The Atoll of Funafuti, Ellice group : its zoology, botany, ethnology and general structure based on collections made by Charles Hedley of the Australian Museum, Sydney, N.S.W.
Thetidos, gen. nov
Thetidos, gen. nov.
A member of the Mangiliinæ, distinguished by three stout tubercles seated on the lip within the aperture, and by a globose, tilted, two-whorled protoconch, which is closely spirally grooved throughout.
The new species, which typifies this proposed new genus, stands apart from almost all Pleurotomidee, with regard to the few large denticules which defend the aperture. The thickened lip and anal notch throw it into Tryon's subfamily Mangiliinæ, and among the members of that, Glyphostoma makes the nearest approach. Glyphostoma has smaller and more numerous denticules, and an apex which in G. gabbii is thus described by Dall:—?" nucleus acute, three-whorled, the first whorl smooth, rounded, tilted, minute; the others smooth, polished, keeled on the periphery."‡ This description fits others I have examined such as G. malleti. In various instances the protoconch of Mangelia is shown by Watson to have delicate, longitudinal ribbing. The genus Glathurella has a peculiar raised mesh-work over all the whorls of the protoconch, as here illustrated in the case of C. irretita, and which has been beautifully figured in several instances by Watson in the " Challenger" Report. The apex which Cossman gives as characteristic of Clathurella is, however, quite different.§
Opinions on the systematic importance of the Pleurotomoid protoconch are conflicting. Watson remarks that:—" sculpture and form of apex may probably serve as the safest basis of classification in the whole group."‖ On the contrary Dall has expressed his opinion that:—"so far as our knowledge goes, nuclear page 473characters have little absolute systematic value in this group, and their relative value remains to be determined."*
Even should little weight attach to the nuclear distinction of Thetidos, the aperture, so curiously imitating Sistrum or Pupa, may separate it from its kindred, only excepting Clathurella idiomorpha, Hervier,† and Clathurella rugosa, Mighels.‡ As those authors paid no special attention to the protoconch, I am unable to decide whether they should also enter my genus.
I have no information relative to the presence or absence of the operculum, since to obtain such would entail the destruction of the only shell. It may be that in this family the thickening of the lip, followed by the development of the labial teeth, and consequent narrowing of the aperture has accompanied the degeneration of the operculum. The safety of the animal being thus secured by the exchange of one defence for another.
‡ Dall—Loc. cit., p. 109.
§ Cossman—Essais de Palèoconchologie cornparèe, ii., 1896, p. 122.
‖ Watson—Chall. Rep. ZooL, xv., 1886, p. 361.
* Dall—Loc. cit., p. 75.
† Hervier—Journ. de Conch., xliv., 1896 (1897), p. 147; xlv., 1897, p. 110, pl. iii., fig. 3.
‡ Langkavel—Donum Bismarckianum, 1871, p. 2, pl. i., fig. 5.
Thetidos morsura, sp. nov.
Shell stout and strongly built, briefly conical, a little turreted, anteriorly narrowed suddenly with a short straight and truncate canal. Whorls five, exclusive of the protoconch. Colour dead white, except the two uppermost whorls and the protoconch, which are pale fawn. Sculpture—the last whorl has ten thick and prominent ribs, round at their base and summit, their own width apart, shouldered posteriorly and abruptly terminating anteriorly at the basal constriction. On each succeeding whorl the ribs alternate with those beneath. The revolving sculpture consists, on the last whorl, of eight, strong, elevated, equidistant, narrow spiral cords which over-ride the ribs, and five such which encircle the base, where vestigial ribs tend to dissect them into nodules; on the penultimate whorl there are four to five cords visible. Protoconch tilted, two-whorled, and spirally grooved. Aperture narrow; columella page 474excavate above, anteriorly ridged by the entrance of three of the basal cords which ascend obliquely; canal open, broad, short, truncated; outer lip much thickened externally by a heavy varix which is crossed and denticulated by the spiral sculpture; within the varix, and at right angles to it, the aperture proper has a second raised lip, and within that again are three large, equidistant tubercles, the largest and most prominent of which is that next the sinus; the anal sinus is moderately deep, scarcely mounts on the preceding whorl, and spreads a callus across two ribs. Length 5½, breadth 2½ mm.
One example, procured in eighty to forty fathoms by the tangles, with the preceding species.
Mangilia himerta, Melvill & Standen.
Melvill & Standen, Journ. Conch., viii., 1896, p. 281, pl. ix., fig. 17.
One example from the lagoon beach. Only before recorded from Lifu.
One specimen from the lagoon beach answers well to Reeve's illustration.
