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The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Otago & Southland Provincial Districts]

Dunedin Corporation

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Dunedin Corporation.

The survey of the city of Dunedin was made in 1846 by Mr. Charles Henry Kettle, under directions from the New Zealand Company. Two years later the Pilgrim Fathers began to arrive, and settled on the site. The provincial system of government was inaugurated in 1852. In due course the Provincial Council passed “The Dunedin Town Board Ordinance, 1855,” and the first local body, consisting of nine members, held its first meeting on the 27th of August of that year. The Town Board centinued to act till 1865, when the Provincial Council, considering that some better system of local self-government could be devised, passed “The Dunedin Town Board Dissolution Ordinance. 1865,” vesting the management of the city in three commissioners, to be appointed by the Superintendent. At the last meeting of the Town Board, which was held on the 19th of April, 1865, a resolution was placed on record protesting against this Ordinance; it nevertheless became law, and the Town Board accordingly ceased to exist. The Superintendent of the province, on the 17th of April, 1865, appointed Messrs J. Bathgate, R. Martin, and J. M. Balfour the first commissioners, but these gentlemen held office for eight days only, and resigned before the end of April. Evidently they were not comfortable, to say the least of it, and they complained of lukewarmness on the part of the Provincial Executive in giving them the needful support. The second commissioners, Messrs R. H. Forman, J. Grey, and H. Bastings, were appointed on the 4th of May, 1865, and the first two held office until the 31st of July of the same years, Mr. Bastings having resigned on the 19th of May, and been succeeded by Mr. E. Chalmers. Meanwhile the Provincial Council had passed “The Otago Municipal Corporation Ordinance, 1865,” constituting the city of Dunedin a corporation under the style and title of “The Corporation of the city of Dunedin.” The first election for the mayoralty took place on the 21st of July, 1865, and Mr. William Mason was elected to the position. The first council was elected on the 1st of August following, and held its first meeting on the 5th of the same month. The original Ordinance of the Provinical Council in 1865 was superseded by “The Municipal Corporations Act, 1876,” passed by the General Assembly, and this in turn by the “Municipal Corporations Act, 1886,” under which and its subsequent amendments the government of the city is now carried on, under the style of “The Borough of the City of Dunedin.”

High Street, Dunedin: 1859.

High Street, Dunedin: 1859.

Lands And Properties.

The Dunedin City Corporation holds all lands set aside under the terms of purchase from the New Zealand Company, which were originally vested in the Superintendent of the province of Otago, in trust for purposes of public utility to the town of Dunedin and its inhabitants. These lands became vested in the corporation by “The Abolition of the Provinces Act, 1875.” Lands and properties, such as water and gas works, and tramways, acquired by purchase, are also vested in the corporation.


The city of Dunedin is divided into four wards—South, High, Bell, and Leith—each of which returns three members to the City Council. For the purpose of managing the business, the Council has appointed seven committees: (1) Reserves; (2) General (including Baths and Sanitary, Legislative and Market, Fire Brigade, and Vehicles); (3) Public Works; (4) Gas; (5) Water; (6) Finance; (7) Tramways. These committees meet each alternate week on suitable days.

Street Lighting.

In 1875, as from the 1st of January, 1876, the Council acquired the City Gas Works, erected by the Dunedin Gas and Coke Company, Ltd., together with all mains, services and plant. Since that time the corporation has manufactured and supplied gas for the city. Five years after acquiring the gas works, the Council undertook to supply the borough of North-East Valley with gas, and in 1886 the borough of South Dunedin, and both undertakings have been satisfactorily carried out. The Dunedin Corporation Gas Works, which are situated at South Dunedin, were purchased at a cost of about £50,000, but this has been increased by subsequent outlay to £130,000. Including the pipes through the suburban boroughs, there are thirty-five miles of mains laid from these works. The land on which the Gas Works are erected consists of seven acres of freehold, and rather more than an acre of leaschold. Two five-horse power beam steam engines and two seven-horse power boilers are used alternately, for working the “exhaust” in connection with the plant. In the retort house there are seven “through” benches, with seventy retorts for making gas, while the purifying house contains four purifiers, each twenty feet square. The meter and valve room contains a 30,000 per hour meter, with inlet and outlet valves there being three governors in the governor house for regulating the pressure of gas in town. The horizontal condenser consists of sixteen tiens of nine-inch pipes on an ornamental base. There is a very complete laboratory, the plant including appliances for testing the five hundredth part of a ton on Evans's page 96 photometer, two illuminating power meters, a Lux special balance, and generally everything necessary for the works. The gasholders, two in number, have capacities respectively of 148,000 and 180,000 feet. There are 3,033 ordinary lighting consumers, and 848 special consumers of gas in the city and suburbs; also 586 street lamps, besides fifteen lamps in North-East Valley and twenty-two in South Dunedin.

