The Origins of International Rivalry in Samoa: 1845–1884
I. Primary Sources. Unpublished
F.O. 58. Pacific Islands. Vols. 27–199.
(Consular, Domestic, and Various.)
This series includes dispatches to and from Consuls in the Society Islands, Sandwich Islands, Navigator or Samoa Islands, Fiji (till 1874), and Tonga Islands, 1844–85. It is the most valuable source of information for affairs within the islands.
C.O. 225. Western Pacific. Vols. 1–17.
Dispatches to and from the High Commissioner, Domestic, Admiralty, and Miscellaneous (1878–84). Much of the material relating to Samoa overlaps with F.O. 58. There are in addition, however, reports by the High Commissioner upon the State of Affairs in Samoa, and comments upon dispatches sent under flying seal from Samoa.
Vols. relating to Samoa, Nos. 1, 4, 6, 9, 11, 15, 17.
Index C.O. 492. Index No. 1348 (1878–84).
|1.||Treaty of Friendship, etc., between Her Majesty, August 28, 1879.|
|2.||Convention for the Government of Apia, September 2, 1879.|
|3.||Agreement for the Prolongation of the Convention of September 2, 1879–September 29, 1883.|
C.O. 209. New Zealand.
Dispatches to and from Governors of the Colony, Domestic, Admiralty, Various.
This section deals with the schemes for the annexation of Pacific Islands that originated in New Zealand.
C.O. 209/15. Sir George Grey, 1847.page 200
C.O. 209. Vols. 242, 243, 244—Governor Jervois, 1883–84, annexation of Samoa.
Index to Documents. C.O. 361. No. 9. Ind. 13238 (1868–70); C.O. 361. No. 10. Ind. 13239 (1871–73); C.O. 365. Ind. 13242 (1873–83).
F.O. 244. Prussia Embassy Archives, Berlin.
This consists of correspondence between the Foreign Office in London and the British Embassy, Berlin. Much of the correspondence can also be found in F.O. 64, i.e. the Foreign Office archives. In the Embassy archives are, however, the enclosures from London, consisting of dispatches and memoranda from the Consul at Samoa, the High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, and the British Ambassador in Washington. It also duplicates to a large extent the material in Samoa to be found in F.O. 5, America, which is, therefore, not included in this bibliography.
This class of documents is important as there is little published German correspondence on Samoa. It shows, to some extent, the attitude of the German Government as compared to the activities of Germans in the Pacific. Volumes enclosing correspondence on Samoa are classed usually under Slave Trade, i.e. Vols. F.O. 244/279, 275, 280, 283, 305, 306, 308 (1872–84), 314, 320, 326, 341, 343, 353, 360, 371 (1872–84).
II. Primary Sources. Published
A. Great Britain
British and Foreign State Papers.
Vol. 33. 1844–45, pp. 52–54. Commercial regulations made by the principal chiefs of the Samoa or Navigator Islands. November 5, 1839.
Vol. 69. 1877–78, p. 76. Treaty of Friendship and Commerce between the United States and Samoan Islands, January 17, 1878.
Vol. 70. 1878–79, pp. 133–35. Treaty of Friendship between Great Britain and the King and Government of Samoa, August 28, 1879.
(Also in P.P., 1881, Vol. 99, c. 2747.)page 201
Vol. 70. 1878–79, pp. 241–46. Treaty of Friendship between Germany and Samoa, January 24, 1879.
Vol. 70. 1878–79, pp. 294–96. Convention—for the government of the town and district of Apia.
(Also in P.P., 1881, Vol. 99, c. 2748.)
Vol. 70. 1878–79, pp. 1192–93. Address—to the chiefs and rulers—of Samoa, July 2, 1879.
Vol. 73. 1881–82, pp. 1170–72. Treaty between Germany and Samoa for cessation of civil war, December 18, 1879.
Vol. 73. 1881–82, pp. 1173–76. Agreement between Germany and Samoa, December 23, 1879.
Vol. 75. 1883–84, pp. 508–10. Agreement between Germany and Samoa, November 10, 1884.
