Forest Vines to Snow Tussocks: The Story of New Zealand Plants
Notes and References
Notes and References
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2. Broadleaf is a term applied to flowering plants (angiosperms), whose leaves are usually much wider than those of conifers.
3. Carlquist, S. 1970. Hawaii: A Natural History. Natural History Press, New York.
4. Carlquist, S. 1965. Island Life. Natural History Press, New York.
5. Ehrendorfer, F. 1979. 'Reproductive biology in island plants.' Pp. 293-306 in Plants and Islands, D. Bramwell (Ed.). Academic Press.
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7. Mabberley, D. J. 1979. 'Pachycaul plants and islands.' Pp. 259-277 in Plants and Islands, D. Bramwell (Ed.). Academic Press.
8. Gillett, G. W. 1972. 'The role of hybridization in the evolution of the Hawaiian flora.' Pp. 205-19 in Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Evolution, D. H. Valentine (Ed.). Academic Press.
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33. Rhizomes are horizontal stems on or below the surface of a substrate, usually the ground.
34. Sporangia are organs containing spores.
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>39. This is a curious phenomenon also to be found in the equally variable leaves of juvenile pokaka (Elaeocarpus hookerianus), juvenile Pittosporum obcordatum, seedling lancewood (Pseudopanax crassifolius) and others.
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51. Page, C. N. and Brownsey, P. J. 1986. 'Tree fern skirts — A defence against climbers and large epiphytes.' Journ. Ecol. 74: 787-97.
52. Zahlbruckner, A., Keissler, K. and Allan H. H. 1928. 'The epiphyllous lichens of Kitchener Park, Feilding, New Zealand.' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 59: 304-14.
53. Fineran, B. A. 1974. 'Parasitic flowering plants.' New Zealand's Nature Heritage 23: 637-41.
54. Moore, L. B. 1940. 'The structure and life history of the root parasite Dactylanthus taylori. N. Z. Journ. Sci. Tech. 21B: 206-24.
55. Philipson, W. R. 'Some observations on root parasitism in New Zealand.' Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. 87: 1-3.
56. Barlow, B. A. 'A revision of the Loranthaceae of Australia and New Zealand.' Aust. Journ. Bot. 14: 421-99.
57. Campbell, E. O. 1962. 'The mycorrhiza of Gastrodia cunninghamii.' Trans.; Roy. Soc. N. Z. Bot. 1: 289-96.
58. Campbell, E. O. 1968. 'An investigation of Thismia rodwayi and its associated fungus.' Trans.; Roy. Soc. N. Z. Bot. 3: 209-19page 253
59. Chandler, M. E.J. 1964. 'The Lower Tertiary Floras of Southern England. 4. A Summary and Survey of Findings.' London.
60. Tanekaha is absent from the southern North Island.
61. The nikau reaches its southern limit on the Chatham Islands at 44°S.
62. Greenwood, R. M. and Atkinson, I. A. E. 1977. 'Evolution of the divaricating plants of New Zealand in relation to moa browsing.' Proc. N. Z. Ecol. Soc. 24: 21-33.
63. Cockayne, L. 1928. 'The Vegetation of New Zealand — Die Vegetation der Erde XIV.' Engelmann, Leipzig (Ed. 2).
64. McKelvey, P. J. 1963. 'The synecology of the West Taupo indigenous forests.' N. Z. Forest Service Bull. 14. Government Printer, Wellington.
65. McKelvey, P. J. 1973. 'The pattern of the Urewera Forests.' Forest Research Institute, Technical paper 59.
66. Cameron, R. J. 1955. 'Mosaic or cyclical regeneration in North Island podocarp forests.' N. Z. Journ. For. 7: 55-65.
67. Beveridge, A. E. 1973. 'Regeneration of podocarps in a central North Island forest.' N. Z. Journ. For. 18: 23-35.
68. Poole, A. L. 1937. 'A brief ecological survey of the Pukekura State Forest, South Westland.' N. Z. Journ. For. 4: 78-85.
69. Holloway, J. T. 1954. 'Forests and climates in the South Island of New Zealand.' Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. 82: 329-410.
70. Wardle P. 1963. 'The regeneration gap of New Zealand gymnosperms.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 1: 301-15.
71. Robbins, R. G. 1962. 'The podocarp-broadleaf forests of New Zealand.' Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. Botany I: 33-75.
