The Atoll of Funafuti, Ellice group : its zoology, botany, ethnology and general structure based on collections made by Charles Hedley of the Australian Museum, Sydney, N.S.W.
Cryptodromia japonica, Henderson.
Cryptodromia japonica, Henderson, Chall. Rep. Zool., xxvii., p. 6, pl. i., fig. 2.
Two specimens—one male and one female.
The examples agree fairly well with the description and figure given by Henderson, the hairs on the carapace are more abundant, and the ill defined tubercle mentioned as occurring at the posterior end of the medium groove leading to between the lateral rostral teeth is absent. The hairs on the body and limbs are plumose in their distal halves only, whilst the hairs on C. lateralis are plumose throughout, but the branchlets are much shorter than those on the hairs of C. japonica.
Remipes testudinarius, Latr.
Remipes testudinarius (Latr.), M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., ii., p. 406, pl. xxi., figs. 14-15. Five specimens—two males and three females with ova. Found on the sandy shore of the lagoon.
Birgus latro, Linn.
Birgus latro (Linn.), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 474, pl. xxx., fig. 5.
Four half grown examples and one young specimen 25mm. long, which does not differ materially from the adult, except in size and colour; the carapace and abdominal plates are pale yellow, the ambulatory legs are a warm brown, the carpus and hand are yellowish-white with the spines brown. The colour generally is very similar to that of some of the young of Cenobita rugosa.
Cenobita olivieri, Owen.
Cenobita olivieri, Owen, Yoy. " Blossom," Zool. Crust., p. 84.
Two specimens in the shells of Turbo setosus, Gmelin. Native name, " Ounga Koula."
Cenobita clypeata, M. Edw.
Cenobita clypeata, M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., ii., p. 239.
Two specimens inhabiting the same kind of shell as the preceding species. Native name, " Ounga Ouri."
Cenobita rugosa, M. Edw.
Cenobita rugosa, M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., ii., p. 241; Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 471, pl. xxx., fig. 1.
Seven examples, inhabiting the following species of shells:—Planaxis sulcatus, Lam., Vertagus lineatus, Brug., Triton pilearispage 141
Linn., T. gemmatus, Reeve, Ranella granifera, Lam., and Natica, mamilla, Linn. Obtained about high water mark on the sandy beaches; very abundant.
Diogenes pallescens, sp. nov.
(Plate vi., fig. 2, a, b, c)
The carapace is transversely convex anteriorly, the median anterior region is smooth and is bounded on each side by several low spinulose elevations.
The antero-lateral margin is armed with eight spinules, the first one situated a very short distance from the external lobe of the front; immediately posterior to this spine is situated an accessory spine not quite in the same line; the second one is over the base of the antenna, the remaining six are situated on the lateral margin. The carapace is slightly tomentose behind the cervical groove.
The front is three-lobed, the median lobe rounded, the lateral lobes angular but not acute.
The ophthalmic scales triangular, each with three small spinules and a few setse at their distal extremities. The rostriform process is entire, acicular, and projecting but a very short distance beyond the eye scales.
The ocular peduncles are equal in length to the peduncles of the internal antennæ;. The peduncles of the external antennæ; are about two-thirds the length of the eye stalks. The antennal acicle is short, scarcely exceeding the distal extremity of the penultimate joint, it is armed with three spines distally and one at its base. The second exposed joints of the external antennse are armed with a spine at their extero-distal angles.
The left chelipede has the meral and carpal joints sub-equal in length, the former trigonus, with the angles spinulose, the latter armed on its superior margin with five curved spines, its upper and external surface with a few spiniform granules, the distal extremity is also similarly but more distinctly spinulose.
The lower border of the hand—finger included—is as long as the merus and carpus combined, the breadth of the hand at its distal end exceeds half the length of the lower border and finger.
The proximal external surface of the palm is convex and angular, with three or four spines in a line on the angle and two or three at a short distance above. The lower border of the palm and of the immobile finger is closely granulate, the crest of the hand is armed with from seven to nine small curved spines, exterior to which are a few granules, whilst the distal portion of the palm opposite the base of the mobile finger is smooth and punctate.page 142
The inner surface of the palm is smooth, punctate, and presents a series of transverse, loop-like reticulations, the reticulæ; are more or less visible on the inner surfaces of the three preceding joints.