Water Supply.

Water was originally supplied in the city by the Dunedin Water Company. The whole of the property of this company, together with the rights and privileges conferred on it under its Act of Incorporation, was acquired by the corporation in 1874, and since then other lands connected with the supply have been purchased for water works purposes. Acting under “The Dunedin Water Supply Extension Act, 1875,” and the Amending Act of 1878, the Council impounded the waters of the Silverstream and its tributaries, and acquired certain lands by purchase and exchange in continguity to these streams. Dunedin is now supplied with water from two sources, known respectively as the northern and southern supply. The northern supply is obtained from a creek named Ross Creek, with a watershed of about 1,000 acres. The works are situated one mile and a quarter from the city boundary, and comprise: a main reservoir (holding 51,000,000 gallons), a settling reservoir (6,000,000 gallons), a stone sterm-water channel (19 chains in length), stone valve tower (with inlet and outlet pipes, screens, etc.), and a keeper's house. The dams are constructed of earthwork, with a puddle trench in the centre. The following figures give some idea of the dimensions of the varius parts of the works: Top length of dam to main reservoir, 363 feet; top width, 12 feet; inside slope, 3 to 1, pitched; outside slope, 2 to 1, turfed; greatest depth of water, 48 feet; bywash of stone, 20 feet wide and 4 feet 6 inches deep; working level of water, 372 feet above the lowest point in the city. The outlet pipes from the valve tower are laid under an embankment of stone pillars. The water is conveyed into Dunedin by 12-inch cast iron pipes track, and also providing convenient access to the reservoir. The pipes will deliver at the town boundary 4,000,000 gallons in the twenty-four hours without pressure. The total cost of the works to the corporation has been £139,350, which was largely increased in consequence of the city having to purchase from a company which had constructed the works. The southern supply is obtained from the Silverstream, and its tributaries, the watershed being about 12,000 acres in extent. The works are situated about three miles from the city boundary, and comprise: a main reservoir (holding 23,000,000 gallons), a cast iron stand pipe for valve (with inlet and outlet pipes, screen, etc.), a storm-water channel, and keeper's house, similar to that at the northern supply, and the dam is constructed of earthwork with a puddle trench. The following are some of the measurements: Top length of dam, 402 feet; top width, 12 feet; inside slope, 3 to 1, pitched; outside slope, 2 to 1, turfed; greatest depth of water, 43 feet; bywash of stone, 8 feet wide and 3 feet deep; working level of water, 422 feet above the lowest part of the city, and 50 feet above the level of the north reservoir (Ross's Creek supply). The reservoir is supplied by an open channel or race about twenty miles long (depth 3 feet bottom; width, 2 feet 6 inches). The fall varies from 4 feet to 2 feet 6 inches per mile. The race is cut in the sides of the hills, and follows their contour with brick tunnels, 5 or 6 chains long, through the short spurs. Along the race there is a level bench 5 feet wide on the outer side, which serves as a means of communication. The creeks are crossed with stone culverts or wood flumings on stone piers, and are intercepted by a dam and inlet gate to a short subsidiary race leading to the main race. At the Silverstream Head there is a concrete dam and inlet gate, the flood waters flowing over the crest of the dam. The water from the reservoir is conveyed for three miles by an 18 inch cast iron pipe under the embankment, cased in concrete. Thence for a distance of about a mile the pipes have a heavy fall, and are 14 inches in diameter. Thence, again, to the city boundary the pipes have a less gradient, and are laid in two branches, supplying different parts of the city and suburbs. The branch for the high levels is 14 inches in diameter, and for the low levels 12 inches in diameter. The two pipes will deliver at the city boundary 5,750,000 gallons in the twenty-four hours without pressure. There being a great variation in the levels of the city, the pressure in the pipes during working hours varies from 10lbs to 130lbs, according to the altitude. The total cost, including purchase of land, and large compensation for water rights and interference with coal mining lands, has been £82,000.

Stafford Street, Dunedin: 1862.

Stafford Street, Dunedin: 1862.


In 1872, the Dunedin City Council was empowered to set aside a certain portion of the Town Belt at the north-east of the town as a Public Cemetery. Accordingly the Northern Cemetery was surveyed and opened for interments in that years, and this, together with the General Cemetery at the southern end of Dunedin, is under the control of the corporation.