72. Havel, J. J. 1971. 'The Araucaria forests of New Guinea and their regenerative capacity.' Journ. Ecol. 59: 203-14.
73. Whitmore, T. C. 1966. 'The social status of Agathis in a rain forest in Melanesia.' Journ. Ecol. 54: 285-301.
74. Veblen, T. T. and Stewart, G. H. 1982. 'On the conifer regeneration gap in New Zealand: The dynamics of Libocedrus bidwillii stands on the South Island.' Journ. Ecol. 70: 413-36.
75. Whitmore, T. C. 1975. Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East. Clarendon, Oxford.
76. Jones, E. W. 1956. 'Ecological studies on the rain forest of Southern Nigeria IV. The plateau forest of the Okumu Forest Reserve.' Journ. Ecol. 44: 83-117.
77. The terrestrial form is probably a distinct species. (See Eagle's Trees and Shrubs of New Zealand. Second Series).
78. Bieleski, R. L. 1959. 'Factors affecting growth and distribution of the kauri.' Aust. Journ. Bot. 7: 252- 94.
79. Esler, A. E. and Rumball, P. J. 1975. 'Gumland Vegetation at Kaikohe, Northland, New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 13: 425-36.
80. Kumarahou flowers rubbed together with water form a sort of lather.
81. Cheeseman, T. F. 1896. 'On the flora of the North Cape District.' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 29: 333-85.
82. Silver pine is replaced by yellow silver pine (Lagarostrobus intermedium) in western Southland and Stewart Island.
83. Mark, A. F. and Smith, P. M. F. 1975. 'A lowland vegetation sequence in South Westland: Pakihi bog to mixed beech-podocarp forest. Part. I: The principal strata.' Proc. N. Z. Ecol. Soc. 22: 76-89.
84. Rigg, H. H. 1962. 'The pakihi bogs of Westport, New Zealand.' Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. Botany I: 91-108.
85. Baylis, G. T. S. 1948. 'Vegetation of Great Island, Three Kings group. Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus. 3: 239-52.
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89. Nothofagus means 'false beech'.
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91. Poole, A. L. 1948. 'The flowering of beech.' N. Z. Journ. For. 5: 422-42.
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93. Cranwell, L. M. 1939. 'Southern-beech pollens.' Rec. Auckl. Inst. Mus. 2: 175-96.
94. Black beech and its relative mountain beech are both tolerant of dry conditions, but can also grow on poorly drained swampy sites. This is not as anomalous as it seems, as poorly drained soils are considered to be 'physiologically dry' as the lack of free oxygen greatly reduces the water absorption efficiency of the roots.
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102. A partly comparable situation exists in south-west Madagascar,103 where in arid, but foggy, coastal sites there is an abundance of twiggy, densely interlaced, small-leaved shrubs belonging to genera from a number of different families. Some of the shrubs are spiny and some have zig-zag branching and short shoots as in New Zealand. The small-leaved shrubs of Madagascar are not related to those of New Zealand but probably derive from tree and shrub relatives with much larger leaves in the tropical rain forests.
103. Koechlin J., Guillaumet J-L and Morat, Ph. 1974. Flore et Vegetation de Madagascar. Vaduz: Cramer.
104. Greenwood and Atkinson distinguish 'scrub' and 'shrubland' thus: '… scrub is distinguished from forest by having most stems less than 10 cm d. b. h. Shrubland is distinguished from scrub by having a woody cover of less than 80 per cent.'
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111. Muehlenbeckia astonii and a few divaricate species of Olearia are deciduous.
112. Cain, S. A., Castro, G. M. de O. et al. 1956. 'Applications of some phytosociological techniques to Brazilian rain forest. Part III. Life-form and leaf size classes.' Amer. Journ. Bot. 43: 928-41.
113. Moas were flightless birds, some species of which were larger than emus or ostriches. They became extinct a few centuries before the arrival of Europeans.
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116. Lowry, J. B. 1980. 'Evolution of divaricating plants in New Zealand in relation to moa browsing.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 3: 165.
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128. Druce, A. P., Bartlett, J. K. and Gardner, R. O. 1979. 'Indigenous vascular plants of the serpentine area of Surville Cliffs and adjacent cliff tops, north-west of North Cape, New Zealand.' Tane 25: 187-206.
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131. Armstrong, J. F. 1872. 'On the naturalised plants of the Province of Canterbury.' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 4: 284-90.
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133. There may also be a fairly wide shrubland belt where the beech treeline is locally depressed as a result either (a) of persistent fogginess with consequent light and temperature reduction, or (b) of temperature inversion effects at U-shaped glacial valley heads.
134. Wardle, P. 1977. 'Plant communities of Westland National Park and neighbouring lowland and coastal areas.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 15: 323-98.
