The Atoll of Funafuti, Ellice group : its zoology, botany, ethnology and general structure based on collections made by Charles Hedley of the Australian Museum, Sydney, N.S.W.
Atergatis Floridus, Rumph.
Atergatis floridus (Rumph.), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 159, pi. vii., fig. 4.
Fourteen specimens of this very common species were obtained on the ou.ter reef at low tide line.
Actæa Rugata, Adams & White.
Actœa rugata, Adams & White, Voy. "Samarang," Crust., 1848, p. 43, pi. viii., fig. 5.
One half-grown example, the colour being well preserved. The upper surface of the carapace presents three reddish and four white longitudinal lines, disposed as follows: a median red line extending from the front to the first post abdominal segment, page 130where it bifurcates and is continued on the second. The two lateral red bands commence at the external orbital angles, and by slight curves extend to the commencement of the postero-lateral borders; the external white lines are confined to the antero-lateral lobes; the inner pair of white lines commences at the orbital borders and is continued to the posterior margin of the carapace.
The cardiac region appears to the unaided eye as if it had a median groove, but on closer inspection with a lens it is seen that this appearance is due to the deeper shade of red rather than to a depression.
The hairs on the carapace are yellowish, the longer ones forming fringes around the bases of the lobules, and the shorter ones at the bases of the granules.
|Length of carapace||8mm.|
|Breadth of carapace||10mm.|
Xanthodes lamarckii, M. Edw.
Xanthodes lamarckii, M. Edw. Hist. Nat. Crust., i., p. 391; Nouv. Arch. Mus., ix., p. 200, pi. vii., fig. 3; X. granosomanus, Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 175, pi. viii., fig. 10a.
There are five examples of this species—three males and two females: the post abdomen in the latter is fringed with long hairs.
Xanthodes nitidulus, Dana.
Xanthodes nitidulus, Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 177, pi. viii., fig. 11, a, b, c.
A solitary female of this rare and beautiful species was collected.
It presents several important characters not mentioned in the original description by Dana. The carapace is smooth, shining, and minutely punctate; when viewed with a lens it is seen to be covered with a uniform but microscopic granulation. On the chelipedes and ambulatory legs the granules tend to become seriate and form reticulating lines with smooth spaces between.
On the sub-hepatic and pterygostomial regions the granules are larger and visible to the unaided eye, more especially along the line defining the regions, and extending from below the basal joint of the external antennæ to below the second antero-lateral spine.
The chelipedes are equal; the ischium is hairy and granulose, on its anterior edge, at its distal extremity, is a low tooth bounded by a transverse groove.
The external surface of the merus is smooth and convex; the anterior granular; the internal concave, adapted to the shape of page 131the carapace, and its margins fringed with hairs; a compressed tooth exists near the distal end of the upper margin, which is separated by a groove from a similar but smaller tooth at the extremity. The carpus has two blunt teeth on its inner distal angle, the lower and smaller one granular at the base. The impression mentioned by Dana on its upper surface is more like Y reversed than V.
The fingers are acute, crossed at the tips and in contact throughout when closed; they are blackish-brown with white points.
The ambulatory legs are fringed above with long yellow hairs. The upper edges of the merus joints are acute to within a short distance of the distal extremity. The hairs on the carpal, propodal and tarsal joints are shorter than those on the meral.
The carapace and limbs are marbled with flesh-colour, red, and orange.
Length of carapace, 28mm.; breadth (posterior pair of lateral spines included), 44mm.
Obtained on the edge of the outer reef amongst the Nullipores.
Zozymus æeneus, Dana.
Zozymus ceneus, Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 192, pi. x., fig. 3.
One male of this very common species, obtained amongst the nullipores on the outer reef.
Daiea perlata, Herbst.
Daira perlata (Herbst.), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 204, pi. x., fig. 14.
One adult female, found in the honeycomb crevices of the nulli-pore raouuds on the outer reef.
Etisus læevimanus, Randall.
Etisus Iwvimanus (Randall), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 185, pi. x., fig. la.
One adult male.
Etisodes cælatus, Dana.
Etisodes ccelatus, Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 188, pl. ix., fig. 4.
Two immature males.
Caepilodes margaritatus, M. Edw.
