The Atoll of Funafuti, Ellice group : its zoology, botany, ethnology and general structure based on collections made by Charles Hedley of the Australian Museum, Sydney, N.S.W.
The following list of Actinozoa is compiled from different sources under the supervision of Mr. Whitelegge, whose papers in this volume (pp. 213 - 225, 307 - 320, 349 -368, and 384 - 391) have formed the basis. With these have been incorporated information from the articles of J. S. Gardiner and I. L. Hiles.*
In some prefatory notes to the Mollusca, it was remarked that the high proportion of novelties to the mass of previously known forms should not be mistaken for an indication of endemic importance, but should be ascribed to the imperfection of our knowledge of the continental faunas. This statement has received support from the Gorgonidæ in the brief time that has elapsed since it was written. Keroeides gracilis has been retaken by Willey in New Guinea, Villogorgia rubra by Willey in the Loyalty Islands, Acamptogogia spinosa by Willey in New Britain, Lobophytum hedleyi and L. densum by Hedley in New Caledonia.
Some giant specimens of a white Sea Anemone, ten inches in diameter, were observed on Funafuti, but defied any effort to remove them and are hence unnoted in the following list.
The specific identification of Reef Corals is regarded by the highest authorities as a matter of extreme uncertainty. H. M. Bernard wrote:—" The only specimens which can be claimed with absolute certainty as specifically identical are a few which have in each case been gathered at the same place and time, and resemble one another as closely as if they were two fragments of one and the same stock. Beyond these no certainty exists, and strict regard to the variations of form and structure would compel us to label all the remaining specimens as different varieties or species."† To maintain such a position means chaos. Either we must, as Bernard proceeds to suggest, " break loose from the restraint of the Linnean species," or deal with the group on the broader lines on which Hickson has lately dealt with the Heliopora and Millepora.page 533
Finding ourselves unable to reconcile the species enumerated by Whitelegge and Gardiner the results arrived at by each are given in parallel columns.
- Sarcophytum glaucum, Quoy and Gaimard.
- Sarcophytum trochoheliophorum var. amboinense, Marenzeller.
- Sarcophytum latum, Dana.
- Lobophytum pauciflorum var. validum, Marenzeller.
- Lobophytum hedleyi, Whitelegge.
- Lobophytum marenzelleri, Wright and Studer.
- Lobophytum tuberculosum, Quoy and Gaimard,
- Lobophytum confertum, Dana.
- Lobophytum densum, Whitelegge.
- Lobophytum viride, Quoy and Gaimard.
- Spongodes pallida. Whitelegge
- Spongodes curvicornis, Wright and Studer.
- Siphonogorgia godeffroyi, Kolliker.
- Siphonogorgia pallida, Studer.
- Siphonogorgia kollikeri, Wright and Studer.
- Siphonogorgia macrospina, Whitelegge.
- Heliopora cærulea, Pallas.
- Keroides gracilis, Whitelegge.
- Acamptogorgia spinosa, Hiles.
- Acanthogorgia breviflora, Whitelegge.
- Acanthomuricea simplex, Whitelegge.
- Villogorgia flagellata, Whitelegge.
- Villogorgia intricata, Gray.
- Villogorgia ruber, Hiles.
- Bebryce studeri, Whitelegge.
- Muricella purpurea, Whitelegge.
- Plexaura antipathes, Esper.
- Nicella laxa, Whitelegge.
- Verrucella flabellata, Whitelegge.
- Antipathella brookii, Whitelegge.
- Zoanthus funafutiensis, Hill and Whitelegge.
- Gemmaria willeyi, Kill and Whitelegge.
- Palythoa howesi, Haddon and Shackleton.
- Palythoa kochii, Haddon and Shackleton.
- Palythoa coesia, Dana.
* Gardiner—Proc. Zool. Soc, 1897, pp. 941-953; Idem 1898, pp. 257-276, 525 - 539, and 994 -1000; Hiles, in Willey, Zoological Results, part 2, 1899, pp. 195 - 204.
† Bernard—Cat. Madreporarian Corals Brit. Mus. 1896, p. 20.