The upper surface of the mobile finger is closely studded with small bead-like granules, the inner and outer surfaces are punctate, the lower edge has three denticles near the base.
The spinulation of the right chelipede is similar to that of the left, except that the spines are larger, the angular convexity on the proximal part of the palm is also present.
The ischium joint of first ambulatory leg of the left side is short, and not more than half the length of the same joint of the second leg. The merus of the first leg is compressed and some-what acutely edged above and below, the lower edge is armed with six curved spines, situated close together about midway between the distal and proximal extremities. The merus of the second leg is shorter and less compressed than the merus of the first leg, moreover it is not spinose on its lower border.
The carpal joints of the first and second legs are about equal in length, they are each armed above with two spines one distal and the other proximal. The propodal joints are slightly curved, that of the first leg a little shorter than that of the second.
The tarsus is almost as long in the first, quite as long in the second, as carpus and propodus combined, it is slightly curved, sparsely fringed with long hairs, and terminates in a minute horny point.
The carapace and ambulatory legs are white, the larger cheli-pede has a slight reddish tint which is more intense on the merus and carpus than on the hand.
The legs are clothed with long yellowish hairs, which are often in tufts, especially on the fingers of the chelæ;.
The hairs on the carapace, last two pairs of legs, and the proximal halves of the first three pairs are plumose, whilst those on the distal halves of the latter are simple and unbranched.
|Total length of largest specimen||25mm.|
|Length of carapace||6mm.|
|Length of first ambulatory leg (left side)||12mm.|
|Length of left chelipede||9mm.|
|Length of right chelipede||5½Jmm.|
Seven specimens in the shells of Vertagus lineatus,
Pagurus fabimanus, Dana,
Pagurus fabimanus, Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 454, pl. xxviii., fig. 7, a, b, c, d, e.
One specimen in the shell of Strombus urceus, Linn.
Pagurus guttatus, Olivier.
Pagurus guttatus (Olivier), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 451, pl. xxxviii., fig. 3, a, b. Four specimens of this fairly common species inhabiting the shells of Pterocerus chiragra, Linn., and Strombus urceus, Linn.
Clibanarius virescens, Dana.
Clibanarius virescens, Dana, Crust. U. S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 466, pl. xxix., fig. 6, a, b. One specimen in the shell of Triton gemmatus, Reeve.
Clibanarius cruentatus, M. Edw.
Clibanarius cruentatus, M, Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat., (3), x., 1848, p. 62; Filhol, Mission de 1' Ile Campbell, 1885, p. 424, pl. xlii., fig. 4.
Two specimens in the shells of Purpura armigera, Chemn.
The so-called yellowish-white spots characteristic of this species are blister-like in appearance, being everywhere more or less raised above the rest of the surface. On the carapace and ambu-latory legs they appear to be chitinous, and are easily perforated with a needle point, whilst the dark red parts adjacent require considerable pressure before the needle can be forced through. On exposed situations subject to friction, such as the joints of the legs, they become worn down level with the rest of the sur-face, they then present an abraded aspect, being closely punctate and devoid of the glossy surface common to the yellowish-white blisters and the dark red calcareous portions of the body and legs,
Calcinus elegans, M. Edw.
Calcinus elegans, M. Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat. (2), vi., p. 278, pl, xiii., fig. 2. Eight examples inhabiting the following species of shells:—Turbo setosus, Gmelin, Ricinula horrida, Lam., Mitra literata, Lam., Harpa minor, Lam., and Conus sponsalis, Chemn. Abun-dant in pools on the outer reef.
Calcinus gaimardi, M. Edw.
Calcinus gaimardi. M. Edw., Ann. des Sci. Nat., 3rd Ser., x., p. 63, 1848; Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 457, pl. xxviii., fig. 9. One specimen in the shell of Harpa minor, Lam.
Calcinus latens, Randall.
Calcinus latens (Randall), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 459, pl. xxviii., fig. 11. Twelve examples in the shells of Vertagus lineatus, Brug., and Strombus urceus, Linn.
Calcinus tibicen, Herbst.
Calcinus tibicen (Herbst.), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 457); Cuvier, Reg. Anim., 1849, pl. xliv., fig. 3.
Four specimens in the shells of Vertagus cedo-nulli, Sowb., Triton pilearius, Linn.; Peristerna nassatula, Lam., and Cylindra dactylus, Linn.