The Morgue.

This building was completed and handed over to the city authorities in 1903. It is situated at the Southern Cemetery, looks like a small chapel, 30 feet by 26 feet, and consists of four apartments—a waiting room, post mortem room, a coroner's room, and a special room for the reception of bodies. The coroner's room, in which inquests are held, is 17 feet by 13 feet; the post mortem room is the same size, and a special room for placing bodies is 7 feet by 7 feet. The coroner's and post mortem rooms are connected by a glazed sliding door, which, in the case of a body being in an advanced state of decompositon, can be kept closed, and yet the jury be in a position to view the subject. The post mortem room is entered by a separate door leading from without, and is connected with the special room, in order that when a post mortem is necessary bodies may be carried into it. It has cement and concrete flocrs, and, with a plentiful water supply, can be flushed out whenever required, so that a perfect sanitary state exists. In the centre of the post mortem room there is a revolving dissecting table. There are stretchers at the side of the room for bodies, and it is provided with desks, sinks, basins, healing page 97 stores, etc. This and the coroner's room are lighted from the ceiling. The whole building is thoroughly ventilated all round the dado, and fitted with large ventilators along the ridge of the roof.

Area, Rates, Etc.

The city of Dunedin, including the Town Belt and reclamations, has an estimated area of 1,800 acres; number of dwellings 4,983, rateable properties 6,021, owned by 2,762 ratepayers. The annual or renting value for rating purposes is assessed at £279,173. A general rate of 1s 3d, together with a special rate of 9d (or 2s in the £ in all) is levied on all rateable property within the city. Of the fifty miles of stree's in Dunedin, thirty miles are formed, metalled, and finished with kerbed asphalted footpaths, and ten miles are unformed or only partially formed and completed.


The surface drainage is controlled by the City Council, but otherwise in this connection the Dunedin Drainage and Sewerage Board exercises authority.

Disposal Of Refuse.

The house refuse is collected without cost to the householder. Some premises are visited daily, others twice a week, the cost of the contract being about £1,080 per annum. The refuse from the streets is made available for filling up reserves to the streerts' levels, and also on sections that require making up to the same height.

Town Hall.

The foundation stone of this building was laid in 1878; two years later it was ready for occupation, and since that time it has admirably served its purposes. From the balcony, which surrounds the top of the tower above the clock, one obtains complete panoramic views of the city, its suburbs, the harbour, and general surroundings. To the top of the flagpole from the basement of the building the height is 165 feet. There are five fine bells connected with the clock, the largest being used to toll the hour, and it and the others give the beautiful Westminster chimes, which mark the time as each quarter of an hour passes away. Every Tuesday at noon the mean New Zealand time is flashed from Wellington Observatory to the Town Hall, and the clock proves itself absolutely correct as a timekeeper. The clock, which was erected in 1880 by Mr. John Hislop, has four dials, each seven feet six inches in diameter, which are automatically illuminated by gas every night. Immediately below the tower, on the upper floor of the building, is the entrance to the Mayor's apartments, which consist of waiting, reception, and private rooms, with a door leading into the Council Chamber. This fine apartment, which is about 40 feet by 60 feet, contains the Mayor's chair, with its imposing canopy, four carved desks, with luxurious seats, each accommodating three councillors, a fine, central, oval table for the town clerk's use, and a reporter's table. The walls are decorated with a number of pictures. One is a painting of Sir William Chambers, of Edinburgh (one of the original proprietors of “Chambers's Journal”), presented to the city by Sir William himself as a memento of his having suggested the name of “Dunedin” as preferable to “New Edinburgh.” Another represents the late Mr. George Rennie, M. P. for Ipswich, who, in 1842, drew up the scheme for the settlement of Otago, and was presented by his son, Sir Richard Rennie, on the 23rd of March, 1897, at the instance of Dr. Hocken. There are, also, pictures of Captain Cargill and the Rev. Dr. Burns, and an interesting representation of the city in 1856, which was presented by the late Mr. J. T. Thomson, Surveyor-General. On this floor also there are two private rooms formely used for an art gallery (now unused), besides lavatories. Communication with the lower floor of the building is by two spacious stairways, terminating in the main entrance hall. This flat is entirely occupied by departmental offices, the southern wing being used by the town clerk and his staff of assistants—the public office is particularly large; while the northern wing contains offices for the city engineer and staff, city valuer, inspector of nuisances, gas inspector, and other officials. The large corridor is used as a showroom for gas ovens and stoves. At some future date, when funds are available, the yard behind the Town Hall will be occupied by a large building, of which the offices now erected are but a first instalment.

