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England and the Maori Wars



page 411

The main purpose of this volume being to examine British policy towards New Zealand in the light of the original documents, the chief source to be mentioned is naturally the Original Correspondence of the Secretaries of State for the Colonies, 1854–72, in the Public Record Office, London. This has the series number C.O. 209, and reference to the different volumes is given in the text. The Journals of the Deputy Quartermaster-General, Lt.-Col. D. J. Gamble, 1861–5, are in W.O. 33/16.

The next most important source, for information about public opinion in England and (through correspondents) New Zealand, is The Times newspaper for the period, 1854–72. The files and index in the British Museum Newspaper Repository at Colindale London, N.W., are very conveniently arranged. The dates of all quotations made are included in the text to avoid adding to the number of footnotes.

For direct evidence of local feeling the writer inspected the file of the Taranaki Herald in the Public Library, New Plymouth, during a visit to New Zealand in 1934. Another source used on the same occasion, thanks to the courtesy of Dr. Hight, was the manuscript journal of Henry Sewell, housed at Canterbury University College. A thesis by W.F. Monk on this journal and others by Marjorie E. S. Black on the Poverty Bay Massacre, by S. B. Babbage on Hauhauism, by E. A. Nissen on The Life and Times of Wiremu Kingi, and by Marion Graham on The Maori Population of Taranaki were also read.

The Report of the Royal Commission on “Confiscated Native Lands and Other Grievances” is printed in New Zealand Parliamentary Papers, 1928, G—7.


Hocken's Bibliography of New Zealand Literature (1909), with the supplement by A. H. Johnstone (1927), is the principal general bibliography of New Zealand.

The bibliography of the New Zealand volume of the Cambridge History of the British Empire (1933), largely prepared by Dr. F. G. Spurdle, is the best recent bibliography of historical works, and it has been used by the writer of this volume for guidance both in reading the printed works on the subject and in the preparation of this list of works relevant to the study of the Maori Wars.

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General Histories

Beaglehole, J. C.New Zealand: A Short History. 1936.

Benians, E. A., and Newton, A. P. (editors). The Cambridge History of the British Empire. Vol. VII, Part II. 1933.

Condliffe, J. B.New Zealand in the Making. 1930.

Condliffe, J. B., and Airey, W. T. G. Short History of New Zealand. 1935.

Egerton, H. E.British Colonial Policy. 1920.

Hight, J., and Bamford, H. D. Constitutional History of New Zealand. 1914.

Reeves, W. P.The Long White Cloud. 1924.

Rusden, G. W.History of New Zealand. 1883.

Saunders, A.History of New Zealand. 1896–9.

Scholefield, G. H.New Zealand in Evolution. 1909.

Shrimption, A. W., and Mulgan, A. E. Maori and Pakeha. 1930.

Trevelyan, G. M.British History in the Nineteenth Century. 1922.


Blachford, Lord, Letters of. Edited by G. E. Marindin. 1896.

Carleton, H.The Life of Henry Williams. 1874–7.

Childe-Pemberton, W. S.Life of Lord Norton (C. B. Adderley). 1909.

Collier, J.Sir George Grey. 1909.

Cowan, J.Maori Biographies. 1901.

Creighton, L.G. A. Selwyn. 1922.

Curteis, G. H.Bishop Selwyn. 1889.

Davis, C. O.The Life and Times of Patuone. 1876.

Fitzmaurice, Lord Edmond.Life of Earl Granville. 1905.

Gisborne, W.New Zealand Rulers and Statesmen, 1897.

Grace, Rev. T. S.A Pioneer Missionary among the Maoris, 1850–79. Ed. S. J. Brittain. (n.d.)

Gudgeon, T. W.The Defenders of New Zealand. 1887.

Harding, A. W.Life of H. H. M. Herbert, Fourth Earl of Carnarvon. 1925.

Henderson, G. C.Sir George Grey. 1907.

Lovat, Alice, Lady.The Life of Sir Frederick Weld. 1914.

Martineau, John.Life of Henry Pelham, Fifth Duke of Newcastle. 1908.

Mennell, P.Dictionary of Australasian Biography, 1855–92. 1892.