Vol. 76. 1884–85, pp. 778–811. Correspondence between Great Britain and Germany respecting New Guinea, Samoa, etc., 1884–85.
Vol. 79. 1887–88, pp. 900–62. Protocols of conferences between Great Britain, Germany, and the United States respecting the affairs of Samoa, June 25–July 26, 1887.
Parliamentary Papers (Accounts and Papers).
Consular reports on trade and shipping. These are short and sometimes admittedly inaccurate.
1854–55 Vol. LV. Extract by Pritchard, December 31, 1854 (No. 2006), p. 75.
1860 Vol. LXV. Abstract for 1858 (No. 2753), pp. 14–15.
1862 Vol. LXVIII. Report of Williams for 1859 (No. 3054), p. 98.
1863 Vol. LXX. Report of Williams for 1862 (No. 3222), p. 252.
1864 Vol. LXI. Report of Williams for 1863 (No. 3392), pp. 183–84.
1866 Vol. LXIX. Report of Williams for 1864 (No. 3582), pp. 730–31.
1867–68 Vol. LXVIII. Report of Williams for 1866 (No. 3953), pp. 171–72.page 202
1870 Vol. LXIV. Report of Williams for 1868 (c. 19), pp. 49–50.
1871 Vol. LXV. Report of Williams for 1869 (c. 343), PP. 156–57.
1871 Vol. LXVI. Report of Williams for 1870 (c. 429), p. 915.
1872 Vol. LVIII. Report of Williams for 1871 (c. 637), pp. 1179–80.
1872 Vol. LXI. Report on Consular Establishments, 1871 (c. 661), pp. 15–18.
1873 Vol. LXV. Report of Williams for 1872 (c. 828), pp. 923–24.
1873 Vol. LXVII. Letter of Williams, August 24, 1872 (c. 799), p. 347.
1874 Vol. LXVII. Report of Williams for 1873 (c. 1079), pp. 1403–4.
1875 Vol. LXXVI. Report of Williams for 1874 (c. 1284), pp. 1257–58.
1876 Vol. LXXVI. Report of Williams for 1875 (c. 1589), pp. 1424–27.
1880 Vol. LXXIII. Report of Consul Swainston for 1878 (c. 2460), pp. 110–11.
1880 Vol. LXXIV. Report of Consul Graves for 1879 (c. 2577), pp. 813–15.
1883 Vol. LXXIII. Report of Consul Churchward for 1882 (c. 3631), pp. 796–98.
1884 Vol. LXXX. Report of Consul Churchward for 1883 (c. 4030), pp. 1052–53.
Parliamentary Papers (Sessional Papers). (For Treaties, see British and Foreign State Papers.)
1889. Vol. LXXVI. c. 5629. Samoa—Correspondence respecting the affairs of Samoa.
(This includes a folded plan of the Municipal and Neutral territory.)
Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons.page 203
1874. Appendix to the Journal of the House of Representatives. Vol. 1. A. 3. Papers relating to the South Sea Islands.
(This includes: (a) the correspondence between New Zealand Governors and the British Colonial Office, 1871–74; (b) Report on the Navigator Islands by William Seed; (c) Report by H. B. Sterndale.)
Papers presented to Parliament, 1883, pp. 96–102.
Report on the Australasian Convention, 1883.
Legislative Assembly. Votes and Proceedings, 1883–84. 3rd Session. Vol. 9, pp. 106–13.
Proceedings of the Inter-Colonial Convention.
B. United States
35th Congress, 2nd Sess., House Report. No. 212.
Case—Aaron van Camp and Virginius P. Chapin, March 3, 1859, p. 18.
43rd Congress, 1st Sess., Senate Ex. Doc. No. 45.
Message from the President of the United States—transmitting the Report upon Samoa of Colonel Steinberger, April 22, 1874, p. 58.
44th Congress, 1st Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 161.
Message from the President—transmitting a Report from the Secretary of State and accompanying papers, May 2, 1876, p. 125.
44th Congress, 2nd Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 44.
Message from the President—transmitting the Report of the Secretary of State concerning the Agency of A. B. Steinberger in the Samoan Islands, March 2, 1877, p. 159.