City Council.

The City Council, elected in April, 1903, consists of the Mayor, Mr. Thomas Scott, and three Councillors for each of the four wards: Henry Crust, James Gore, and R. G. Macdonald, South Ward; Joseph Braithwaite, John Loudon, and James H. Walker, High Ward; Thomas R Christie, Edwin A. Tapper, and Patrick Hally, Bell Ward; George Lawrence, John Barnes, and John McDonald, Leith Ward.

The officers of the Council are: Messrs Thomas B. Fairbairn, Town Clerk, Treasurer, and Returning Officer for the city; John Jacobs, Assistant Town Clerk; J. R. Morris, Valuer; R. S. Allan, Engineer and Surveyor; W. D. Snowball, M.R.C.V.S., Inspector of Abattoirs; H. B. Courtis, Gas Engineer, and Thomas Dow, Inspector; Gas Department; R. Donaldson and John Barron, Inspectors of Nuisances; J. W. Davys, Water Inspector; and H. G. Mitchell, Captain of the Fire Brigade.

His Worship the Mayor, Mr. Thomas Scott , made his first appearance in public life about fifteen years ago, when he was elected to a seat in the Mornington Borough Council, of which he continued to be a member for eight years, during two of which he was Mayor. In 1896 he took up his residence within the city boundary, and about three years later was elected to fill the vacanoy caused in the City Council, by Mr. R. Chisholm's election as Mayor. His election upon that occasion was followed by three and a half years of municipal service, and in April, 1903, he was elected Mayor of Dunedin with a majority vote of nearly 2,000. Mr. Scott was born in the village of Glasford, about sixteen miles from Glasgow, in 1854, and arrived in New Zealand by the ship “Aboukir,” at the age of ten. He gained some instruction at private schools before leaving the Old Country, and completed his education in the public schools at Milton, Otago and at Nelson. He then served an apprenticeship as a carpenter at Nelson, and subsequently spent three years on the goldfields at Reefton, on the West Coast. For some years after arriving in Dunedin he was employed in the building trade, and early in the nineties he entered into partnership with Mr. Wilson, under the title of Messrs Scott and Wilson venetian blind and revolving shutter manufacturers. This business has proved eminently successful, and has grown to considerable dimensions. Mr. Scott, however, does not now take an active part in the management, but devotes his entire time and attention to the duties of his position as Mayor of the city. Mr. Scott was married in February, 1879, to Miss Mason, of Dunedin, and has two daughters and one son.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photoMr. T. Scott, Mayor of Dunedin.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo
Mr. T. Scott, Mayor of Dunedin.

Councillor Henry Crust , who has represented South Ward in the Dunedin City Council since 1898, was born at Wainfleet, Lincolnshire, England, in 1847; and in 1851 accompanied his parents to Victoria, Australia. In 1862 Mr. Crust came to New Zealand, and for some years was engaged in stock-riding and station work in the South Island. On setting in Dunedin in 1867, he with Mr. Duncan Campbell, established a carrying and forwarding agency. On Mr. Campbell's death, Mr. Crust continued the business, steadily increasing and developing it, adding to it a Customshouse Agency, Commercial Travellers' Sample Rooms, and a Tourists' Baggage Agency; and now, under the title of Crust and Crust, it is one of the finest and most popular business of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. Three years ago (written in 1903) Mr. Crust's firm page 98 entered into combination with Messrs J. M. Heywood and Co., of Christchurch; the Colonial Carrying Co., of Wellington; and Messrs W. and G. Winston, of Auckland, as the New Zealand Carrying Company (referred to in another section of this volume). Mr. Crust has taken considerable interest in the mining industry, and is a director of several commpanies. In 1871 he was married to Miss Jessie Wood, of the Orkney Islands, and has a family of three sons and four daughters.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo.Councillor H. Crust.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo.
Councillor H. Crust.

Councillor James Gore , who sits in the Dunedin City Council as a representative of South Ward, has served the town as Mayor and Councillor for many years. Mr. Gore has been a member of the Charitable Aid Board, and has served on the Drainage Board since its inception. He is referred to elsewhere as having been Mayor, and as a former member of Parliament.

Councillor Robert Gordon Macdonald was returned, unopposed, to the Dunedin City Council on the 25th of November, 1903, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. John Carroll. Councillor Macdonald is further referred to in the Medical Section of this volume.