Clathurella clandestina, Deshayes,
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 298, pl. xix., fig. 67; pl. xx., fig. 81.
One specimen from the Funafuti lagoon, slighter and paler than the typical form. It is only 4 mm. long, and has a buff tip and two obscure buff bands on the back of the last whorl.
Pease found this in the Paumotus, Garrett in Fiji, and Hadfield at Lifu.* I collected a large form, 7 mm. in length, at Milne Bay, British New Guinea. According to the descriptions, G. pumila, Mighels, seems scarcely separable.
Clathurella apicalis, Montrouzier.
Montrouzier, Journ. de Conch., ix., 1861, p. 277, pl. xi., fig, 1.
Two worn specimens from the beach of the Funafuti lagoon.
* * Melvill & Standen—Loc. cit., viii., p. 402.
† † Tryon—Loc. cit., p. 293.
† ‡ Hervier—Loc. cit., xlv., 1897, p. 101.
Clathurella irretita, sp. nov.
Shell ovate-fusiform, narrow, turretted and sharply angled below a sloping shoulder. Colour white, from the suture to the angle opaque, below the angle hyaline with opaque beads; protoconch buff yellow, a splash of the same on the anterior dorsal portion of the last whorl; a pale yellow thread, confined to one spiral cord, ascends each whorl below the angle, and another surrounds the last whorl below the periphery. Adult whorls four and a half. Sculpture—the last whorl bears fifteen longitudinal costse which cross the flattened part of the whorl obliquely, here they are separated by twice their breadth; above the angle they bend and enlarge suddenly, towards the base they curve in and vanish at the basal constriction. On the penultimate whorl these costse alternate with those below the suture. These longitudinal costæ are over-ridden by a series of fine sharp spiral cords knotted at each costa; the last whorl carrying four larger and more undulating ones above the angle and ten below it; on the base are six simple cords. Protoconch horny, mamillate, three and a half whorled, the larger sculptured with a raised network, contrasting sharply by colour and texture with the adult shell, which suddenly commences with a thick raised white tongue at the suture. Aperture narrow and elliptical, columella arched, overlaid by a callus which ends abruptly where the mouth narrows. Canal short and wide. Outer lip massive, ridged externally by a dozen transverse cords which denticulate the edges; within are seven weak entering ridges. The aperture mounts the preceding whorl to the height of two spiral cords, and encloses a deep wide anal notch with a prominent callus. Length 5, breadth 2 mm.
One specimen from the lagoon beach of Funafuti.
Closely allied to Clathurella euzonata, Hervier,* from which it differs by being narrower, sharper angled, and sculptured by finer and more numerous cords. With his species Hervier associates C. bilineata, Angas, and C bifasciatum, Pease.
* * Hervier—Journ. de Conch., xliv., 1896 (1897), p. 143ibid., xlv., 1897, p. 102, pl. ii., fig. 6.
Daphnella delicata, Reeve.
Reeve, Conch. Icon., i., 1846, "Pleurotoma," pl. xxxiv., sp. 310; Tryon, loc. cit., p. 301, pl. xxvi., fig. 80.page 476
One specimen from the Funafuti lagoon beach.
It has been taken by Cuming at Marutea, Paumotus, and by Garrett at Tahiti.
Daphnella lymneiformis, Kiener.
Kiener, Coquilles Vivantes, Canaliferes, i., (n.d.), Pleurotome, p. 62, pl. xxii., fig. 3.
Two specimens from Funafuti appear to be the first recorded from the Central Pacific of this widely distributed form.
Daphnella Pupoidea, H. Adams.
H. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1872, p. 14, pl. iii., fig. 27; Tryon, loc. cit., p. 314, pl. xxxiv., fig. 92. Mangilia victor, Sowerby, Proc. Malac. Soc, i., 1894, p. 45, pl. iv., fig. 19.
The single specimen from Funafuti is smaller and slighter than Adams' type specimen, from the New Hebrides, now in the Australian Museum. Melvill and Standen report it* from Lifu, Loyalties, and I have obtained it at Port Moresby, British New Guinea, and at Panie, New Caledonia. Drillia pygmœa, Dunker, seems to be suspiciously like this species.
* * Melvill & Standen—Loc. cit., viii., p. 94.
Daphnella Thiasotes, Melvill & Standen.
Mangilia thiasotes, Melvill & Standen, Journ. Conch., viii., 1896, p. 284, pl. ix., fig. 21.
