The Atoll of Funafuti, Ellice group : its zoology, botany, ethnology and general structure based on collections made by Charles Hedley of the Australian Museum, Sydney, N.S.W.
By the extreme courtesy of Surgeon F. W. Collingwood, R.N. of H.M.S. " Penguin," whose observations enriched some of my earlier pages I am enabled to incorporate in this article a series of measurements of adult males. The plan of the measurements is that recommended by Dr. John Beddoe, F.R.S., in the "Notes and Queries on Anthropology for the use of Travellers and Residents in Uncivilised Lands," 1874, which were drawn up by a committee appointed by the British Association for the Advance-ment of Science. I need hardly point out that the fact of these measurements having been taken by an experienced medical officer much enhances their value.
The subject A was a native of Funafuti, aged 26, no wisdom teeth, dentition otherwise perfect; B, a native of Funafuti, aged 28, nose straight, slightly flat, lobe of the ear rudimentary, all page 234wisdom teeth cut, decayed dentition, right upper central incisor, right lower first molar slight, left upper central incisor, first, second and third molar, and left lower, second, molar; C, a native of Funafuti, aged 20; D, a native of Funafuti, aged 18, afflicted with quinodarus in the left foot, the left leg having a maximum calf circumference of only 29. cm., wisdom teeth present, dentition perfect; E, a native of Funafuti, aged 50; F, a native of Funa-futi, aged 24, intelligent, benevolent face, lobe of ear slight, wisdom teeth none, dentition perfect; G, a native of Funafuti, aged 28, no wisdom teeth, dentition perfect; H, a native of the neighbouring atoll of Vaitupu, aged 30, lobe of ear slight, teeth perfect, wisdom teeth all cut; I, a native of Nui, aged 24; J, a half-caste, mother a native of Funafuti, aged 20-21 years, angular chin, no marked lobe of ear, imperfect teeth, left lower, second and third molars.
Though the women predominated over the men almost in the proportion of three to two, it was not found possible to subject them to measurement.
Dr. Collingwood further notes that the islanders are a fine race of people, of good stature, long armed, with intelligent faces and good manners. The colour of the skin varies somewhat, of a dark fawn colour, the noses are somewhat flattened and broad, and they have moderately thick lips. The half-castes surpass, in many cases, the pure natives in strength, appearance, and their capability of fishing and other native employments. The women allow their hair, which is very black, luxuriant, wavy and some-times distinctly curly, to grow fairly long. In one family of a mother and three children the hair was distinctly reddish-brown.
Of the series of coloured casts of faces of the South Sea Islanders published by Dr. Finsch of Bremen, one, No. 48, of an Ellice Islander does not strike me as a typical specimen. The colour seems to me too light and the forehead too sloping to be characteristic.
The long arms noticed by Lister * on Fakaafu equally characterise the natives of Funafuti. Wilkes calls attention to a singular attitude, which he illustrates, affected by a Funafuti native, who rested the sole of one foot on the knee of the opposite leg. How natural a posture this is can scarcely be appreciated by a wearer of boots and trousers. Collins and Lumholtz †have drawn Aus-tralian Aborigines in this position, and Lesueur‡ a Tasmanian. Mr. Hardy has photographed men at Simbo and at Samarai resting in this posture.