46th Congress, 1st Sess., Senate Ex. Doc. No. 2.
Message from the President of the United States, communicating information in relation to the Samoan Islands, March 21, 1879, p. 29.page 204
50th Congress, 1st Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 238.
American Rights in Samoa, April 2, 1888, p. 311 (folded maps).
(This includes the Treaties, Municipal Convention, also the Reports of Thurston, Travers, and Bates in 1886.)
(ii) Richardson, J. D. A compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1789–97. 10 Vols. Washington, 1896–99.
Vol. 7, pp. 162, 168, 203, 361, 428. Affairs of the Samoan Islands, and the policy of the United States regarding them, discussed by President Grant.
Vol. 7, pp. 469, 481, 497, 570, 611, discussed by President Hayes.
Papers relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1878–1901.
1878, pp. 165–66. Attack upon the United States Consulate at Apia, September 21, 1877.
1879, pp. 381–83. Text of German Treaty with Samoa—signed, January 24, 1879. Debate in the Reichstag upon the Treaty, pp. 388–92, 397.
Bureau of Foreign Commerce.
In this class are the Reports upon trade from the United States Consul at Apia.
34th Congress, 3rd Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 60, pp. 392–93. Report for 1856.
35th Congress, 1st Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 17, pp. 203, 204, 456, 457. Report for 1857.
37th Congress, 3rd Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 63, Pt. 1, p. 607. No. 246, Pt. 2. Report for 1862.
38th Congress, 1st Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 41, pp. 555, 858. Report for 1863.
38th Congress, 2nd Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 60, p. 691. Report for 1864.
39th Congress, 1st Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 56, pp. 513–16, 770. Report for 1865.page 205
39th Congress, 2nd Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 81, pp. 546–47, 810. Report for 1866.
40th Congress, 2nd Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 160, pp. 720–21. Report for 1867.
40th Congress, 3rd Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 87, pp. 638–39. Report for 1868.
41st Congress, 3rd Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 93, pp. 444, 446. Report for 1870.
42nd Congress, 3rd Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 160, p. 708. Report for 1872.
43rd Congress, 1st Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 143, p. 886. Report for 1874.
44th Congress, 1st Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 166, pp. 1158–65. Report for 1875.
45th Congress, 3rd Sess., House Ex. Doc. No. 108, pp. 1029–38. Report for 1878.
Consular Reports (House Misc. Docs.)
48th Congress, 1st Sess., Cons. Report. No. 3. Vol. 2, pp. 179, 180. Products and trade of Samoa, September 18, 1880.
48th Congress, 1st Sess., Cons. Report. No. 31. Vol. 10, pp. 98–101. Commerce and products of Samoa, December 31, 1882.
48th Congress, 1st Sess., Cons. Report. No. 36. Vol. 11, p. 227. American trade in Samoa, September 3, 1883.
48th Congress, 2nd Sess., Cons. Report. No. 45. Vol. 14, pp. 100, 110. Commerce of Samoa, June 30, 1884.
49th Congress, 1st Sess., Cons. Report. No. 54. Vol. 16, pp. 488–92. Agriculture in Samoa, December 31, 1884.
50th Congress, 1st Sess., Cons. Report. No. 97. Vol. 27, pp. 409–11. German Plantations in Samoa, August 15, 1888.
Lepsius, Bartholdy und Thimme.—Die Grosse Politik der Europäischen Kabinette, 1871–1914. Berlin, 1924. There is little relating directly to Samoa within the period under consideration.
Book IV, pp. 150, 175 relates to certain negotiations in 1886, 1887.
Book XIV, Pt. 2, Chap. XCVI, pp. 565–75, relates to the negotiations of 1898–99.
Weissbücher—Auswärtiges Amt.—These are for the most part later than the period under consideration. They include trade reports and correspondence.
Weissbuch, 1st Sess., 6. Teil 1. Berlin, 1885, pp. 131–77.
Deutsche Interessen in der Südsee, 1884.
(This gives a full account of the trade of the D.H. & P.G. in the islands. Nos. 1–2, pp. 131–51.)
Weissbuch, 1st Sess., 6. Teil 2, pp. 95–184. Deutsche Interessen in der Südsee.