A more complete account than is usually given by these authors enables me to satisfactorily identify a single specimen from Funafuti with their species from Lifu. They confess, "We know of no pleurotomoid shell which presents the same characteristics." If specific characters were thus alluded to in a shell described as new, the remark would be superfluous, and I therefore presume that generic characters are intended. It is obvious that this species is a close ally of such a shell as Angas described as Purpura anomala. Prof. R. Tate first pointed out that this latter was one of the Pleurotomidæ, allied to M. vincenti, Crosse, † In consonance with Tryon's classification, it is therefore here termed Daphnella thiasotes.
† † Tate—Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., v., 1881, p. 131.
Conus literatus, Linne.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 10, pl. ii., figs. 17 - 19; Garrett, Journ. Conch., i., 1878, pp. 354, 360.
I purchased a specimen of this from a native at Nukulailai.page 477
H. Cuming collected a form of this at Tahiti and Anaa, Paumotus.* Garrett found it in Fiji, the Gilberts, the Carolines, and Society Islands. In an excellent "Catalogue of the Cones of New-Caledonia," by Crosse and Marie, † this is recorded from the mainland, Ile Art, and the Loyalty Group. In this Museum it is also represented from British New Guinea, Erromanga (New Hebrides), and the Bampton Reef (Coral Sea). Throughout the Pacific, this shell, is greatly esteemed as material for native ornaments.
* * Reeve—Conch. Icon., L., Conus, 1843, pl. xxxii., sp. 178.
† † Crosse & Marie—Journ. de Conch., 1874, p. 344.
Conus Tessellatus, Born.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 11, pl. ii., figs. 26, 27; Garrett, loc. cit., pp. 355, 365.
A couple of specimens were procured at Funafuti.
Garrett reports this from Fiji, Samoa, Gilberts, Carolines, Cook's, Society, and Hawaii. Crosse and Marie mention this from Balade and Ile Art, New Caledonia. In this Museum are specimens from the New Hebrides and Torres Straits.
Conus Pulicarius, Hwass.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 19, pl. iv., fig. 68; pl. v., fig. 69; Garrett, loc. cit., pp. 355, 362.
Two examples were obtained at Funafuti.
Garrett records this from Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Gilberts, Carolines, Cook's, Society, Paumotus, and Marquesas Islands. Cuming observed this at Tahiti†; Crosse and Marie at Ile Art and New-Caledonia; and Melvill and Standen at Lifu. Tryon mentions it from New Guinea, and specimens are in this Museum from Queensland, the Solomons, and the Gilberts.
† † Reeve—Loc. cit., pL. xrii., sp. 94.
Conus hebraeus, Linne.
Tryon, loc.cit., p. 20, pl. v., figs. 75, 77; pl. xxvii., fig. 13; Garrett, loc. cit., pp. 354, 360.
Abundant on the outer reef in rock pools at Funafuti, and I noted it also at Nukulailai.
Garrett cites this from Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Gilberts, Carolines, Cook's, Society, Paumotus, and Hawaii. Crosse and Marie quote it from New Caledonia. In this Museum it is shown from the Louisiades, Erromanga, New Hebrides, and Lord Howe Island.
The native name on Funafuti is "miri." At Port Moresby the natives call it "ahukura."
Conus hebraeus, var. Vermiculatus, Hwass.
A few of this colour variety occurred as usual with the typical form.
Conus ceylonensis, Hwass.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 23, pl. vi., figs. 94-100.
Abundant in the rock pools of the outer reef of Funafuti, in association with the preceding species. Numerous colour varieties are represented, among which is the var. sponsalis, Chemnitz.
Cuming collected this at Marutea, Paumotus*; Crosse and Marie report it from Ile Art, New Caledonia; and Melvill and Standen from Lifu. In a catalogue of the shells of Fitzroy Island,† Brazier notes it from there and from San Christoval, Solomons.
* * Reeve—Loc. cit., pl. xx., sp. 109.
† † Brazier—Journ. Conch., ii., 1879, p. 190.
Conus vexillum, Gmelin.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 39, pl. xi., figs. 12a, 13, 14; Garrett, loc. cit., pp. 356, 365.
One imperfect shell was purchased from a native at Funafuti.
Garrett found this in the Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Gilberts, Cook's, Paumotus, and Hawaii Groups. Crosse and Marie mention this from New Caledonia, Ile Art, and Lifu; Tryon from Samoa; and there is a specimen in this Museum from Torres Straits. I have also collected it at Ballina, N.S. Wales.
Conus rattus, Hwass.
Tryon, loc. cit, p. 41, pl. xii., figs. 25, 27.
A single living specimen was taken under a stone in the Funafuti lagoon.
‡ ‡ Reeve—Loc. cit., pl. xv., sp. 78.