The following measurements are in centimetres.page 235
|Height from ground of vertex||160·3||172·2||167·9||163·8||158·5||171·8||175||165·8||166·5||169|
|Height from ground of meatus auditorius (opening of ear)||146·2||158||145·5||151·25||153·6||157|
|Height from ground of chin||137·3||149||146·6||142·2||138·1||148||142||142||146·5|
|Height from ground of top of sternum (breast bone)||131||143||137′6||137·1||129·4||141·6||145·8||1346||137·5||134·4|
|Height from ground of umbilicus||935||106·6||95·7||95·6||105||1046||98·3||100·4||101|
|Height from ground of upper part of trochanter (i.e. of point where upper end of thigh bone felt prominent under skin)||81·5||85·2||91||85||91·9||99·2||87||85|
|Height from ground of articulation of knee||48·2||491||47||527||56·3||47·2||49·3||49·3|
|Height from ground of point of acromion (i.e. anterior point of shoulder, felt by carrying finger along collar bone to its outer extremity)||143·1||134·7||129·2||143||147·3||137·25||138||141|
|Height from ground of elbow||951||104·5||102·2||98·1||101||10 fl||101||104·2||105·5|
|Height from ground of point of midfinger (hanging vertically)||54||61·6||59·5||55·3||53||628||62·6||62·3||55·4||61·3|
|Height when sitting on the ground||91·2||87·3||83·2||77·5||85·2||88·1||89·1||83||88·8|
|The breadth of shoulders (i.e. between the acromia)||40||38||365||41·5||40||40·8||34||42|
|The breadth of haunches||25||27|
|Circumference of chest at arm-pit||91||98·5||91||89·2||96||95||97·8||96||85||98|
|Circumference of chest at mamma||92||99||91||92||97||95·8||99·5||98||84·6||98·2|
|Circumference of haunches||85·2||90||74|
|Circumference of trochanters||86·2|
|Circumference of neck||36||36||35·8||34·5||38||37||31||36|
|Circumference of waist||74||87||79·5||75·5||82·6||83·8||71||75|
|Circumference of calf, maximum||38||366||32·5||34·2||37||36|
|Circumference of arm, maximum||33||27·3||29·5||32||33||23||30·5|
|Circumference of forearm, maximum||30·2||27·5||29||28 5||31||25||28·8page 236|
|Span of outstretched arms||173||184.5||173.5||178||162||183||184.5||169.5||181||179|
|Span of thumb and midfmger||18.2||18||17.5||18.5||17|
|Span of thumb and midfmger||22||22.6||sp 19.2||sp 21|
|Length of thumb, from second joint to tip||3.5||3.0||3.6||3.3||3.4||3.4||3.5||3.5|
|Length of foot||25||27||25.5||27.5||25.5||25|
|Greatest circumference of head from the glabella …||56 5||56||57.4||57.7||54||57.3||58||57||53.8||55.5|
|Arc from notch at root of nose to inion||34.8||35||36||37.2||32||34.9||34.8||36.4||33.2||34|
|Arc from tragus to tragus over top of head||36.5||38||38||37||36||38||37||38||36.5||36|
|Arc from tragus to tragus over superciliary ridges and glabella||31.3||31.8||30||29||29|
|Greatest length from glabella backwards||193||179||18.7||19.5||18||18.6||19.4||191||18||18.2|
|Greatest length from smooth spot immediately above||18.5||19.4||19||18||18.1|
|Length from glabella to inion||1945||18.1||18.2||19.4||17.2||18.5||19.4||18.85||17.5||182|
|Greatest breadth of head…||14.6||16.2||16||14.4||15||16||15.7||15.5||14.8||15.6|
|Greatest breadth of zygomata||13.6||14.2||14.4||13.8||13||14.6||14 25||14.1||137||13.7|
|Breadth from tragus to tragus…||13.2||13.2||13.7||13.2||13.5||13.6||13.6||13.3||13||13.9|
|Least frontal breadth||12.2||12.7||12.3||11.8||12||12.7||12.3||12||11.8||12.6|
|Length of face, root of nose to lower of chin…||11.2||12.2||11.05||11.3||12||10.4||11.35||12.2||12||11.3 24.5|
|Greatest length of head from chin up and backwards||25.4||25||25.4||25.9||25||25.5||25.2||25.5||25|
|Height of head from meatus auditorious to vertex …||13.7||14.4||146||14.7||14||14.5||14.8||14.45||14.2||13.8|
|Distance from tragus to junction of nose and upper lip in middle line||12.2||12.2||12.2||12.4||12.2||12.2||12.4||11.6||12.4||12|
|Distance from tragus to smooth spot immediately above glabella …||12.4||12.2||129||12.9||125||13||14||12.5||12.3||12.75|
|Distance from said sp«t to junction of nose aud lip …||8||7.8||8.1 1||8.6||6||7.8||8||7.9||8.05||7.8|
|Breadth of nose||4.6||4. i||4.0 1||4.0||4.4||4.4||3.7|
|Breadth of lins conjoined||i.5||2||2||2||1.9|
* Lister—Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xxi., 1892, p. 46.
† Collins—English Colony in New South. "Wales, 1804, pi. xvi.; Lum-holtz—Among Cannibals, 1890, p. 77.
‡ Lesueur—Voyage aux Terres Australes, 1804, Atlas, pi. xv.