua te oti, presently by sunset ours will be near being finished; mo te ara rawa ake o nga tamariki kua maoa, that exactly as the children awake it may have been cooked; i.e., it may be cooked before they awake; kahore, ha, he kainga; kainga* rawa atu ki Waitoke, oh, there is no settlement (in the interval); the nearest settlement is Waitoke; tia rawa ki te raukura, pani rawa ki te kokowai, he braided his hair with feathers, and besmeared himself with red ochre; te tino haerenga, so on they started.

N.B.—Between noa ake and noa atu a distinction will sometimes be found not unlike that which obtains between the perfect and imperfect of English. Noa ake will generally convey an

* The student will see in this, and the other examples, that the noun, as is very usual in Maori, assumes the form of a verb. To tranalate literalty such verbs into English is often impossible.

page 150 allnsion to some date, either present or past; noa atu will most frequently refer to the past, without any such allusion; e.g., kua mate, noa ake, he has been dead this some time; kua mate noa atu, he died a long time ago; kua maoa, noa ake te kai, the food has been this long time cooked; kua maoa noa atu, it was cooked a long time ago; kua mate noa ake i reira, he had been dead then some time; kua mate noa atu i reira, he had been dead a long time previous to that date.

For further illustrations of the adverbs as auxiliaries the student is referred to chapter 9, pages 78, 79, &c. For the negative adverbs, as employed with the verb, vid. next chapter.

Of the Prepositions.—The use of these as auxiliaries is to supply the place of the verb substantive when no verb is expressed in the sentence; e.g., naku tenei, this is mine; kei hea? where is it? I a au i runga, when I was at the Southward. The tenses they denote, and those also which they admit after them, have been mentioned, chapter 8. Other notices respecting them will be found in the next chapter. For the pronouns as auxiliaries, vid. page 35.*

Verbs which assume the form of a noun.—It has been already observed that Maori inclines to the substantive form; and that such is only natural will be obvious to anyone who will reflect that it is more

* Following is a connected view of some of the principal means by which the defect of the substantive verb is supplied or implied, in Maori: he kuri tenel this is a dog. Tenel a Hone, This is John. Tike rawa, it is very correct. Ki te whai hau i te po nei, if there be wind in the night, &c. Ki te wa hau, &c., idem. Ka ai au hei kianga mai mau, I am for an ordering for you, i.e., You find in me one that will obey, &c. Waiho, and sometimes meinga, are often used instead of ai. E ai ki tans, it is according to his, i.e., as he affirms.

The following form is worthy of notice, Rokohangs rawatanga atu e ahau, ko Raiana! on my reaching (that place) there was Lion; rokohanga atu, ko te tahi tangata o Taupo i Maungatautari e noho ana, when I got (there) there was a man of. &c. Taku hoenga ki roto ko te waka o Hone, as I was paddling up the river, lo, there was the canoe of John, &c. Some foreigners, we observe, use tera taua for this form. We have never heard anything like it in Waikato. Hei te and ki te (vid. page 62) will often, also, seem to lose their distinctive meaning in that of the verb substantive; e.g., hei te pera me tou, let it be like yours.

page 151 easy for an unpolished mind to conceive of things as existences, than to trace them through the various modifications of act denoted in a verb. In many instances, indeed, a New Zealander is compelled to adopt this form, in consequence of the Maori verb not supplying any satisfactory form for the infinitive mood, and the participles. That these two parts of speech strongly partake of the nature of a noun is well known; and we may therefore be prepared to find the forms for denoting them in Maori exhibit a mixed character; i.e., to be a kind of compound of the verb and the noun. It may be added, also, that, as in some Latin authors, the infinitive mood is often used for the finite verb;* so also, in Maori, will the verbal noun, especially when a brief and animated mode of diction is desired, be found very frequently to occupy the place of the verb.

The following examples illustrate the various modes in which the Maori verb adopts the substantive form.

The student will observe that even passive verbs will submit to the same operation, and receive the sign of the substantive, (viz. the article) before them; e.g., Tenei au te tu atu nei, here am I The standing towards (you); he kainga hou te rapua nei, a new country is the being sought, i.e., is what we are seeking for; ko koe te korerotia nei, it is you who are the being talked about; he noho aha tau? what are you sitting for? kua oti te keri, it is finished, the being dug; ka tata ahau te patua e koe, I am near, the being beaten by you; he mohio koe? are you a knowing? i.e., do you know anything about it?