Carpilodes marga7'itatus, M. Edw., Nouv. Arch. Mus., ix., p. 182, pl. v., fig. 2. One half-grown male of this pretty little species is in the collection.page 132
The specimen agrees well with the description and figure, excepting the chelipedes; the slight difference may be sexual (the sex of the the type is not stated).
The black colour of the immobile finger extends a short distance on the palm; there are also indications of two faint longitudinal ridges, one in a line with the upper border of the immobile finger and the other opposite the space between the fingers.
This species is also found in New Caledonia.
Pilumnus vestitus, Haswell.
Pilumnus vestitus, Haswell, Cat. Austr Mus., v., Crust., p. 68, 1882; Miers, in Chall. Rep.—Zool., xvii., p. 159, pl. xiv., fig. 3.
There is one small male in the collection.
As Dr. De Mann in his Crustacea of the Mergui Archipelago* remarks that a more exact knowledge of this species is desirable, I venture to give a few of the characters which may aid in its future identification, derived from the examination of specimens obtained in Port Jackson. The frontal, gastric, cardiac, and postero-lateral regions of the carapace are smooth, appearing punctate only when the hairs are removed, each hair arising from a small depression, more especially on the posterior portion of the pterygostomial region which is minutely and closely punctate, as is also the posterior lateral sides and the hinder margin of the carapace.
The slightly elevated line marking the posterior border of the carapace is granulose, the line is continued on each side as far as the insertion of the chelipedes but the granules are much smaller and closer.
The lobes of the front and the external halves of the upper orbital borders are more or less granulose, the lower orbital border with from eight to twelve subspiniform granules. The lower internal and the external angles are distinctly spinose. A sub-hepatic spine is also present.
The first and second antero-lateral teeth are a little compressed at the base; they are punctate and granular on their external aspect; the third tooth is without granules; each tooth ends in a conical horny point.
On the upper surface of the carapace, near the antero-lateral teeth are situated a few horny spines and numerous subspiniform granules which extend towards the gastric and cardiac regions.
In some large male examples, the first and second teeth have each an accessory spine behind.
The chelipedes are unequal, the right being the largest.page 133
The merus is armed on its upper distal border with two spines separated by a groove; there are also two spiniform granules posterior to these, about the middle.
The carpus has five more or les1s distinct rows of spines on its outer and upper surface; four of the rows form a reversed V within a V, the larger V interrupted at its base near the articulation with the hand. The fifth row occupies the upper margin and consists of from four to six spines.
On the external surface of the palm there are three or four rows of spines, sometimes incomplete.
The mobile finger is sulcate near its base, and has three rows of subspiniform granules; in the right chelipede of the male the granules are scattered.
The lower border and internal surface of the large hand are smooth; the left chelipede in both male and female has the lower border granulose, and there is a longitudinal line of from four to six granules on the inner median surface of the palm.
The upper edges of the merus of the first three pairs of ambulatory legs are armed with three spines, two of which are curved and situated about the middle; the third is straight, and projects at the distal extremity. The lower margins have a few spiniform granules. The carpal joints of the first and second pairs of legs are armed above with five spines, four of which are equal in size and apart; they are confined to the proximal two-thirds of the upper edge; the fifth spine is at the distal extremity.
External to the spines on the crest of the carpus on the posterior upper surface are situated four similar spines not extending beyond the proximal half of the joint. These spines are bounded below by a shallow longitudinal groove which is quite smooth and shining. Both merus and carpus of the fourth pair of legs are without spines, excepting those at the distal extremities.
|Length of carapace of male||17mm.|
|Breadth of carapace of male||23mm.|
|Length of carapace of female||14mm.|
|Breadth of carapace of female||19mm.|
Pilumnus prunosus, sp. nov.
(Plate vi., fig. 1, a, b.)
The carapace is transversely and longitudinally convex; both it and the legs are clothed with a short down and stiff yellowish brown hairs. The antero-lateral margins are longer than the postero-lateral. The surface of the carapace is smooth; if the hairs are removed the surface appears punctate, the pits being the depressions from which the hairs originate; regions scarcely perceptible.page 134
The front is declivous, thin, smooth, and consisting of two rounded lobes separated by a median notch, from which a shallow groove extends to the epigastric region. Laterally the lobes are separated from the internal orbital angles by a very slight sinus and a pair of granules, the outer of which is the largest.
