The New Zealand Railways Magazine, Volume 14, Issue 7 (October 2, 1939)
Our Women's Section
For babies’ and children's clothes, and for the housewife's morning frocks and overalls, no form of needlecraft is simpler or more attractive than smocking. Any type of simple garment which requires gathered fullness lends itself to smocking. So we find children's full skirts smocked on to a fitting yoke or at the waistline to give a belted effect. Full sleeves may be smocked to hold them in above the elbow or at the wrist. Some small girls’ frocks are smocked at the round neck-line after the style of peasant blouses.” Little boy” smocks, and matching pants which show below them, are charming. Heavy tussore is a splendid fabric for this type of garment.
Mother may have her morning overall or her daintiest blouse smocked on to a shaped yoke; or the yoke itself may be of smocking. A youthful printed cotton may have a corselet effect at the waist with several inches of smocking. Smocking adds charm to “very best” undies. A dainty sprigged silk or voile may have a smocked waist and yoke.
One great advantage of smocking is that it will give, almost like elastic. For growing children this is a speciallyneeded quality.
Smocking is always worked before the garment is made up. A suitable transfer, consisting of dots at the required intervals (1/4-inch between dots for silks, muslins, fine linens; 3/8-inch between dots for woollens and velvets; 1/2-inch between dots for very heavy materials) is ironed on to the wrong side of the material. A contrast tacking thread is run along each row, on the wrong side, picking up each dot with the needle. (See Fig. 1). In doing this preliminary work (which will be removed when the smocking is finished) be sure to start your running thread with a double stitch as well as a knotAt the end of each row, wind spare thread in a figure-of-eight round a pin until you are ready to draw up the fullness to the required length (about onethird of the “flat” length). Then fasten securely. Care taken in this preliminary work will ensure successful smocking.
The right side of the gathered material presents a series of pleats, on which the smocking stitches are worked from left to right.
Outline Stitch.—This is the commonest smocking stitch, and the one usually used for the top row to hold the gathers firm. In this stitch the needle, pointing from right to left, takes up the top of each pleat in turn. Progress is from left to right. The thread is kept below the needle (Fig. 2). Take care to keep each stitch exactly on top of the gathering stitch.
Double Outline Stitch.—Work two rows of outline stitch closely together, in the top row holding the embroidery thread above the needle, in the bottom row below it.
Vandyke Stitch.—This stitch is particularly useful as it is more elastic than either outline or cable stitch. The various forms of vandykes are worked with outline stitch. In the simplest, the first stitch takes up the first pleat just on top of a gathering thread, the second stitch takes up the second pleat a little above the gathering thread, the third stitch takes the third pleat a little above again, and the fourth stitch is worked directly on the line of gathers above. Three stitches are then worked down in descending order, then three up, and so on. In working up, page 58 the thread is held below the needle, and in working down the thread is held above the needle. (See Fig. 3).
Single Cable Stitch is a variation of outline stitch, the thread being held below the needle for the first stitch, above it for the second, below it for the third, and so on. (Fig. 4).
Double Cable Stitch consists of two rows of single cable worked closely together. In the second row the thread is held above the needle for the first stitch, below for second, etc. (alternate to top row).
Spring in the House.
Walls and Ceilings.—You may have just moved into a house or flat where woodwork and wallpapers are at the half-way stage to shabbiness or where the last tenant's colour-scheme makes you feel slightly bilious. Or perhaps you merely want to re-do the livingroom, now that dirty coal-fires are nearly finished with for the season.
In any case, stand and look with a dispassionate eye at the room you wish to make over. What is wrong with it? Smallness, low ceiling, drabness, poor outlook? Mentally list its bad points and then run through the following cures:—
Light tints—cream, light yellow or light buff—will make a small room seem larger. Paint the picture-rail and the skirting-board the same colour as the wall surface in order to extend the apparent area of that surface. Don't forget the size-increasing value of mirrors.
If the ceiling is low, carry the wall colour over the cornice. Have the ceiling the same colour as the walls, but in a lighter shade. Where the ceiling is too high, as in some old houses, bring the ceiling colour down to the picturerail. White is not the best colour for a ceiling. It needs a slight tinge of pink, buff or brown.
Aspect is very important. A sunny room can have soft greys, greens or blues included in its colour scheme, but these cool tones must be avoided in a room facing south. The south room must have artificial sunlight introduced in the shade range of cream, yellow, buff, tan. A tinge of pink in any of these colourings is an advantage.
The room with a poor outlook (e.g., on to a wall a few feet distant) is to be treated as a south room. All possible light must be permitted to enter, but the “view” must not be drawn attention to. Transparent glass curtains in a “sunshine” tone hide what is without, but give the effect of letting in the outdoors.
For the small house, it is well to relate the wall-papers. Decide on a foundation shade, e.g., buff, and select pinky-buff, yellowy-buff, tawny-buff, as required for the various rooms.
Glass Curtains deserve a paragraph to themselves. These transparent curtains, fixed to cover the glass entirely, have the advantage of obscuring the interior of the room from passers-by, while admitting full daylight with the glare slightly softened.