The following are examples of the verbal noun as used for the finite verb:—me he mea ko te mahuetanga

* It will also be recollected that the gerunds and participles will, in that language, often subserve the same office. Thus we have, ante domandum, before they are tamed; urit videndo, he burns when he looks; cum Epicurus voluptate metiens summum bonum, whereas Epicurus who measures the chief good by pleasure.

page 152 o to matou waka, if it had been the leaving of our canoe, i.e., if our canoe had been left to us; kei riri mai ia ki te kai; te taunga iho—ko ia, ko tana waka, lest he (the God) be angry at the food (not having been given)—the alighting (upon him, the priest), &c., i.e., and should then alight upon him, &c.; haere atu ana a Rona ki te kawe wai, Ka pouri. Te kanganga ki te marama. Te tino tikinga iho nei, ka tae ki a Rona, Rona (the man in the moon) goes to fetch water. It is dark. The cursing at the moon. The instant coming down to him, &c., i.e., he cursed at the moon, and she in anger came down to him.

Note.—More examples of this very animated mode of narration might be easily adduced. The student will find several others scattered throughout this work. We may observe, also, that the very frequent use of this form by the natives constitutes one remarkable feature by which the language, as spoken by him, differs from that spoken by the foreigner.

As a further illustration of the way in which predication in Maori is sometimes performed by the substantive, the following forms may be mentioned: —he mea whakamaori no te reo pakeha, a thing translated from the foreigner's tongue, i.e., it was translated from, &c. Na Hone tenei, he mea ho atu na Pita,—this is John's, it was presented to him by Pita: lit. it was a thing presented, &c. Akuanei, he noho atu te otinga, presently a remaining away will be the end, i.e., (we shall find that) he will remain away.

It should be also noted that the following verbs always take the substantive form after them, viz., hohoro, oti, hei, and ahei, pau, taea, tau, timata, heoi ano, kati, poto; e.g., timata te mahi, commence to work; kati te tahae, stop thieving, &c.

Note.—These verbs, it would appear, deserve most justly the appellation of “auxiliaries,” 1st, as they are real verbs; and 2ndly, as by their help we can approximate to many forms of the page 153 verb in other languages. For example, kua oti te tiki, mai, has been fetched hence; e kore e ahei te korero, cannot divulge.

The use of the verbal noun, it would appear, is very prevalent in Oriental languages (vid. Lee Heb. Gram., second edition, pp. 75 and 76, and Carey's Gram. of the Burman, also Humboldt on the Chinese, as there quoted.) The following form, however, will often be found in Maori to supersede it.

A noun, or pronoun, in the oblique case, will, frequently, in Maori, take the finite verb after it;* e.g., e whakapono ana ahau ki a ia i mate i a Ponotio Pirato.

The expression “ki tana hekenga atu ki te reinga” is precisely the same as “ki a ia i heke atu ki, &c.” Again, Noku i haere mai nei, since I arrived here: lit., from or of me (I mean) came here; ko te rua tenei o nga wiki o Hone, i hoki ai, this is the second week since John returned: lit., this is the second week of John (I mean) returned; i a ia e ngaro ana, whilst he is hid; mo ratou kahore i rongo, because they would not obey: lit., for them (I mean) their not having obeyed.

Often, also, a noun, which, in English, would be in the nominative, will, in Maori, be converted into the possessive; the verb following as in the preceding rule; e.g., naku i patu, I struck: lit., it was mine (I mean) the having struck it; maku e korero, I will speak: lit., it will be for me (I mean) the speaking.

It was most probably, through ignorance of this, and the preceding rule, that some good Maori speakers adopted the following very unsatisfactory analysis of the two examples first adduced:—“Naku i patu,” they would translate, it was struck by

* This is an exception to what we find in English, and other languages, the fluite verb in them being very seldom found after an oblique case; i.e., after any case beside the nominative, unless the relative, or the personal pronoun with some conjunction, intervene. We may observe, also, that the verbal particles will be often prefixed to other words beside the verb; e.g., e kore koe e pai kia mau e hanga? Are you not willing that you should do it? kia mou ai te kainga, that the land should be yours.