Councillor Joseph Braithwaite , one of the representatives for High Ward in the Dunedin City Council, is an active member of that body, to which he was elected in 1901, and re-elected in 1903. Mr. Braithwaite has been a member of the Anglican Synod for about thirteen years, and of the Domain Board for three years. He is well known in business circles in the city, and is elsewhere referred to in this volume.

Councillor John Loudon , who was elected a member of the Dunedin City Council, for High Ward, in April, 1903, was born in Victoria in 1863. He was educated at private schools in his native place, and coming to Otago when a boy, completed his education at Anderson's Bay Grammer School, under Mr. William Bruce Mackay. After being about ten years in the Government railway audit department, he entered the employment of the Farmers' Agency Company, as accountant, and in 1893, in partnership with Mr. William Turnbull, bought the business. Mr. Loudon is a director of the Waipori Falls Electric Power Company, Limited, and is interested also in several other businesses in the city. He is a member of the Otago Agricultural and Pastoral Association, of the Dunedin Chamber of Commerce, and honorary tneasurer of the Otago Club, and of the Otago Club Company, Limited.

Councillor James Hamlin Walker , who was elected a member of the Dunedin City Council in April, 1903, is the fourth son of the late Mr. Thomas Walker who was for over thirty years foreman shipwright, in Dunedin, for the Union Steam Ship Company. He was born in 1863 in Dunedin, was educated at the Union Street public school, and was afterwards apprenticed to the plumbing trade. Subsequently he carried on business in partnership with Mr. R. Scott for about two years, and in 1885 he entered into partnership with a younger brother, the two having since conducted business, under the style of Messrs Walker Brothers, in St. Andrew Street, Dunedin. Mr. Walker was the secretary and treasurer of the first free reading-room in Dunedin. He has been a member of the St. Andrew's Preshyterian Church for about twelve years, and of the High Street public school committee for six years, and is at present its chairman. Mr. Walker was married in December, 1892 to Miss Blakely, of Dunedin, and has four children.

Councillor Thomas Reid Christie, J. P. , has been a member of the Dunedin City Council—on which he represents Bell Ward—since 1899. He was born in April, 1861, in Perthshire, Scotland, educated at the Dollar Academy in Clackmannanshire, and served an apprenticeship as a plumber. In 1880 he sailed in the ship, “Dunedin” for New Zealand Shortly after landing in Dunedin he entered into partnership with his brother, under the style of Messrs J. and T. Christie, sanitary engineers, general plumbers and manufacturers. Mr. Christie is a member of the Worshipful Company of Plumbers of London, is president of the National Association of Master Plumbers of New Zealand, and represents the Dunedin City Council on the Technical Classes' Association. He is also a trustee of the Dunedin Savings Bank.

Councillor Edwin Alfred Tapper , who has represented Bell Ward on the Dunedin City Council since April, 1901, is one of the most active members of that important body. During 1901–2 he was a member of the Finance, Reserve, and Water Committees; during 1902–3 a member of the Finance, Water Gas and Tramways Committees, and during the current year he is a member of the Finance and Tramways Committees and chairman of the Works Committee. He is also a member of the Special Committee of the City Council, and has announced himself a candidate for the Mayoralty for 1904–5. Mr. Tapper was born at Reading, Berkshire, England, on the 6th of February, 1847, and is the youngest son of the late Mr. Robert Tapper, solicitor, of “Wandham House,” Weston-Super-Mare, in Somersetshire, England, who was for some years manager of the well-known legal firm of Messrs Philpott and Baker, of Weston-Super-Mare. He was educated at the last-mentioned town, and was afterwards apprenticed to the bookselling and stationery trade at “The Library,” an extensive business in Weston-Super-Mare, of which he subsequently became manager, and held the position till 1869. Later on he was appointed manager of the publishing department in the firm of Messrs George Metzler and Co., music publishers, etc., Great Marlborough Street, London, and occupied that position until leaving England for New Zealand in July, 1872, by the ship “Lady Jocelyn.” On arriving in Invercargill he entered the ironmongery business of his eldest brother Robert, whom he afterwards joined in partnership. During the prosperous years which followed the inception of the public works policy, the firm sold the hardware department of its business, from which Mr. Robert Tapper afterwards retired, leaving Mr. E. A. Tapper to conduct the saw-milling branch on his own account. Within a few years Mr. Tapper succeeded in establishing one of the most extensive and efficiently equipped saw-milling, timber, and building ironmongery businesses in the South Island, with branches at Invercargill, Ashburton, Gore, and Dunedin, and sawmills at Seaward Forest Long Bush, and Green Hills. He was at that time one of the largest employers of labour in New Zealand, and by his persistence in urging the Government to grant liberal concessions on behalf of sawmilling,
Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo.Councillor E. A. Tapper.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo.
Councillor E. A. Tapper.