Front, upper and lower orbital margins defined by a narrow continuous line, several shades lighter in colour than the adjacent parts; a similar line exists on the margins of the episternum and of the post-abdomen.
The upper orbital borders are smooth, the internal angle rounded; the external marked by a wide sinus and a small spine. The lower orbital border distantly granulose, four of the inner granules tending to become spiniform, the second one much larger than the others; a narrow hiatus exists at the infero-external angle.
The suborbital surface, apart from the margin, is smooth externally, a narrow band of granules extend from the base of the inter-orbital to the external and first antero-lateral spines.
The sub-hepatic spine is absent, its place is occupied by three or four small rounded granules.
First and second antero-lateral spines compressed, the third round and broad at the base. Bach spine terminates in an acute point. In the female the external orbital spine has a small accessory spine at its base.
The outer antennas are fairly long and reach to the first anterolateral spine; the basal joint is almost in contact with the descending process of the front; it narrows distally and is twice as long as broad; penultimate shorter and stouter than the ultimate; the latter and the distal half of the former can be seen from above, projecting beyond the external angle of the front.
The chelipedes are unequal, the right the larger. Merus and carpus equal in length, the former trigonous and smooth excepting the margins. The inferior angle has a row of about nine granules, the four proximal forming a curved line towards the antero-internal angle. The short anterior angle has two granules, the distal one subspiniform. The superior margin is armed with two or three subspiniform granules and two acute spines distally, which are separated by a well-defined groove. The carpus is clothed with long hairs and subspiniform but seldom acute tubercles; there is an impressed line near its articulation with the hand, and a spine on its inner margin.
The subspiniform granules on the hand are seriate and consist of seven longitudinal rows; the lower border is granulose near the base of the finger; proximally it is smooth in the male, but granular and hairy throughout in the female. On the outer surface of the palm are four rows, the lowest in line with the third page 135denticle of the finger, the next in line with the basal denticle, the third opposite the space between the fingers, and the fourth in a line with base of the mobile finger. Between the first and second rows, and opposite the middle tooth of the immobile finger, is situated a short line of three granules; one of these granules is on the finger. On the upper surface are situated two rows, one extending from a notch above the articulation of the middle finger to the articulatory boss where the hand joins the carpus, the other opposite to the superior base of the mobile finger. The crest has four or five spiniform granules, which are similar to those on the rest of the palm. The inner surface of the palm is convex, with a few small granules near the centre and several long hairs. Hand, with the lower border of palm, twice as long as the upper (immobile finger excluded) and as broad distally as the carpus is long. The immobile fingers are bent downwards, faintly sulcate, deeper coloured in their distal halves only; armed with six denticles, the three proximal ones a little larger than the distal. The mobile fingers are faintly denticulate on their edges; they are granulosa above at the base, but elsewhere the surface is smooth.
The merus joints of the ambulatory legs are compressed and sharp edged above, rounded below and smooth, excepting the last pair which are finely granulose below, as are also the ischium joints distally. There is a well marked transverse groove near their distal end.
The carpus joints are armed with two rows of spinules, the superior one consisting of six or seven spines, somewhat equidistant but unequal in size. The second row is situated on the median posterior surface, and consists of four or five spiniform granules. On the propodal joints, in a line with the latter, are also five similar spinules. At the distal ends of the propodal joints of the first pair there are three spines superiorly and two laterally; in the succeeding pairs they are indicated by granules. Tarsi shorter than than the preceding joints, fringed above and below with long hairs and terminating in a slightly curved horny point.
The post abdomen is smooth, shining, and distantly punctate, its edges fringed with long hairs in the female, and with very short ones in the male. The terminal segment in the latter does not extend beyond the articular nodules of the first joints of the chelipedes; if a line is drawn from one nodule to the other across the sternum, it would pass clear of the tip of the seventh joint. This character appears to be important, and may be of use in separating the species of this most difficult genus into groups.