§ § Weinkauff—Conch. Cab., 1873, Conus, p. 134.
Conus. capitaneus, Linne.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 40, pl. xii., figs. 21 -24; pl. xi., figs. 17, 18. Garrett, loc. cit., pp. 354, 358.
One dead and immature shell from Funafuti.
Garrett found this in Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Gilberts and Carolines. Crosse and Marie mention this from Ile Art, New Caledonia, and Brazier from Fitzroy Island, Queensland; Torres Straits; Hall Sound, British New Guinea; Fiji, New Ireland, New Britain page 479and the Solomons. A specimen from the Bampton Reef is in this Museum.
Conus lividus, Hwass.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 45, pl. xiii., figs. 54 - 57; Garrett, loc. cit., pp. 354, 360.
One specimen was found alive under a stone in the Funafuti lagoon.
Garrett saw this in Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Gilberts, Carolines, Cook's, Society, Paumotus, Marquesas and Hawaii. By Cuming it was taken in the Society Islands; Melvill and Standen have it from the Loyalty. Specimens in this Museum extend the range to Woodlark Island, British New Guinea and the Solomons.
Conus lividus, var. Flavidus, Lamarck.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 44, pl. xiii., figs. 48 - 50.
Abundant alive under stones in the Funafuti lagoon. Cuming collected this at Tahiti, Crosse and Marie cite it from Ile Art, New Caledonia; Smith from the Solomons, Fiji, and Tonga*; and Brazier from Torres Straits and Hall Sound, British New Guinea, † An Hawaiian specimen. is contained in this Museum.
* * Smith—Proc. Zool. Soc, 1891, p. 400.
† † Brazier—Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., i., 1877, p. 288.
Conus vitulinus, Hwass.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 51, pl. xiv., figs. 86, 87; pl. xv., fig. 88.
One dead specimen from Funafuti.
Crosse and Marie cite this from the Loyalty Islands, Ile Art and Balade, New Caledonia. Brazier found it at Fitzroy Island, Queensland, Torres Straits, New Britain and New Ireland.
Conus catus, Hwass.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 63, pl. xx., figs. 6–10; Garrett, loc. cit., pp. 354, 358.
A single worn specimen from Funafuti.
Cuming collected this at Tahiti; Crosse and Marie record it from New Caledonia. and the Loyalty Group. This Museum has a specimen from Hawaii. Garrett found it in Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Gilberts, Carolines, Cook's, Society, Paumotus and Hawaii.
Conus nussatella, Linne.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 80, pl. xxv., fig. 35; Garrett, loc. cit., pp. 355, 362.
Mr. G. Sweet obtained one specimen.
Garrett notes this from Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Gilberts, Carolines, Cook's, Society, Paumotus and Hawaii.
Conus striatus, Linne.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 85, pl. xxvi., fig. 67; Garrett, loc. cit., pp. 355, 364.
A single empty shell from Funafuti.
Garrett collected this at Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Gilberts, Carolines, Cook's, Society, and Hawaii. Crosse and Marie record this from the east coast of New Caledonia, and the Islands of Art and Lifu. Brazier has noted it from Fitzroy Island, Queensland Torres Straits, New Ireland and New Britain; and Smith from the Solomons. In this Museum are specimens from Erromanga, New Hebrides, and the Bampton Reef, Coral Sea.
Conus geographus, Linne.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 88, pl. xxviii, fig. 84; pl. xxix., fig. 85; Garrett, loc. cit., pp. 354, 360.
A native of Funafuti presented me with a fine specimen, 120 mm. in length.
Garrett saw this at Fiji, Samoa, Gilberts, Carolines, Society and Paumotus. Crosse and Marie mention this from the Islands of Loyalty, Art and Pines, New Caledonia. This Museum possesses representatives from Fiji, the Solomon Islands and Erromanga, New Hebrides.
Conus tulipa, Linne.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 87, pl. xxviii., figs. 80, 81; Garrett, loc. cit., pp. 355, 365.
I picked up a single specimen on the western beach of Funafuti.
Garrett obtained this at Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Gilberts, Cook's, Society, Paumotus, Marquesas and Hawaii. Crosse and Marie note it from the Islands of Lifu, Art and Pines, New Caledonia. Examples from Torres Straits and Erromanga, New Hebrides, exist in this Museum.
Conus auratus, Lamarck.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 93, pl. xxxi., fig. 30; Garrett, loc. cit., pp. 354, 357.
One dead shell from the lagoon beach of Funafuti.
Found by Cuming at Anaa, Paumotus, and noted by Crosse and Fischer from the Loyalty. In this Museum are instances from the Gilberts and Erromanga, New Hebrides. Garrett collected this at Fiji, Gilberts and Paumotus.