page 99 did much for that industry. In 1899 he disposed of his sawmills to the New Zealand Pine Company, and later on sold his Invercargill timber and ironmongery business to Broad, Small and Co., and his Dunedin business to the City Sawmills Company. In 1898 he began business in Moray Place under the title of Messrs A. Tapper and Co., and his Dunedin business to the City Swamills Company. In 1898 he began business in Moray Place under the title of Messrs A. Tapper and Co., commercial and financial brokers, custom house and shipping agents, and has succeeded in building up a large connection. In September, 1884, Mr. Tapper became a member of the Borough Council of Invercargill, and in June, 1887, was elected Mayor, a position which he occupied for two years in succession. During his residence in Invercargill he took a keen interest in all matters concerning the public and social life of the town. Mr. Tapper first entered public life in Dunedin as a member of the Mornington Borough Council, on which he had a seat during 1894–6. In 1896 he visited Europe, and returned in the same year. Mr. Tapper was a member of the Charitable Aid Board—on which he represented the city Council—and of the House Committee of the Dunedin Hospital Trustees. He was married, in 1881, to the eldest daughter of Mr. Kenneth Gunn, one of Melbourne's oldest citizens, and has a family of four children. Mr. Tapper's private residence, known as “Terangi,” is situated high up on the western slope from the city, and commands an extensive view of Dunedin and suburbs, the harbour, the Peninsula, and the Pacific ocean.

Councillor Patrick Hally , who has represented Bell Ward on the Dunedin City Council since 1902, is the eldest son of the late Mr. John Hally, of Dunedin. He was born in 1866, in Dunedin, educated at the Christian Brothers' School, and afterwards apprenticed to the bootmaking trade. In 1891 he established his present business in George Street. Mr. Hally is a member of the Dunedin Conciliation Board, and has, for about six years, been president of the New Zealand Federal. Tailoresses' Union. He is also a member of the Dunedin Catholic Literary Society.

Councillor George Lawrence , J.P., was elected a member of the Dunedin City Council in April, 1901, and re-elected, as senior member for Leith Ward, in April, 1903. He was born at Cuddington, Buckinghamshire, England, in 1850, and was educated in London. After serving an apprenticeship to the building trade under his brother, he commenced business on his own account in London. In 1875 he sailed for New Zealand in the ship “Suraf,” which was wrecked near the Bluff, the passengers being picked up and brought on to Port Chalmers by the “Vire,” a French man-of-war. Shortly after arriving in Dunedin Mr. Lawrence established himself in the building trade, and is still engaged in it He is a director of the Dunedin Savings Bank, a member of the Dunedin Hospital and Charitable Aid Board, and of the Ocean Beach Domain Board, and was for seven years a member of the Union Street public school committee. Mr. Lawrence was married, in 1873, to Miss Emily Prior, of Blackheath, and has four sons and six daughters.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo,Councillor G. Lawrence.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo,
Councillor G. Lawrence.

Councillor John Barnes , who was elected—when for the first time nominated—to represent Leith Ward in the Dunedin City Council in April, 1903, is the eldest son of the late William Barnes, and grandson of the late John Barnes, a former Mayor of Dunedin. He was born in Dunedin in 1861, and was educated at Halliwell's Middle District School. During the following few years, when he was a mere boy, he was engaged with his father in the constrnction of the railway line between Dunedin and Port Chalmers, and in the making of streets within the city boundary. In 1876 he was apprenticed to the late Mr. James Gramond, coachbuilder and general smith, of Great King Street, who was also a city councillor, and continued to work with him for fifteen years, until 1891, when he left to establish a business on his own account in Frederick Street. In 1892 Mr. James Gramond died, and in the succeeding year Mr. Barnes took over his former employer's business, which he has since conducted with marked success. Mr. Barnes is a member of the Hospital and Charitable Aid Boards, the George Street school committee, of the Primitive Methodist Debating Society, and also of the Independent Order of Rechabites, Hope of Dunedin Tent. He was married, in 1888, to Miss Elizabeth Kydd, formerly of Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, and has two sons and four daughters.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo.Councillor J. Barnes.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo.
Councillor J. Barnes.