There are also four White Books devoted to affairs in Samoa between 1886–93.
Vol. 5, 4th Sess., 7. Samoa I, 1889, pp. 1–95.
Vol. 6, 4th–5th Sess., 7. Samoa II, 1899, pp. 1–61.
Vol. 8, 5th Sess., 7 and 8. Samoa III, 1890, pp. 47–99.
Vol. 13, 2nd Sess., 8. Samoa IV, 1893, pp. 1–198.
Documents Diplomatiques Français. Paris, 1929. 1871–1914. 1re Serie 2, pp. 402, 486, 494.
III. Secondary Sources—Contemporary
This class includes memoirs and contemporary accounts of the nature of primary sources of information.
Aylmer. A Cruise in the Pacific.London, 1860.
Bahse. M. F. Wirtschafts—und Handels verhaltinsse der Fidschi—Tonga—und Samoa—Inseln.Leipzig, 1881.
Bougainville, Louis A. Comte de. Voyage autour du Monde. 2 Vols. Paris, 1772. (Pp. 123–32.)
Brenchley, J. L. Jottings during the Cruise of H.M.S. Curaçoa in 1865. London, 1873. (Chaps. 3 and 4.)
Brown, George. Autobiography, 1908.
Callander, J. Terra Australis Cognita. Edinburgh, 1766–68. 3 Vols. (An account of the voyage of Roggewein. Vol. 3.)
Churchward, William B. My Consulate in Samoa. London, 1887. (An account of the islands and affairs within the islands, 1881–85.)
Cooper, H. Stonehewer. Coral Lands. 2 Vols. London, 1880. (Vol. 2, Chaps. I–IV. Samoa, with some account of the activities of Stewart, Steinberger, and the Godeffroy firm.)
Coral Lands and the Islands of the Pacific. London, 1888. (A fuller edition.) Chaps. XXV–XXVII.
Cumming, (Miss) C. F. Gordon. A Lady's Cruise in a French Man-of-War. Edinburgh, 1882. (This gives some account of the activities of the Godeffroy firm, but it is based to some extent also on the New Zealand Blue Book, 1874.)
Dalrymple, Alexander. An Historical Collection. London, 1775. (Vol. 2 includes a translation of Behring's account of the voyage of Roggevein.)
Des Voeux (Sir), G. W., G.C.M.G. My Colonial Service. 2 Vols. London, 1903. (This gives some account of his part in the Sydney Inter-Colonial Convention.)
D'Ewes, J. China, Australia, and the Pacific Islands in the Years 1855–56. London, 1857. Chap. VI. The Navigator Islands.
Dumont D'Urville, Jules, S. C. Voyage autour du Monde. Paris, 1853. 2 Vols. (Samoan Islands, Vol. 2, pp. 79–90.)
Ellis, W. Polynesian Researches. 4 Vols. London, 1836. (Gives general account of missionaries' work, chiefly in the Society Islands.)
History of the London Missionary Society. London, 1844.
Erskine, J. E. Journal of a Cruise Among the Islands of the Western Pacific … of H.M.S. Havannah. London, 1853. (Some descriptive account of Samoa, pp. 34–112.)
Fleurieu. Voyage autour du Monde avec un examen critique du voyage de Roggewein. Paris, 1798.
Galoup de la Pérouse. "Voyage Round the World." Translated into English. London, 1798. (Vol. 3, pp. 58–127 relate to the Navigator Islands.)
Hydrographischen Amt. Die Forschungsreise. S.M.S. Gazelle in den Jahren 1874 bis 1876. Berlin, 1889. (Th. 1 Der Reise Bericht, Chap. XIV, pp. 258–76.)
Hood, T. H. Notes of a Cruise in H.M.S. Fawn, in 1862. Edinburgh, 1863. (Pp. 28–145, a descriptive account of Samoa.)
Hutton, James. Missionary Life in the Southern Seas. London, 1874. (Chap. X. The Samoa or Navigator Islands, written very much from the missionary standpoint.)
Kotzebue, Otto von. A New Voyage Round the World, 1823–26. London, 1830. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1, pp. 253–87. The Navigator Islands.)