I have examined most of the males in the Museum Collection, the results are as follows:—in twelve males of Pilumnus rufo-punctatus and in the type of P. monilifera the seventh segment page 136just reaches the line above-mentioned, in one male each of P. glaberrimus and of P. cursor and in twelve males of P. fissi-frons, the terminal joint extends a little beyond the line. Whilst in thirty-one males of P. vestitus, five of P. terce-regina, and five of P. vespertilio, the seventh joint extends over the line from 1½ to 2mm. The specimens examined include large and small of all ages, the character appears to be a constant one as far as the material in hand shows, whether it is so in other species of the genus remains to be seen, by the examination of a larger series of specimens.
The carapace is plum coloured with the cardiac region and posterior margin reddish-brown, the chelipedes are ornamented with orange-coloured spiniform granules. The ambulatory legs and under surface of the body similar to but grayer than the carapace. The chelipedes shade lighter, the mobile fingers dark reddish-brown with the base pale and of the same tint as the palm, the immobile fingers darker coloured in their distal half only.
|Length of carapace of male||10mm.|
|Breadth of carapace of male (spines included)||15mm.|
|Length of carapace of female||8½mm.|
|Breadth of carapace of female||12mm.|
Seven males and one female.
Actædes Spbciosa, Dana.
Actceodes speciosa, Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., pi. xi., fig. ia.
Three small males somewhat doubtfully referred to this species. The blackish-brown colouration of the fingers extends on the lower border and the exterior surface of the palm for a considerable distance. The body and ambulatory legs are yellowish-white.
Phymodius monticulosus, Dana.
Phymodius monticulosus, Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 206, pl. xi., fig. 9.
There are four males and two females in the collection.
Pseudozius caystrus, Adams & White.
Pseudozius caystrus, Adams & White, Yoy. "Samarang," Crust., p. 42, pl. ix., fig. 2.
The " Ozius sp." in Haswell's Cat. Austr. Mus., v., Crust., p. 68, No. 108, is identical with this species. There are specimens in the Museum from Tasmania, Solomon Islands, Holborn Island, Woodlark Island, and Port Denison.
Leptodius exaeatus, M. Edw.
Leptodius exaratus, M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., i., p. 402; Dana, Crust. U. S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 207.
Five specimens of this widely distributed species. Found under stones on the outer reef at low tide.
Leptodius sanguineus, M. Edw.
Leptodius sanguineus, M, Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., i., p. 404; Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 207, pl. xi., fig. 11.
Three examples—two males and one female.
Ruppellia Annulipes, M. Edw.
Ruppellia annulipes (M. Edw.), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 346, pi. xiv., fig. 4.
One small male which agrees with Dana's figure as to colouration and structural characters generally.
Eriphia scabricula, Dana.
Eriphia scabricula, Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 247, pl. xiv., fig. 5a.
Five specimens—three males and two females.
The carapace is mottled with brown spots; the legs are transversely banded with the same colour; when viewed with a lens the brown pigment is seen to form reticulating lines.
Eriphia lævimana, Latr.
Eriphia Iævimana (Latr.), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 249, pi. xiv., fig. 7, a, b, c.
Five adult specimens—three males and two females with ova. Found on the lagoon shore between tide-marks on sandy flats.
Trapezia cymodoce, Herbst.
Trapezia cymodoce (Herbst.), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor, Exped., i., p. 257, pl. xv., fig. 5.
Eight specimens, mostly immature. Obtained from pools at low water on the lagoon shore.
Trapezia ferruginea, Latr.
Trapezia ferruginea (Latr.), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 260, pl. xvi., fig. 1.
Four specimens obtained from a depth of forty fathoms.page 138
Tetralia cavimana, Heller.
Tetralia cavimana, Heller., Sitzb. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien., xliii., p. 353, taf. iii., figs. 24, 25.
One adult female.
The characteristic depression, near the proximal end of the palm, is well defined in the larger hand (the right), and clothed with hairs, the more elongate of which appear to be confined to the margin of the depression; there are also a few similar hairs present on the distal end of the carpus.
Thalamita integra, Dana.
Thalamita Integra, Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., L., p. 281, pi. xvii., fig. 6.
Five specimens—four males and one female with ova.
Thalamita admete, Herbst.
Thalamita admete (Herbst.), Dana, Crust. U.S. Explor. Exped., i., p. 281, pl. xvii., fig. 5. Seven males and seven females, two bearing ova.