Terebra crenulata, Linne.
Tryon, Man. Conch., vii., 1885, p. 8, pl. i., figs. 1, 2, 6.
Several imperfect specimens were observed on the lagoon beach of Funafuti.page 481
Hinds remarks this from the Society and Marquesas, and Melvill and Standen from Lifu; this Museum contains it from Pipon Island and New Caledonia.
Terbra dimidiata, Linne.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 9, pl. i., figs. 4, 13.
Fragments only of this were collected at Funafuti by myself, but Mr. G. Sweet showed me a whole one.
Hinds reports this from Tahiti; Melvill and Standen from Lifu. It is in this Museum from British New Guinea, and Erromanga and Aneiteum, New Hebrides.
Terebra maculata, Linne.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 9, pl. i., figs. 9, 10.
This shell is a rarity on Funafuti, and I was unable to personally obtain a specimen, though I identified the species from one purchased from the natives by another member of our party. A specimen was also obtained by Mr. G. Sweet. It was formerly of great value to the inhabitants of this and other Pacific Islands, who employed it as a cutting or boring edge for certain tools.* Dr. Hinds, who found a dwarf form at Hao Atoll, Paumotus, remarks:— "In the Pacific, the animal is eaten as food, and the shell, ground at an angle, was much in use as a chisel in the construction of the canoes."†
The "Chevert" Expedition obtained this in Torres Straits. Melvill and Standen note it from Lifu. I collected it at Port Moresby, British New Guinea, where the natives knew it as "bodoa."
* * See ante pp. 249, 259.
† † R. B. Hinds—Thes. Conch., i., 1847, p. 150.
Terebra subulata, Linne.
Tryon, loc. cit,, p. 10, pl. i., fig. 3; pl. iii., fig. 35.
One specimen was found by Mr. G. Sweet.
Hinds found it at Hao and Tahiti. It is represented from the Solomons, New Caledonia, and Hawaii in this Museum.
Terebra tigrina, Gmelin.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 10, pl. i., fig. 11.
Mr. G. Sweet obtained two examples. Reported by Tryon from Hawaii, and represented in this Museum from the New Hebrides.
Terebra affinis, Gray.
Tryon, loc. cit., p. 14 pl. ii,, figs. 18, 22.
Two worn shells were taken on the Funafuti beach.page 482
Tryon quotes this from Fiji, and Melvill and Standen from Lifu. Schmeltz mentions it from Tahiti and Upolu, Samoa.* Specimens from the New Hebrides are in the possession of this Museum.
* * Schmeltz—Mus. Godeffroy Cat. v., 1874, p. 134.
Solidula sulcata, Gmelin.
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., xv., 1893, p. 143, pl. xxa, figs. 39, 46, 47, 48.
Several specimens from the lagoon beach.
This abundant, variable and widespread species has been reported from Queensland and New Caledonia by Brazier, and from Tahiti by Pilsbry. It is represented in the Museum Collection from Guam in the Ladrones and from Aneiteum in the New Hebrides.
Tornatina voluta, Quoy & Gaimard.
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., xv., 1893, p. 195, pl. xxii., figs. 29, 30, 31.
Abundant on the lagoon beach.
Taken originally at Guam in the Ladrones by the "Astrolabe," it was afterwards found in Torres Straits by the "Chevert" and in Fiji by the "Challenger." Melvill and Standen note it from the Loyalty Islands, and I have myself collected it at Noumea, New Caledonia.
Tornatina hadfieldi, Melvill & Standen.
Melvill & Standen, Journ. Conch., viii., 1896, p. 314; pl. xi., fig. 80.
Some broken specimens from the lagoon beach appear to belong to this species, which Melvill and Standen describe from Lifu, and which I have also taken at Panie, New Caledonia.
Retusa Waughiana, sp. nov.
Shell subcylindrical, swollen below, sharply truncated above, produced and rounded an teriorly. Colour porcelain white, glossy. Sculpture—longitudinal, irregularly spaced ribs traverse the whole shell, anteriorly they are weak threads, posteriorly they wax stouter and form tubercles as they obliquely mount the vertex. Between these the shell is closely girt by about forty spiral grooves and their complementary ridges. Whorls four, the earlier ascending, the last descending. Suture deeply channelled. Apex mamillate, rising above the crown. Aperture very oblique, racquet shaped. Outer lip springing from the wall considerably below the vertex, rounded posteriorly, parallel with the body whorl as far page 483as the waist of the shell, then curving outwards. Columella broad, sinuate, folded over a slight umbilical chink. Callus on body whorl distinct, forming a decided angle posteriorly. Length 1¾, breadth 1 mm.
