The New Zealand Railways Magazine, Volume 8, Issue 9 (January 1, 1934)
Our Women's Section — Timely Notes and Useful Hints
Warm Weather Wear.
Do you remember the days when one avoided sun-burn like the plague—wore wide-brimmed hats and veils, and long gloves and skirts? A picnic was a battle on behalf of the complexion. If you are a young thing, and don't remember the days “before the War,” you may not realize what a wonderful thing for humanity is the revival of “sun-worship.” In our playing-fields, and on our beaches, among our alpine sports enthusiasts and our yachtsmen, everywhere the love of the open air is being fostered. “Hiking” is a recognized pastime. The “fresh air and sunlight” cure is being applied to the civilized world with remarkable results. Even our ideal of beauty is changing. The Victorian “toast” would not queen it to-day. Her fragile beauty, her delicate complexion, her simperings and airs and graces would be out of place in modern life. To be attractive to-day, she would have to become a devotee of the open air, to expose her limbs and back as well as her “milk and roses” skin to the sunshine, to drink in health and well-being and show it in increased activity and vivacity. She would have to exercise her muscles in all manner of sports, and her intellect in contact with all manner of people. In fact, she would find that the all-round girl of to-day is a better developed specimen, physically and mentally, than she herself.
We've all been warned about overdoing it often enough. If we only realized it, people in health need to tackle sun-bathing in the same way as patients in sanatoria, and children in Health Camps. On the first day, five minutes for the back and five minutes for the front is ample. Gradually extend the period by a few minutes a day to about forty-five minutes, of course taking into account the time of day and the type of weather, curtailing your “bath” on scorching days, and extending it on cool ones. Always remember, however, to keep the nape of the neck protected from the sun's rays. A gradual tanning will eliminate the need for protective oils and unguents, and will prevent the scorching of the second skin, which shows so painfully on many of our beaches.
Even if you had only a short holiday at Christmas, I hope you did not try to cram all your tanning into that period. A sheltered corner of the garden, or a sunny porch at home lends itself to sunbathing; so the acquisition of health can be carried on both before and after the Christmas break.
I expect every girl this year has her shirt and shorts. They are cheap to buy or easy to make, and quick to launder. They lend themselves to informal open-air page 58 occasions. As to appearance, the young and athletic girl usually looks well in shorts, while we others can comfort ourselves by observing other wearers who, we are sure, “look far worse than we do.” Thank goodness we are past the days when appearance was the only thing that counted. We can all look smart in our airy swim suits, and the lucky few with the really good figures can swank in slacks. And isn't it nice to think that back in town after the Christmas vacation we needn't go to the bother of wearing stockings again. A sun-browned leg and a dainty sandal shoe is one of fashion's present foibles. But remember that it is only the sandal type of shoe which looks really well with bare legs.
Our cotton or silk holiday frocks which we wore for the beach or tennis, are useful afterwards, even in the city, with the addition of a smart coat of, say, assam silk. Most coats are on tailored lines, belted or unbelted. A smart length is about ten inches from the ground.
Of mid-summer dress materials, checks, spots, stripes in any and all directions, sprigs and floral sprays, are popular. Important colours are white, black and white, blue in various shades (specially smart for suits), yellow and a soft pale pink, showing in such materials as organdie, voile, silks, crinkle crepes, satins. Two piece ensembles are very popular. The coat is usually of a plain material to tone with the ground colour in the frock. Capelets or coatees are also worn the former being specially useful with frocks which would crush under a coat. Sleeves are still featured. Organdie or muslin frocks have large puffs or frills. Prints and ginghams may have large puffs and collar and bow of organdie. Some of the new sleeves are plain and tight-fitting at the top puffed just above the elbow, and then tight-fitting to the wrist.
Frocks are cut on long slender lines. Skirts are tight-fitting to the knees, and then flared to the hem.
White outfits, so popular this year, often have touches of black, perhaps in buttons or bow, piping or belt. The accessories carry out the colour scheme—gloves, belts, scarves, shoes. White handbags have touches of colour to match the ensemble. Trim little blouses, many in white, are worn with suits. In some cases, an individual touch is lent by smocking at the neck-line. Gloves are the smartest things in mesh and lace. If you are wearing a “string” jumper, have your pochette and glove gauntlets made of the same macrame twine. Gloves are also seen made of the same material as the suit or ensemble. White and cream washing doe-skin have come to light again after several years of eclipse. They are right for any occasion.