Councillor John McDonald , who was elected to the Dunedin City Council as senior member for Leith Ward, in April, 1901, and retuned for the same ward two years later, was born in the province of Auckland in September, 1866. His father, the late Mr. Colin McDonald, a contractor by trade, was for many years connected with the New Zealand Government in that capacity. Councillor McDonald was one of the founders of the Otago Cycling Club, and has been a director of the Caledonian Society of Otago for about thirteen years.

Mr. Thomas Bolster Fairbairn is the Town Clerk, Treasurer, and Returning Officer for the City of Dunedin.

Mr. Richard Sutcliffe Allan , City Engineer to the Dunedin City Corporation, is the second son of the late Mr. James Allan, of “Hope Hill,” in the Taieri district. He was born in November, 1856, and educated at the Union Street public school, the Dunedin Boys' High School, and the Otago University, and at an early age was apprenticed to Messrs Barr and Oliver, civil engineers and surveyors, Dunedin. Whilst with that firm he became a licensed surveyor, and in 1879 he commenced a private practice in conjuction with Mr. Charles Banks, now engineer for the Waitaki County Council, Oamaru. In 1883 Mr. Allan removed to Wellington to undertake contract-surveys for the Wellington-Manawatu Railway Company, and in the following year he joined the firm of Messrs Fergus and Blair, railway contactors, as managing engineer, and carried out the construction of the Otaki section of Wellington-Manawatu railway. Later on he went to Melbourne, where he was entrusted with large and important undertakings, and he was subsequently associated with Messrs Reid and McNeill (of Briscoe and Co.) in the construction of the Warrnambool-Koroit railway. Mr. Allan was afterwards engaged for a time in private practice in West Australia, where he joined the goldfields water supply branch of the public works department in 1894. Four years later he became municipal engineer for Coolgardie, but resigned that position in January, 1900, to return to New Zealand. For a short time he was engaged as assistant road surveyor in the public works department, in page 100 Wellington, and in August, 1901, was appointed first assistant engineer to the Dunedin City Corporation. On the retirement of Mr. John Rogers in August, 1903, he was appointed City Engineer to the Dunedin City Corporation.

Mr. John Richard Morris , who was appointed valuer to the Dunedin City Council in 1874, was born at Dudley, in Staffordshire, England, in November, 1831. He was educated for the medical profession, but later on entered the shipping trade as a partner in the firm of Messrs Cook, Morris and Holmes, of Manchester. In 1869 he sailed for Dunedin, and for a short time was engaged in the service of the Provincial Government. Mr. Morris was one of the promoters of the Dunedin Orchestral Society, and has been its president since its inception. He was married at Kirk Braddon, on the Isle of Man, in August, 1853, to Miss Mott, and has five sons and one daughter.

Mr. John Barron , Inspector of Wheel Traffic for the city of Dunedin, was appointed in March, 1894. He was a member of the City Council for a number of years, and had previously been a member of the Caversham Borough Council form 1878 till 1884. During that time he was for two years a member of the Otago Harbour Board. Mr. Barron was for many years a member of the Dunedin Caledonian Society, of which he was president for one year, and was also a member of the Caledonian Bowling Club, of which he was a prize-winner. Mr. Barron was married in June, 1864, to Miss M. Patrick of Fifeshire and has, surviving, nine children.

Mr. William Brooke Taylor , formerly Town Clerk, City Treasurer, and Returning Officer for the city of Dunedin, was born in Framingham Pigot, Norwich, Norfolk, England, in 1840. Till he was fourteen years of age he attended King Edward VI.'s Grammar School, and was subsequently for four years at the Ipswich Grammar School, under the tultion of Mr. Montague Williams (afterwards the celebrated “Criminal Side” barrister) and the Rev. Stephen Rigand (afterwards Bishop of Antigua). Mr. Taylor served his articles as a solicitor to his father, Mr. Adam Taylor, of Norwich, and, after passing his examination, was admitted to practice in London, where he acted as managing clerk for several years. He afterwards practised his profession in his native town for a short time, and arrived in Port Chalmers in 1873 in the ship “Warrior Queen.” He took a position as accountant and collector to the Dunedin Gas Works—then the property of Mr. Hankey, whose attorney was Mr. W. J. M. Larnach. On the corporation purchasing these works in 1876, Mr. Taylor became one of the staff of the city corporation. In 1887 he was appointed secretary to the Gas Works, and largely devoted his time to carrying out the council's plans for the extension of the business. On the retirement of Mr. Gibson as town clerk in 1890, the position was offered to and accepted by Mr. Taylot. Outside his public duties, Mr. Taylor did not mix much in public life, preferring his books and the freeness of the country. He was, however, a Freemason, a bowler, and a member of musical societies. Mr. Taylor was married in 1861 to a daughter of Mr. R. Claxton, of North Walsham, and died in Sydney, New South Wales, in the year 1900.