Fine nets and curtain ninons can be fashioned in many charming styles. For the kitchen, the curtains may be simply gathered on wire at top and bottom. For bedrooms and living-rooms the degree of elaboration is limited only by the general style of furnishing. A dainty room responds to cross-over looped curtains, to frilled edges or to parallel lines of frills. A dignified room with tall sash windows acquires a Regency air when the glass curtains have widely-spaced, lengthwise rows of gathers, forming looped divisions.
Drapes must be planned to suit the type of house as well as the type of room. The large, old house demands the dignity of heavy, luxurious fabrics. Glowing velvets will flatter it, whereas they may seem hot and stuffy in a bungalow. Printed linens and chintzes suit simple rooms. A richer tone is given by silky weaves. In a dark room, the drapes must not obscure any of the window space.
Pelmets, again, are simple or elaborate according to the type of room.
Remember that curtains and cushions give the chief colour notes to the home.
If you are adding any new pieces, give special care to their choice, so that they will blend with the surroundings.
Remember that the low-ceilinged room gains height when it is furnished with low furniture, of the type which is so popular nowadays. Even bookshelves should not be more than a foot above table height.
The dignified house does not want chromium and glass effects. Old pieces and good modern reproductions should be your choice.
If re-upholstering, study walls, floorcovering and curtains before deciding on a purchase. Type of material—cottage weave, chintz, moquette, velvet, tapestry, damask—will depend on the style of room. A noticeable pattern in upholstery is desirable only when carpets and walls are plain. In the “cottage” room, short chintz side curtains and matching covers are charming.
Notwithstanding the pains taken to improve its appearance, the skin is one of the most neglected organs, especially the exposed portions of it.
The skin not only affords the body mechanical protection and service as a heat regulator, but it is one of the most important means of defence against germs and germ poisons.
A skin which has daily contact with cold air or cold water, and is well page 59 groomed, is a wonderful protector. Such a skin will serve one well in case of an attack of an infectious disease.
Frequent bathing, therefore, is of supreme importance from a health standpoint and every child, when very young, should be accustomed to the bathing habit.
As the body needs six simple kinds of material, great care should be taken to ensure that meals are properly balanced with proteins, carbohydrates, fats, mineral salts, vitamins and roughage.
Proteins supply the body with nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus which, with hydrogen, oxygen and carbon, form the chief elements which comprise the vital structures of the body. Carbohydrates provide the energy for daily action and a deficiency of carbohydrates will soon produce acidosis. Fats are a wholesome and useful constituent of the diet.
Mineral salts are included in the material required—obtainable from milk, whole cereals, vegetables and fruits.
Vitamins.—We have heard in recent times much about vitamins—A, B, C, etc., and are aware of the part they play in the drama of life.
Roughage.—This is also an important constituent. It gives bulk to what might otherwise be an over-refined diet.
Unless the body has a sufficient supply of the above foods, we are undermining our health.
The maintenance of health is vitally important alike to the nation and to the individual.
Boredom brings on neurosis, and there is usually nothing wrong with a person who has a tendency in this direction. “Snap out of it,” enjoy life and not succumb to imaginary ills, is good advice to a neurotic person.
Green Vegetables.—Boil quickly with the lid off the saucepan. Strain well directly they are soft, and serve at once. Salt should not be added until vegetables are nearly tender. Many vegetables—peas, cabbage, etc.—are improved in flavour by adding a little sugar. Do not over-cook vegetables.
Root Vegetables.—Put into fast boiling water to about half cover. Cook gently with lid on saucepan. Add salt when nearly cooked. Strain directly they are tender. Add a little dripping or butter. Serve at once.
To steam: Place prepared vegetables in colander or steamer over a saucepan of boiling water. Keep the water boiling and the vegetables covered.
Horticulturally, September/October are very important months. All kinds of vegetable seeds have to be sown, and when the seedlings make their appearance, we do our best to cultivate them despite the wishes of the birds, who seem to think that we spend our time in the garden merely for recreation! Rows of black cotton over the seeds appear to bewilder the birds, and we are always hopeful that they will never discover that it is only cotton between them and their banquet.
Home-grown vegetables are a delight in the kitchen. Even the smallest pockethandkerchief garden can produce lettuce and radish for the family. A nice crisp lettuce straight from the garden is a great prize, and it is a fascinating hobby to watch them grow. We think, of course, that our vegetables should have “Jack and the Beanstalk” tendency, but with patience and care good results can be achieved.
Dressing, eggs (hard boiled) 2 or 3, mustard, pickle, small tin salmon.
Cut eggs in half and remove yolks. Mix together yolks, fish, pickle, salt and pepper in the dressing. Put this mixture into the halved whites of eggs. Serve each half egg on lettuce leaf, with a teaspoonful of dressing on top.
Bananas, 3 or 4, dressing, lettuce leaves, nuts. Place lettuce on serving dish. Slice bananas into dressing, and place on top of lettuce. Sprinkle with chopped nuts.
I teacup breadcrumbs, chopped bacon —I tablespoon—onion, marrow—I lb., salt and pepper, short pastry—1/2 lb., tomatoes, 2 or 3.
Fill piedish with alternate layers of sliced vegetables, breadcrumbs and bacon. Season well. Add one tablespoon water. Cover with pastry. Bake half to three-quarters of an hour.