The soft wide-brimmed felts in pastel shades, so much in vogue just now, are flattering to most faces. I have seen one or two smart beige felts worn with tweed suits.
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The Child And Summertime.
During the summer season it is important to plan a change in the children's daily diet. For the time being cut down the mushy foods such as porridge, frequent milk puddings etc., and the meat ration. For the morning meal, substitute crisp cereals, fruit such as prunes, figs or raisins, and crisp toast with honey.
The children's menu should include salads, fresh fruit (raw and cooked) fruit jelly, milk jelly, and junket, vegetables and vegetable soups, fish and eggs. Nuts are also nutritious, but must be well chewed or they may cause indigestion. Give water and fruit drinks between meals—not during a meal. Three simple and regular meals are sufficient for good health, and there should be no “pieces” in between. Sweets and cakes should be avoided as far as possible. From an early age, children should be trained to chew their food thoroughly. The most common cause of indigestion is wrong feeding and imperfectly masticated food. Have meals out of doors when possible.
During the hot weather the clothing should be very light, perhaps only a bathing or sun suit, but a cardigan or woollen pullover must always be available, as the weather is often changeable, especially at the seaside. Wide-brimmed hats must be worn to protect the eyes, and the back of the head and neck. The children's sun-bathing should be supervised. Provide them with a ground sheet to avoid chills if sun-bathing in the open. Sun baths should be taken during the morning or afternoon, avoiding the strong mid-day sun. It is a mistake to try to harden a child by over-exposure to strong sunshine. Rest during the hottest part of the day is also essential for the well-being of the child.
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First Aid For The Camper.
When packing for a seaside or camping holiday it is well to have a few simple page 59 remedies at hand for emergencies. Be prepared for sunburn, sunstroke, insect bites and stings, and accidents such as cuts, burns sprains, etc.
A First-Aid Box should contain:—(1) Small roll cotton wool; (2) Bandages; (3) Packet of sterile gauze, or soft old linen which has been sterilized; (4) Bottle Iodine; (5) Bottle methylated spirits; (6) Pair of scissors; (7) Safety pins; (8) A small enamel basin; (9) Boracic Acid Powder; (10) Bottle Carron Oil; (11) Castor Oil; (12) Milk of Magnesia.
Here are a few first-aid hints which may be helpful if your holiday is to be a success.
Burns and Scalds: Apply oil immediately, and exclude the air. Carron oil should be used, and failing that, Olive Oil. Bi-Carbonate of Soda is also efficacious if the oil is not available.
Cuts and Abrasions: Clean the injured part thoroughly at the earliest opportunity. Use cold boiled water or a lotion made of one tea-spoonful of Boracic powder dissolved in one pint of boiling water. Wash with sterile cotton wool. A wash cloth or sponge would probably infect the wound. Common salt makes a useful antiseptic used in the proportion of one tea-spoonful of salt to one pint of boiling water.
Bleeding can generally be stopped by applying a pad of sterile gauze and cotton wool to the wound and bandaging firmly. If arterial bleeding is excessive, a tourniquet may be tied tightly above the wound. Raise the limb. A tight ligature must never be left on for long, as it may restrict the circulation below the wound, and cause trouble. Firm bandaging to well above the wound is usually effective. For venous bleeding, bandaging firmly below the wound usually suffices.
Bites and Stings: Application of Ammonia. A solution of Bi-carbonate of soda, Methylated Spirit or eau-de-Cologne usually give immediate relief.
Prickly Heat or Heat Rash: This may be caused by sudden exposure to sun or sea-air, or a change of diet. Relieve by applications of Calamine Lotion (which may be obtained from any chemist), or solution of Bi-carbonate of Soda. Small doses of Milk of Magnesia are efficacious.
Sunburn: If severe, treat the same as for burns. The irritation of a scorched skin may be relieved by applications of Olive Oil or a good Cold Cream.
Sunstroke: Quiet and a darkened room are essential. Apply cold water packs to the head. It is advisable to send for the doctor.
Sprains and Strains: A sprained ankle, knee-joint or wrist must be attended to immediately to save trouble later. Apply a cold compress and renew frequently. Alternate cold and hot compresses are also beneficial. Bandage firmly. Rest the affected limb.