Lundie, G. A. Missionary Life in Samoa. Edinburgh, 1846. (His journals, edited by his brother.)
Murray, A. W. Forty Years' Mission Work in Polynesia and New Guinea, 1835–75. London. (Largely an account of mission work in Samoa.)
Missions in Western Polynesia. London, 1863. (An account of missionary voyages undertaken from Samoa to the surrounding islands.)
The Bible in the Pacific. London, 1887. (An account of the history and method of translating the Bible.)
Phillips, Charles. Samoa, Past and Present, a Narrative of Missionary Work in the South Seas. London, 1890.
Pritchard, W. J. Polynesian Reminiscences. London, 1866. (This is valuable as an early non-missionary eye-witness account.) Pp. 50–208, 376–428, relate to Samoa.
Roggeveen, De Reis van. Mr. Jacob Roggeveen. Ed. Baron F. E. Mulert, 1721–22. Linschoten-Vereenigung, 1911.
Russell, M. Polynesia. Edinburgh, 1845. (Navigator Islands, pp. 267–78.)
Selwyn, G. A. Letters on the Melanesian Mission. London, 1855.
Stair, J. B. Old Samoa. London, 1897. (Largely an account of native Samoans by a missionary who was many years in Samoa, 1845.)
Stevenson, Robert Louis. Vailima Letters. (Tusitala Edition used. Vol. XX.) London, 1924. (This includes A Footnote to History, pp. 69–212.)
Trood, Thomas. Island Reminiscences. Sydney, 1912.
Turner, G. Nineteen Years in Polynesia. London, 1861. (Pp. 95–355, Samoa. Deals with people, customs, mission work, etc.)
Samoa, a Hundred Years Ago and Long Before.
London, 1884. (Devoted to native customs, etc.)
Vogel (Sir), Julius. New Zealand and the South Sea Islands and their Relation to the Empire. London, 1878.
Wakeman, W. Report on the Navigator Islands. New York, 1871.
Walpole, F. Four Years' Cruise on H.M.S. Collingwood, 1844–48. London, 1849. 2 Vols. (Vol. 2, pp. 320–90, The Navigator Islands.)
Whitehouse, J. O. A Register of Missionaries and Deputations, 1796–1877. L.M.S. London, 1877.
Wilkes, Charles. Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. 5 Vols. Atlas 1 vol. Philadelphia, 1844. (Vol. 2 relates to Samoa, pp. 74–262.)
Williams, John. A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands. London, 1838. (This is very important, not merely as an early descriptive account, but also as expressing missionary theories as to the ultimate results of their work.)
IV. Contemporary Periodicals and Magazines
Samoan Reporter, 1845–70. Pub. Apia. (Published by the L.M.S. Missionaries. It throws some light upon the missionaries' work in this period.)
Samoan Times. This is used by the United States Commissioner, G. H. Bates, as a source of information in his report, 1886. It was published in Apia, but I have not been able to examine copies of it in England.
April 1876. Articles relating to Colonel Steinberger.
1883–84. Articles by Lundon on Samoa. (These, however, only reflect the opinions of certain people in New Zealand upon Samoan affairs and are, therefore, of minor importance to the general theme.)
Missionary Magazine, 1836–44. Vols. 1–8. Contains information regarding the mission in Samoa.
Wesleyan Missionary Society. Circular No. 5, 1842.
Deutsche Kolonial Zeitung. Vol. 1. Vol. 2 (September–November 1885). Pt. 1, pp. 573–576. Pt. 2, pp. 640–43, Pt. 3, pp. 703–6. Erinnerungen aus Samoa. H. Ahner.
Also relating indirectly to Samoa: Vol. 2, p. 90. Deutsche Interessen in der Südsee, p. 68. English colonial policy, p. 35. Consular Report.
Globus. Vol. 19 (July 1871), pp. 359–61. Politische und Commercielle Zustände der Samoa Inseln. Wach T. Aube.
Vol. 37 (1880), pp. 105–8, 125–28, 167–70, 186–91. Die Samoa Inseln.