Three specimens from the lagoon beach.
This species perhaps stands nearest to R. amphizosta, Watson,* from which it is easily distinguished by the even more puffed anterior half, the descent of the last whorl, and by the coarser, more prominent sculpture. The young shells differ altogether in contour from the adult, but may be recognised by their peculiar sculpture.
This novelty is named in honour of my accomplished friend, Lieutenant A. Waugh, R.N., of H.M.S. "Penguin," who, during the Expedition to Funafuti, as on many previous occasions, afforded his hearty aid and sympathy to every scientific undertaking.
* * Watson—Chall. Rep., Zool., xv., 1886, p. 652, pl. xlviii., fig. 11.
Atys Cylindrica, Helbling.
Pilsbry, Man. Conch., xv., 1893, p. 265, pl. xxxiii., figs. 60- 64.
Abundant on the lagoon beach.
This common Pacific shell ranges in Australia from Torres Straits southwards to Port Stephens, N.S.W.; the "Challenger" met it in Fiji; I took it at Noumea, New Caledonia, and the Museum has received from Mr. N. Hardy a specimen he collected at Aneiteum, New Hebrides.
Atys hyalina, Watson.
Pilsbry, loc. cit., p. 271, pl. xxxii., fig. 36.
A single broken specimen from the Funafuti lagoon agrees with specimens in the Museum from a type locality, Torres Straits. The "Challenger" procured this from Fiji, and doubtfully from Honolulu.
Atys dentifera, A. Adams.
Pilsbry, loc. cit., p. 276, pl. xxvii., fig. 81.
The occurrence of several specimens on the lagoon beach of Funafuti points to a range across the whole Pacific, since this habitat is intermediate between Marutea, Paumotus, in the extreme east, where it was first discovered by Hugh Cuming, and Torres Straits in the extreme west, where it was taken by the "Challenger," as also at Fiji. Mr. H. Smithurst has presented to the Museum a specimen he collected at Milne Bay, British New Guinea.
Atys dactylus, sp. nov.
One specimen from the lagoon beach.
This species appears to approach nearest to A. jeffreysi, Wein-kauff, from the Mediterranean, which served Monterosato as type for his genus Roxaniella.
Cylichna erecta, sp. nov.
A single rather worn example from the lagoon beach.
This species appears to be quite distinct from others of the genus. Those that share the cylindrical shape being C. discus, Watson, more truncated anteriorly; C. protracta, Gould, three times larger; C. involuta, Adams, C. cylindracea, Pennant, and C. alba, Brown, which appear to have the spire covered. No comparison can be instituted with a mass of unfigured species with which authors (Adams being chief sinner) have oppressed descriptive conchology.
Haminea vitrea, A. Adams.
Pilsbry, loc. cit., p. 370, pl. xl., fig. 83.
Two specimens from the lagoon beach.
The "Chevert" Expedition took this species in Torres Straits. It occurred to me at Panie, New Caledonia; and under the synonym of H. tenera, A. Adams, Melvill and Standen record it from the Loyalties.
Cylindrobulla sculpta, Nevill.
Pilsbry, loc. cit., p. 381, pl. xlii., figs. 36 - 38.
Two living specimens from shallow water in the lagoon, correspond fairly to the above quotation. This Cingalese species has not been noticed before in the Pacific.
Akera aperta, sp. nov.
Shell small, fragile, transparent, oval. Whorls two and a half, last sloping on the shoulder, then subangled and rounded below; sculptured by close, regular growth lines. Apex truncate. Spire minute, visible through a flat, glossy plate, which continues into a rib bordering the sutural notch. Aperture as long as the shell, much dilated and effuse below, narrowed above to the broad and deep sinus; outer lip arched forward above the middle; columella very concave with a narrow sharply reflexed edge. Length 5, breadth 4 mm./
Three specimens from sand on the lagoon beach.
This curious shell agrees with Akera in having the spire at the vertex and in the open aperture, but it approaches Cylin-drobulla in the more involute spire. I am not satisfied that this may not be the young of the preceding species, but as no information is published on the immature stages of these genera, it seemed well to describe my material, even at the risk of increasing synonomy.
Hydatina amplustre, Linne.
Pilsbry, loc. cit., p. 390, pl. xliv., figs. 1-6. An immature specimen from the lagoon beach.page 486
So conspicuous a shell is readily observed; Pilsbry quotes Pacific records embracing most archipelagoes between Queensland and Hawaii.
Hydatina physis, Linne.