Fracture: If a broken bone is suspected, a temporary splint should be applied. Great care should be taken when applying the splint and moving the patient, so as not to jar the affected part. A compound fracture and torn ligaments may result after a simple fracture by careless handling, and ignorance of those rendering first aid. The doctor should be sent for immediately.
Abdominal Pains: Often accompanied with high temperature, due to food poisoning, sudden change in diet, or maybe an attack of appendicitis. Stop all food and give only drinks of boiled water. Doses of Bi-carbonate, of soda may also be given, castor oil or other aperient may be given if it is certain that the trouble is not caused by appendicitis, in which case it is dangerous.
After the elimination of the poison or infection a milk diet should be given. If appendicitis is suspected, the doctor should be called in immediately. In any case, a doctor should be sent for if the pains and fever do not subside within a short time, as delays are often dangerous.
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The Popular Salad.
Dainty salads add variety and interest to the daily menu especially during the hot weather. Salads may be composed of almost any food page 60 combination. Uncooked vegetables and fruit should be used as much as possible, but leftover cooked vegetables and fruit can also be used to make the most delicious salads. Eggs, cold meat and fish combine well with the vegetable salad.
Salads should be cold, crisp, tender and attractively served. Salad plants such as lettuce, young green cabbage, watercress, celery, etc., after being washed thoroughly, should be wrapped in a clean damp cloth and kept in a cool place until needed. Raw carrots, swedes, or turnips should be grated. Green salads should not be prepared until just before they are required. A good salad or mayonnaise dressing is the important finish to a successful salad.
Summer Salad: Lettuce, mustard and cress, watercress, beetroot, tomato, radishes, spring onions or chives, celery, salad dressing.
Method: All or part of the above may be used. Wash and dry the salad. Slice with a stainless knife, or tear lettuce with the fingers. Place the dressing in a salad-bowl, and toss the salad in. Arrange and garnish with sliced tomato, beetroot, egg, etc.
Delicious Salad: Inside leaves of young green cabbage, celery, bananas, apples, onion, carrot, nuts, cheese, boiled salad dressing.
Method: Shred cabbage very, very finely with a stainless knife, and toss into salad bowl. Add sliced bananas, grated onion, apple and carrot. Mix well together. Pour salad dressing over. Garnish with chopped nuts and grated cheese. Dates or raisins may be added. Serve with brown bread and butter.
Salmon and Lettuce Salad: Lettuce, cold cooked or tinned salmon, cucumber, tomato, good salad dressing.
Take some cup-shaped leaves of lettuce, and place in shallow dish. Break salmon into flakes, and place in lettuce leaves. Pour over salad dressing, and garnish with sliced tomato or cucumber.
Cold Vegetable Salad: Scald and peel tomatoes, and let get cold again. Cut in slices, add cold beans, peas, cauliflower, diced potatoes, beetroot, and finely shredded lettuce, any cold fish, or minced ham.
Take large, crisp, cup-shaped lettuce leaves, heap a little of the above in each leaf, pour over salad dressing, and serve with cold meat, chicken, ham, corned beef or hard-boiled eggs.
Boiled Dressing: Half teaspoonful salt, cayenne pepper, ¼ cup of vinegar (or lemon juice), 2 egg yolks (or one whole egg), ¾ cup of milk. 1 teaspoonful mustard, 2 teaspoonsful sugar, 1 teaspoonful flour, 1½ tablespoonsful melted butter or olive oil.
Method: Mix dry ingredients together, and add to the vinegar or lemon juice. Beat the egg slightly, and combine with the above. Place in a double boiler over hot water to cook at a low temperature, and add the milk gradually, stirring constantly until the mixture thickens. Add the butter or oil, and then stand the dressing in cold water to cool.
This is a good dressing, and will keep for a week. If thick, add a little milk before using.
Fruit Salad: Fruit Salad may be concocted with oranges, bananas, pineapple, lemon juice, with the addition of any fruit which is in season, such as strawberries, raspberries, peaches, apricots, pears, nectarines (cooked or uncooked). Pour fruit syrup over all. Garnish with dessertspoonfuls of coloured jelly. Serve with whipped cream.
Fruit such as apples and bananas may be combined with vegetables.