Royal Geographical Society Journal. Vol. 21, 1851, pp. 222–27. Proceedings at the South Sea Islands. Samoan or Navigator Islands. J. E. Erskine.
V. Secondary Sources
Bancroft, Herbert H. The New Pacific. New York, 1900. (The United States connection with Samoa, pp. 510, 543–44, 552.)
Callahan, J. M. American Relations in the Pacific and the Far East, 1784–1900. Johns Hopkins University Studies Ser. 19. Nos. 1–3. Baltimore, 1901.
Creighton, Louise. G. A. Selwyn.
Fletcher, C. Brunsdon. The New Pacific. London, 1919.
The Problem of the Pacific. London, 1919.
Stevenson's Germany. London, 1920.
(These deal with the German colonization in the Pacific. Written as they are during and immediately after the War, they are a marked anti-German bias, and are written with the avowed object of preventing German Pacific Colonies from returning to German hands. Their value, therefore, is in the sources cited—sometimes incorrectly—rather than in the arguments.)
Gisborne, William. New Zealand Rulers and Statesmen.London, 1897. Sir Julius Vogel.
Henderson, J. B. American Diplomatic Questions. New York, 1901. The United States and Samoa, pp. 203–86.
Hertz, Richard. Das Hamburger. Seehandelshaus J. C. Godeffroy und Sohn, 1766–1879. Hamburg, 1922.
Vol. IV of "Veroffentlichungen des Vereins für Hamburgische Geschichte." (A valuable source on the history of the firm.)
Jeanroy, René. L'imperialisme americaine et la lutte pour la Paciphique, 1869–1925. (This has little direct bearing upon Samoa.)
Keesing, Felix M. Modern Samoa, its Government and Changing Life. London, 1934.
Kirghhoff, Alfred. Die Südsee Inseln und der Deutsche Südsee handel. In Frommel and Pfaff, "Sammlung von Vortragen," Vol. 3. Heidelberg, 1880.
Koschitzky. Deutsche Kolonial Geschichte. 2 Pts. Leipzig, 1887.
Lovett. History of the London Missionary Society. 2 Vols. London, 1896.
Martin, K. L. P. Missionaries and Annexation in the Pacific. London, 1924.
Peace Handbooks. Vol. XXII. Pacific Islands. London, 1920. No. 146.
Petin, H. Les Etats-Unis et la Doctrine de Monroe. Paris, 1900. (Pp. 375–91, relating to American policy in Samoa.)
Prout, Ebenezer. Memoirs of the Life of the Rev. John Williams. New York, 1843.
Reinecke, F. Samoa. Berlin, 1901. (Largely descriptive, but including a good historical summary of the latter part of Samoan history.)
Rowe, N. A. Samoa under the Sailing Gods. London and New York, 1930. (This includes a general historical outline, though the greater part of the book is devoted to a criticism of the New Zealand Mandate.)
Samoa. A Handbook of Western Samoa.Wellington, 1925.
Scholefield. The Pacific, its Past and Future. London, 1920.
Townsend, Mary E. The Origins of Modern German Colonialism, 1871–85. New York, 1921.
Watson, R. M. A History of Samoa.Wellington, 1918. (A very general narrative of events in Samoa after the coming of Europeans.)
Young, W. Allen. Christianity and Civilization in the South Pacific Ocean. London, 1922. (While relating principally to New Guinea, this essay gives a careful analysis of the influence of missionary ideals upon British policy in the Pacific.)
Zimmermann, Alfred. Geschichte Deutsche Kolonialpolitik.Berlin, 1914. (Especially Chap, viii.)
VI. Bibliographies on Samoa
Bibliography in "A Handbook of Western Samoa." Wellington, 1925.
Wilkes, Ch. Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition.Atlas, Vol. V, 1844. (The Admiralty charts are based upon these.)
Admiralty Chart. Samoa or Navigator Islands, 1885.
P. Langham's Special Karte der Samoa Inseln. Gotha, 1900.
United States Congress Docs. 50th Congress, 1st Sess. House Ex. Doc. No. 238. Map of Upolu showing plantations of the D.H. & P.G.
Map of Apia Municipal and Neutral territory.