Pilsbry, loc. cit., p. 387, pl. xlv., figs. 14, 15, 16, 17.
Mr. G. Sweet found a young shell of this world wide species.
Ringicula parvula, sp. nov.
Shell very small, broad, solid, milk-white and glossy. Whorls rounded, chanelled at the suture; incised by half a dozen sharp narrow grooves at and below the periphery. The mouth armature consists of a large blunt tooth in the middle of the outer lip, an elevated and much compressed one on the body whorl and two others, distant, rounded and oblique on the columella. Length 1•6, breadth 1 mm.
Differs in dentition and contour from R. mariei, Morelet, and R. acuta v. minuta, H. Adams, and in its minute size from all others of the genus.
One specimen from the lagoon beach.
Elysia nigropunctata, Pease, var. Sanguinea, var. nov.
This variety differs from the type figured by Pease or Bergh* by being smaller by one third, and having the tentacles and mantle border coloured a vivid crimson.
One specimen was collected at low water on the extreme outer edge of the windward reef.
Perhaps E. marginatus, Pease, is but another colour variety of the same species.
* * Pease—Am. Journ. Conch., vi., 1871, p. 304, pl. xxii., fig. 2 a, b, c, d.; Bergh—Journ. Mus. Godeffroy, i., 1873, p. 80, pl. ix., fig. 7.
Plecoterma bellum, H. & A. Adams.
Sykes, Proc. Malac Soc, i., 1895, p. 242.
In reference to this species, Souverbie pathetically remarks that the wretched work of the Adams permits of no precise identification. Their baneful seed has here produced the usual crop of synonomy. My determination of a shell, once collected on page 487the lagoon beach of Funafuti, rests on a statement by Sykes that P. bellum equals P. souverbiei, Montrouzier, and upon the illustrations of that, which he omitted to quote.*
The range recorded in the Central Pacific is New Caledonia, Loyalty, Taviuni, Fiji, Paumotus, and Gambier.
* * Montrouzier—Journ. de Conch., x., 1862, pl. ix., fig. 12; Gassies— Faune Conch, de la Nouvelle Calédonie, 1863, pl. vi., fig. 23.
Plecotrema mordax, Dohrn.
Langkavel, Donum Bismarckianum, 1871, p. 30, pl. iii., figs. 8 a. b.
Two specimens from the lagoon beach.
This species, known only from Tahiti and the Paumotus, is perhaps equivalent to the earlier but unfigured P. striatum, Philippi.
Melampus fasciatus, Deshayes.
Kuster, Conch. Cab., 2nd ed., i., Auriculacea, 1844, p. 33, pl. v., figs. 9-11.
Of this species, Mr. G. Sweet obtained several shells.
The following records from the Central Pacific are quoted by Tapparone Canefri†: New Guinea, New Ireland, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa, Society, and Ellice. Further instances from the Solomons, Queensland Carolines, Marquesas, and Hawaii, are furnished by this Museum.
† † Tapparone Canefri—Ann. Mus. Gen., xix., 1883, p. 288.
Melampus Luteus, Quoy & Gaimard.
Kuster, loc. cit., p. 29, pl. vi., figs. 1–3.
Extremely abundant at and above high water-mark, among stones and vegetation.
Tapparone Canefri traces this through the following archipelagoes: New Guinea, New Ireland, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, Samoa, Ellice, Gilberts, Society, and Carolines. Crossed‡ reports it from Woodlark Island on the authority of Montrouzier; and Museum material enables me to add the Solomons.
‡ ‡ Crosse—Journ. de Conch,, xlii., 1894, p. 323.
Tornatellina Oblonga, Pease.
Garrett, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1887, p. 187.
Several living specimens were collected at Funafuti under sticks and stones. Mousson did not record this from the Ellice. "Inhabits," says Garrett, "all the groups from the Marquesas and Paumotus to the Viti Islands."
Tornatellina Conica, Mousson.
Garrett, loc. cit., p. 187.page 488
Though Græffe found this at Funafuti it escaped my observation. It has the same range as the preceding species, and inhabits the same station.
"Vertigo pediculus, Shuttleworth.
Garrett, loc. cit., p. 188.
This widespread species occurred to me at Funafuti as it also did to Græffe.
* * Stoliczka—Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, xlii, p. 32, pl. iii., fig. 3 a, b.
† † Tapperone Canefri—Ann. Mus. Gen.xx., 1883-4, p. 171, pl. i., figs. 12,13.
Stenogyra gracilis, Hutton.
Hutton, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, iii., 1834, p. 93.