Porter, Lieut.-Col.Major Ropata Waha Waha. 1897.

Purchas, H. T.The Great Bishop of New Zealand (Selwyn). 1907.

Rees, W. L. and L.The Life and Times of Sir George Grey. 1892.

Selwyn, J. R.Personal Recollections of Bishop G. A. Selwyn. 1894.

Tucker, H. W.Memoir of the Life and Episcopate of George Augustus Selwyn. 1879.

Other Secondary Authorities

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(a) Contemporary

Alexander, Sir J. E.Incidents of the Maori War. 1863.

Bowen, G. F.Thirty Years of Colonial Government. 1888–9.

Broome, F.N. “The Crisis in New Zealand,” Macmillan's Magazine, September 1869.

Browne, E. H.The Case of the War in New Zealand. 1860.

Browne, Col. G. Hamilton.With the Lost Legion in New Zealand. 1912.

Buddle, T.The Maori King Movement. 1860.

Buller, J.The Maori War. 1869.

Cairnes, J. E.Colonization and Colonial Government. 1865.

Carey, G. J.Narrative of the Late War in New Zealand. 1863.

Carrington, F. A.The Land Question in Taranaki. 1860.

Churchill, Lord A. S.The New Zealand Difficulty, Its Cause and Remedy. 1865.

Church Missionary Society, History of. (Eugene Stock, editor.) 1899.

Church Missionary Society.Memorial … on New Zealand Affairs. 1861. Further Remarks on New Zealand Affairs. 1861.

Chute, Major-General T.A Campaign on the West Coast of New Zealand. 1866.

Colenso, W.Fiat Justitia. 1871.

Denison, Sir W.Varieties of Vice-regal Life. 1870.

Dilke, Sir Charles.Greater Britain. 1868.

Featon, J. (“Comus”).The Last of the Waikatos. 1873. The Waikato War, 1863–4. 1866. Revised by Gilbert Mair. 1923.

Firth, J. C.Conference with Tamati Ngapora and the King Natives. 1869. Nation Making. 1890.

Fitzgerald, J. E.Letters on the Present State of New Zealand Affairs. 1865. The Self-Reliant Policy in New Zealand. 1870.

Foljambe, C. G. S.Three Years on the Australian Station. 1868.

Fox, W.The War in New Zealand. 1860. The War in New Zealand. 1866. Revolt in New Zealand. A series of letters to his brother, the Rev. G. T. Fox. February to August 1864 (McNab Library).

Gilbert, T.New Zealand Settlers and Soldiers. 1861.

Gisborne, W.The Colony of New Zealand. 1888 and 1891.

Gorst, J. E.The Maori King. 1864.

Gorton, E.Some Home Truths re the Maori War, 1863 to 1869. 1901.

Grace, M. S.A Sketch of the New Zealand War. 1899.

Grayling, W. I.The War in Taranaki during the Years 1860–1. 1862.

Gudgeon, T. W.Reminiscences of the War in New Zealand. 1879. The Defenders of New Zealand. 1887.

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Hadfield, Archdeacon O.Recent Outbreak at Taranaki. 1860. One of England's Little Wars. 1860. The New Zealand War. 1861.

Hawthorne, J.A Dark Chapter from New Zealand History. 1869. (By a survivor of the Poverty Bay massacre.)

Hiteri Te Paerata.Description of the Battle of Orakau. 1888. (Interpreted by Captain Gilbert Mair.)

Hursthouse, C.F.Letters on New Zealand Subjects. 1865.

Johnstone, J. C.The Maoris and the Causes of the Present Anarchy in New Zealand. 1861.

Kerry-Nicholls, J. H.The King Country. 1884.

Martin, Sir W.The Taranaki Question. 1860. J. Busby published Remarks upon this pamphlet, 1860. C. W. Richmond published Notes on the pamphlet, 1861.

Martin, Lady.Our Maoris. 1884.

McDonnell, Col. T.An Explanation of the Principal Causes which led to the Present War on the West Coast of New Zealand. 1869.

Meade, Lieut. H.A Ride through the Disturbed Districts of New Zealand. 1870.

Partridge, C.Calumny Refuted, the Colonists Vindicated. 1864.