135. Burrows, C. J. et al. 1979. 'New Zealand heathlands.' Pp. 339-64 in Ecosystems of the world. 9A. Heathlands and related Shrublands. Descriptive studies. Elsevier.
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137. Mark, A. F. 1974. 'Snow tussock grasslands.' N. Z Nature Heritage 35: 976-81. Hamlyns.
138. Dawson, J. W. and LeComte, J. R. 1978. 'Research on Aciphylla. A progress report.' Tuatara 23: 49-67.
139. Fisher, F. J. F. 1965. 'The Alpine Ranunculi of New Zealand.' Bull. N. Z. D. S. I. R. 165: 1-192.
140. Given, D. R. 1969. 'A synopsis of infrageneric categories in Celmisia. ' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 7: 400-18.
141. What is generally called a flower in the Compositae is really a very condensed inflorescence (capitulum) comprising many small flowers.
142. Gibson, Neil and Kirkpatrick, J. B. 1985. 'A comparison of cushion plant communities of New Zealand and Tasmania.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 23: 549-66.
143. Cushion bogs are also found at sea level on the south coast of the South Island near Invercargill.
144. Wilson, H. D. 1978. Wild Plants of Mount Cook National Park. Field Guide Publication.
145. Mark, A. F. and Bliss, L. C. 1970. 'The high-alpine vegetation of Central Otago, New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 8: 381-451.
146. Wardle, P. 1968. 'Evidence for an indigenous pre-Quaternary element in the mountain flora of New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 6: 120-5.
147. Fleming, C. A. 1963. 'Age of the alpine biota.' Proc. N. Z. Ecol. Soc. 10: 15-18.
148. Raven, Peter H. 1973. 'Evolution of subalpine and alpine plant groups in New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 11: 177-200.
149. Wardle, P. 1978. 'Origin of the New Zealand mountain flora, with special reference to trans-Tasman relationships.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 16: 535-50.
150. Dawson, J. W. 1971. 'Relationships of the New Zealand Umbelliferae.' Pp. 43-61, in The Biology and Chemistry of the Umbelliferae, V. H. Heywood (Ed.). Academic Press.
151. Webb, C. J. and Druce, A. P. 1984. 'A natural intergeneric hybrid, Aciphylla squarrosa x Gingidia montana, and the frequency of hybrids among other New Zealand apioid Umbelliferae.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 22: 403-11.
152. Webb, C. J. 1986. 'Breeding systems and relationships Gingidia and related Australasian Apiaceae in Gingidia and related Australasian Apiaceae.' Pp. 383-399, in Flora and Fauna of Alpine Australasia: Ages and Origins. Bryan A. Barlow. (Ed.). C. S. I. R. O., Canberra, Australia.
153. Given, David R. 1973. 'Damnamenia gen. nov. A new subantarctic genus allied to Celmisia Cass. (Astereae — Compositae).' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 11: 785-96.
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156. Gillham, M. E. 1967. Sub-antarctic Sanctuary. Summertime on Macquarie Island. Gollancz, London.
157. Puccinellia macquariensis was also thought to be endemic, but has recently been discovered on Campbell Island.
158. Wace, N. M. 1960. 'The botany of the southern oceanic islands.' Proc. Roy. Soc. land., Ser. B, 152: 475-90.
159. Some seeds can float in the sea and arrive unharmed on distant shores. One such was picked up on the coast of Macquarie and when germinated in Australia turned out to be Caesalpinia bonduc, widespread in tropical coastal habitats. It could not have survived on Macquarie, but at least it got there.
160. Meurk, Colin D. 1982. 'Supplementary notes on plant distributions of the subantarctic Auckland Islands.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 20: 373-80.
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163. Godley, E. J. 1965. 'Notes on the vegetation of the Auckland Islands.' Proc. N. Z. Ecol. Soc. 12: 57-63.
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165. Meurk, C. D. 1982. 'Regeneration of subantarctic plants on Campbell Island following exclusion of sheep.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 5: 51-58.
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168. Wright, A. C. S. 1959. 'Soils of Chatham Island.' N. Z. Soil Bureau Bull. 19.
169. Cockayne, L. 1902. 'A short account of the plant covering of Chatham Island.' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 34: 243- 325.
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172. There is, however, a large endemic ground Astelia, A. chathamica, which grows in moist sites in the south of the main island.
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175. Laing, R. M. 1915. 'A revised list of the Norfolk Island flora with some notes on the species.' Trans. proc. N. Z. Inst. 41: 1-39.
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