Under the synonym of S. juncea, Gould, this widespread species has already been recorded from Funafuti. Like Græffe I found it in abundance. A recently described Australian species, S. interioris, Tate,‡ seems to me to be synonymous.
‡ ‡ Tate—Horn Explor. Exped., Zool., p. 203, pl. xviii., fig. 14. § Smith—Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, (vi.), xx., 1897, p. 520.
Endodonta modicella, Ferussac.
Pilsbry, Man. Conch, ix., 1894, p. 35.
This widely distributed species is common at Funafuti, where under the name of E. vicaria, it has already been recorded by Mousson. To the synonymy arranged by Pilsbry I would add, as the result of study of authentic specimens, Charopa rotumana, Smith.§
Endodonta decemplicata, Mousson.
Mousson, Journ. de Conch., xxi., 1873, p. 105.
This species was found by Græffe at Nukufetau and Vaitupu, but was not observed by me at Funafuti.
Trochonanina samoensis, Mousson.
Garrett, loc. cit, p. 171; Mousson, loc. cit., p. 104.
I found this common on Funafuti. Græffe took it on Niutao, Vaitupu, Nui, and Nukufetau. Garrett reports it as "common in the Tonga, Cook's, and Samoa Islands, and rare in the Marquesas."
Explanation of Plate XXIII.
Thuiaria divergens, sp. nov.
|Fig. 1||Portion of main stem, with proximal half of a pinna, magnified.|
|Fig. 2||Distal half of pinna, magnified.|
|Fig. 3||Portion of pinna with gonangium, highly magnified.|
Plumularia clavicula, sp. nov.
|Fig. 4||Portion of hydrocladium, magnified; front view.|
|Fig. 5||Portion of hydrocladium, magnified; lateral view.|
|Fig. 6||Distal portion of a corbula, showing the origin of the costa from the mesial sarcotheca.|
Reproduced from drawings made by Thomas Whitelegge., Junr.page break
Explanation Of Plate XXIV.
Zoanthus funafutiensis, sp. nov.
|Fig.2.||Portion of colony. Natural size.|
Gemmaria, willeyi, sp. nov.
|Fig.1.||Portion of colony. Natural size.|
Reproduced from drawings made by Mr. Edgar R. Waite.page break
Explanation of Plate XXV.
Zoanthus funafutiensis, sp. no v.
|Fig.1.||Transverse section through body-wall, x 190.|
|Fig.2.||Transverse section through oesophageal region.|
Lithographed from drawings made by Mr. J. P. Hill.
Beference Letters.—c. Cuticle, ect. Ectoderm, ect. c. Ectodermal canal, ect. m. Ectodermal muscle cell. ent. Ectoderm, gr. Sulcar groove. incr. Incrustation. I. Lacuna, m. Mesogtœa. m. c. Mesenteric canal, m. s. Mesogloeal sphincter, n. Nematocyst. oss. (Esophagus, p. m. Peripheral mesoglcea. pb. m. Parieto-basilar muscle, s. d. Sulcar directives, si. d. Sulcular directives, z. Zooxanthella.page break
Explanation of Plate XXVI.
Gemmaria willeyi, sp. nov.
|Fig.1.||Transverse section through body-wall, x 100.|
|Fig.2.||Vertical section through disc. X 220.|
Lithographed from drawings made by Mr. J. P. Hill.
Reference Letters.—c. Cuticle, ect. Ectoderm, ect. c. Ectodermal canal, ect. m. Ectodermal muscle cell. ent. Entoderm, gr. Sulcar groove. incr. Incrustation. I. Lacuna, m. Mesogloea. m. c. Mesenteric canal, m. s. Mesogloaal sphincter, n. Nematocyst. ass. (Esophagus, p. m. Peripheral mesogloea. pb. m. Parieto-basilar muscle, s. d. Sulcar directives, si. d. Sulcular directives, z. Zooxanthella.page break
Explanation" of Plate XXVII.
Gemmaria willeyi, sp. nov.
|Fig.1.||Vertical section, x 28.|
|Fig.2.||Transverse section through œsophageal region, x 23.|
Lithographed from drawings made by Mr. J. P. Hill.
Reference Letters.—c. Cuticle, ect. Ectoderm, ect. c. Ectodermal canal, ect. m. Ectodermal muscle cell. ent. Entoderm, gr. Sulcar groove. incr. Incrustation. l. Lacuna, m. Mesoglœa. m. c. Mesenteric canal. m. s. Mesoglœal sphincter, n. Nematocyst. œs. Œsophagus, p. m. Peripheral mesoglœa. pb m. Parieto-basilar muscle, s. d. Sulcar directives. sl. d. Sulcular directives, z. Zooxanthella.page break