Pasley, Captain C., R.E.Sketch of the War in New Zealand, 1860–1. 1862. Very interesting account of Maori methods of warfare.

Pratt, W. T.Colonial Experiences. By an old Colonist. 1877.

Reischek, A.Yesterdays in Maoriland. 1930.

Richmond, Hon. J. C.Reminiscences of a Minister of Native Affairs in New Zealand. 1888.

Seffern, W. H. J.Chronicles of the Garden of New Zealand. 1896. A history of the Taranaki War based largely on diaries.

Sewell, H.The New Zealand Native Rebellion. 1864. The Case of New Zealand and our Colonial Policy. 1869.

Smith, Goldwin.The Empire. 1863.

Swainson, W.New Zealand and its Colonization. 1859. New Zealand and the War. 1862.

Taylor, R.Wanganui, its Past, Present, and Future. 1867. The Past and Present of New Zealand. 1868.

Thomson, A. S.The Story of New Zealand. 1859.

Torlesse, C.O. (“Suaviter-Fortiter”). The New Zealand War. Articles in the Lyttelton Times, 1860, by a nephew of E. G. Wakefield.

Vogel, J.Speech on Mr. Weld's Resolutions. 1864.

Wakefield, E. J.What Will They Do in the General Assembly? 1863.

Ward, C.Letter to Lord Lyttelton. 1863.

Ward, R.Lectures from New Zealand. 1862. Life among the Maoris of New Zealand. 1872.

Warre, H. J.Historical Records of the Fifty-seventh or West Middlesex Regiment of Foot. 1878.

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Warren, Rev. John.The Christian Mission to the Aborigines of New Zealand. 1863.

Watkin, E. W.Canada and the States. 1887.

Weld, F. A.Notes on New Zealand Affairs. 1869.

Wells, B.History of Taranki. 1878.

Whitmore, Sir G. S.The Last Maori War in New Zealand under the Self-Reliant Policy. 1902.

Williams, Right Rev. W.Christianity among the New Zealanders. 1867.

Williams, W. L.East Coast Historical Records. (n.d.)

(b)Later Works

Best, E.The Maori. 1924. The Maori as He Was. 1925.

Bodelsen, C. A.Studies in Mid-Victorian Imperialism. 1924.

Cowan, J.The New Zealand Wars and the Pioneering Period. 1922–3.

De Kiewiet, C. W.British Colonial Policy and the South African Republics. 1929. The Imperial Factor in South Africa. 1937.

Egerton, H. G.Historical Geography of the British Dominions: Canada. 1908. British Colonial Policy. 1920.

Firth, R.Primitive Economics of the New Zealand Maori. 1929.

Folsom, A.The Royal Empire Society: Formative Years. 1933.

Fortescue, J. W.History of the British Army. Vol. XIII. 1930.

Gorst, Sir J. E.New Zealand Revisited. 1908.

Hall, H. L.Australia and England. 1934.

Hall, H. L.The Colonial Office: A History. 1937. This book covers the period 1830–1885, and is of great value for students of Imperial history.

Harrop, A. J.England and New Zealand (From Tasman to the Taranaki War). 1926.

Keesing, F. M.The Changing Maori. 1928.

Keith, A. B.Imperial Unity and the Dominions. 1916. Responsible Government in the Dominions. 1912.

Knaplund, Paul.Gladstone and Britain's Imperial Policy. 1927.

Mcdonald, R. A.Te Hekenga. 1931.

Morrell, W. P.The Provincial System in New Zealand. 1932. British Colonial Policy in the Age of Peel and Russell. 1930. New Zealand. 1935.

Reed, A. H.More Maoriland Adventures of J. W. Stack. 1936.

Stacey, C. P.Canada and the British Army, 1846–71. 1936.

Sutherland, I. L. G.The Maori Situation. 1935.

Wilson, J. G.Early Rangitikei. 1914.

Woon, J. G.Wanganui Old Settlers. 1902.

The Story of Gate Pa, contemporary accounts edited by W. H, Gifford, was reviewed in The New Zealand Herald, August 21 1937. A biography of Charles Brown, the friend of Keats, by the late H. E. M. Fildes, will contain contemporary accounts of the Taranaki War.