page 154 me
; “maku e korero,” it shall be spoken by me; and they thus explain them: Na and ma mean by; and patu and korero, though active in form, are passive in meaning. To this theory, however, there are strong objections. (1.) It cannot be shewn, except by examples derived from this class, that na and ma ever signify by; these words all must admit are the active form of no and mo—the prepositions which denote the possessive case. (2.) It will altogether fail in those instances in which other prepositions, besides na and ma are found. In the following, for example:— “i a au e noho ana i reira,” whilst I was sitting there; nona i tango, because he took it, it will be seen that it is as difficult to determine the nominatives of “noho” and “tango” as it was to determine those of patu and korero in the other examples. Those who attend to the genius of the language (vid. preliminary remarks, pages 102 and 103, and Syntax of Nouns, sec. 3, page 114) will, we think, find but little difficulty in the question. They will see that there are no participles, adverbs, or relative pronouns, in Maori, and that, therefore, we must not be surprised at a construction which, though loose, is admirably adapted to supply the defect. That Maori has a peculiar love for the possessive form in predication, especially when a relative pronoun is understood, may be seen in the following examples*:—ko Tiaki anake ta matou i kite, Tiaki was the only person that we saw: lit., Tiaki was our only one (actively) (I mean) saw; ka tohe ki tana i pai ai, he holas out for what he desired: lit., he holds out for his (I mean) desired; he mate toku, I am sick: lit., a sickness is mine; ka tika tau, you are right: lit., yours is right; koe would not be here used; ko taku noho tenei, a, po noa, I will sit here till night: lit., this is my sitting until night.
The leading meaning of na, and ma, and their corresponding passives no, and mo, seems to be, of the one class, present, or past, of the other future possession. And most of the examples given in p. p. 6367, of their various uses might be reduced to those heads. Thus, “no te mane i haere mai ai,” means, literally, it was of the Monday, (I mean,) having come. “No reira i riri,” it was of that cause

* That the English language had once a similar tendency might, we think, be shewn by many examples. Thus we hear, “have pity on me,” “have her forth,” “I have remembrance of thee in my prayer.” Many of our tenses, also, are formed by this auxiliary; e.g., “I have seen,” “he had gone,” “I would have loved, &c.” The frequent use, also, of this form in the Greek may be seen in Donnegan's Greek Lexicon, under “echo,” to hold.

page 155 (I mean,) the having been angry; mo a mua haere ai, let it be for a future period, (I mean,) the going, &c.

Compound tenses.*—A compound tense is one whose time and quality are modified by some other time of circumstance with which it is connected.

Thus in the examples in page 38 me i reira ahau e pai ana, e—ana, which taken absolutely, is present, now represents the pluperfect potential; because it has a reference to i reira, a past time, and to me, a particle denoting contingency. Again, in the example, “akuanei tae rawa atu kua mate; kua, taken absolutely, refers to past time; but, here, it is taken relatively, and refers to a future; i. e. to the time in which I may arrive; the sentence meaning, literally, “presently, exactly as I shall have arrived, he is dead.” The expression shall have been dead, in English, all will see, is a compound tense of a similar character, for it is

* As the English language supplies but few illustrations of this mode of construction, we will here lay before the student some extracts from Professor Lee's Hebrew Grammar, as well to shew how much this usage obtains in Oriental languages, as to enable him to enter more readily into the subject. Professor L. says, page 328, “any writer commencing his narrative, will necessarily speak of past, present, or future events with reference to the period in which his statement is made.” This, he says, is the “absolute use of the tense.” Again, “A person may speak of those events with reference to some other period, or event, already introduced into the context. This is the relative use—“Hence, a preterite connected with another preterite will be equivalent to our pluperfect; a present following a preterite to our imperfect, and so on. Again, page 330, “They, the Arabians, consider the present tense as of two kinds; one they term the real present, which is what our grammarians always understand by the present tense. The other they term the present as to the narration; by which they mean the time contemporary with any event, and which may therefore be considered as present with it, although past, present, or future with regard to the real or absolute present tense.” In page 334 is a good illustration from the Persian: “last night I go to the house of a friend, and there see a delightful assembly, and enjoy a most pleasing spectacle.” The student will see in the above example that go, see, and enjoy, are relative presents, being presents to last night, the time in which the speaker, in his imagination, now places himself. This mode of construction abounds in the O. and N. T., vid., for example, Mark xiv., he saw Levi and says to him, Says, here, is present t saw, though past to the time of the narration.

page 156 compounded of a future, and a past tense, and thus represents a second future.

We proceed to lay before the student some examples of the most important combinations of time and mood. To exhibit all that are possible would extend our work beyond its prescribed limits. Some remarks on this subject have been already made in treating on the verbal particles.