Aniculus typicus, Fabr.
Aniculus typicus (Fabr.), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 461, pl. xxix., fig. 1.
Four specimens in the shells of Turbo setosus, Gmel.
Petrolisthes dentatus, M. Edw.
Petrolisthes dentatus, M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., ii., p. 251, 1837; De Mann, Arch. f. Nat., p. 409, pl. xii., fig. 7, 1887.
Sixteen specimens. Obtained under stones at low tide on the outer reef.
Petrolisthes haswelli, Miers.
Petrolisthes haswelli, Miers, "Alert" Report, p. 69, pl. xxix., fig. a.
Petrolisthes speciosa, Dana.
Petrolisthes speciosa, Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i.; p. 417, pi. 26, fig. 8.
Porcellana Sollasi, sp. nov.
(Plate vii., fig. 3, a.)
The carapace is as broad as long, shining, and transversely striate, the striæ; are prominent anteriorly and gradually diminish towards the extremities of the postero-lateral borders, the cardiac region is smooth. Front straight when viewed from above, when seen from the frontal aspect it is depressed at the sides and in the centre, where there exists a small notch.
The upper orbital border is smooth, rounded at the inner, and with an acute spine at the outer angle. Antero-lateral margin with five oblique striæ;, the first short, compressed and toothlike, fourth and fifth much longer and extending towards the gastric region. The antipenultimate joints of the antennæ; are half as long as the penultimate, and about as long as the ultimate, the former with two small spines on its inner margin, and the latter with two spines at its distal extremity. The flagellum is naked and is as long as the larger chelipede.page 145
The external maxillipes have the ischium and merus joints obliquely striate, the latter with a prominent internal lobe near its proximal end, the former is subquadrate and slightly convex on its inner edge.
The chelipedes in the male are unequal, the left slightly the larger. The merus has a transverse ridge rather nearer to the distal end than the proximal, on the distal edge there are three or four flattened granules. The antero-internal extremity with a compressed denticulate lobe.
The carpus is armed on its inner border with four compressed compound spines, the proximal large, the other three forming a diminishing series. Each tooth or spine branching and bearing several accessory spinules.
The superior and external surfaces are ornamented with peculiar hooked spines, which are broad, flattened, and minutely denticulate at their apices, very few are single pointed, they are apically curved, and their tips are directed towards the distal end. The under surface is smooth, the infero-internal angle has a few small compressed granules near its base. The hooked spines are at least their own diameter apart and irregularly disposed.
The lower border of the hand is straight, the upper forms almost a right angle with the mobile finger. The spines on the lower and external surfaces of the palm are similar to but smaller than those on the carpus, the upper surface has a few flat granules and the crest is smooth.
The mobile finger has two rows of sub-imbricated spines, which when viewed in profile with a lens gives it a serrate appearance.
The two lower rows of spines of the palm are continued to the extremity of the immobile finger. The internal surface of the palm is convex and obliquely striate, especially on the lower portion, striæ; are also present on inner surface of the immobile finger, the mobile finger has a pair of denticles near its base, and a small hooked spine at its extremity, which is opposed to a similar spine at the tip of the immobile finger.
The merus joints of the ambulatory legs are transversely striate on their posterior surfaces, the upper edge of the merus has from four to six minute spinules, the distal one large.
The carpus is armed above with eight spines in two rows, of a similar kind to those on the carpus of the chelipedes, i.e., flattened, curved, and minutely denticulate at the summit, the distal being long and considerably overlapping the base of the propodus. The length of inferior margin of the carpus scarcely exceeds the transverse diameter of the merus.
The posterior surface of the propodus is crossed by four or five oblique striæ;, the upper edge is armed like the preceding joint page 146but the distal spines are smaller. The dactylus is robust, about half the length of the propodus, and ending distally in a curved horny point, the lower edge having three or four horny spinules.
The carapace and chelipedes are white, glossy and shining. The ambulatory legs have the carpus and propodus coloured red.
One male and one female with ova.
|Length of carapace of female||2½mm.|
|Breadth of carapace of female||2½mm.|
|Length of carapace of male||3 mm.|
|Breadth of carapace of male||3 mm.|
|Total length of larger chelipede||8½mm.|
Named in honour of Prof. W. J. Sollas, LL.D., F.R.S.