The Late Mr. W B. Taylor.

The Late Mr. W B. Taylor.

Civic Institutions.

Gas Works. These works are described under the heading of street lighting, in the general introduction to this section.

Mr. Henry Burall Courtis , Gas Engineer and Manager of the Dunedin City Gas Works, was born in Newport, Monmouthshire, England, in 1851. He was educated in Victoria, whither he accompanied his parents in 1856. Brought up by his father as a gas engineer, he was engaged in the building of many gas works in Australia. He accompanied his father to New Zealand in 1872, and erected the Hokitika gas works, but returned afterwards to Victoria and erected the works at Echuca. He subsequently came back to New Zealand with his father and constructed the gas works at Oamaru and Timaru. In April, 1874, Mr. Courtis settled permanently in New Zealand, and was engineer in charge of the Timaru works for nineteen years prior to taking up his duties in Dunedin in April, 1893. He first became a Freemason under the Scottish Constitution. An old and enthusiastic cyclist, he was a rider at amateur meetings in Victoria in 1870, and was for some time president of the Otago cycling club. Mr. Courtis married in 1878 a daughter of Mr. R. Clarke, of Timaru, and has three sons and one daughter.

The City Tramways . An article on these tramways appears in the section which deals with wheel traffic.

The Dunedin City Fire Brigade . This Brigade has two stations and two reelhouses. The central station is situated in the Octagon. It is built of brick and plaster, is two stories high, and has furnished private apartments for the captain, sleeping quarters for the firemen, accommodation for the apparatus, and a six stall stable for the horses. The other station is in Great King Street. It is a single storey wooden building, with room for a ladder carriage and a hose reel, and stabling for a horse. The two reel-houses, each with 500 feet of hose, are in Princes Street South and Arthur Street respectively. The plant of the Brigade is a thoroughly efficient one, and includes one Shand-Mason engine of thirty man-power having two seven-inch cylinders; two hook and ladder carriages, each with two 43-feet sets of ladders; one horse reel; a telescope ladder, minety feet in length, and said to be the largest in the Australian colonies. In addition to this a stretcher on wheels, with kit complete, the property of the St. John Ambulance Associaton, is kept at the central station for the use of the Brigade. The city being in possession of an efficient gravitation water service, giving a pressure varying from 150 to 180 pounds to the square inch in the lower levels, no chemical engines are employed. There are two firebells—one over the Town Hall and the other at the Great King Street station, and the locality of a fire is indicated by the number of tolls. Thus one toll represents South Ward; two tolls, High Ward; three tolls, Bell Ward; and four tolls, Leith Ward. The city is also supplied with the Morse system of fire alarms, there being upwards of thrity boxes, in various parts of the town. The system was inaugurated as early as 1877, Dunedin being the first city in the Australasian colonies to acquire it, and is personally superintended by the captain of the Brigade. The Dunedin City Fire Brigade consists of the captain, two foremen, one engine keeper, fifteen firemen, and three drivers, and has an honourable name for the fearless and expeditious manner in which it fulfils its hazardous and important duties.

Mr. Henry Gavie Mitchell Captain of the Dunedin City Fire Brigade, was born in 1848 at Salem, Massachusetts, United States of America, and is the second son of the late Mr. Henry Mitchell, for many years Governor of the United States prison, at Salem. He was educated at the public school in his native place, and at the age of fourteen joined the United States Navy as a second-class boy, and afterwards served in the war ships “Massachusetts,” “Siam,” and “John Adams,” In 1863 he sailed for South America, lived for a short time in the state of Paraguay, and afterwards removed to Bolivia, whence, after a residence of three years, he was compelled to make a hasty departure, owing to a revolution. He accordingly sailed for London, and a few months later embarked for Dunedin, where he landed in 1869. Mr. Mitchell was gold-seeking for several years, chiefly in the Mount Ida district, but without exceptional success. He returned to Dunedin in 1874, and was engaged for about twelve months as a clerk in the railway service. In 1875 he removed to Port Chalmers, and two years later entered the service page 101 of the Union Steam Ship Company, as a sail-maker and general hand on shore. There he remained till 1892, when he was appointed captain of the Dunedin City Fire Brigade. Mr. Mitchell's previous experience well fitted him for the position. After his term at sea as a man-of-warsman, he became a member of the No. 2 Ladder Company in the San Francisco Fire Brigade, and shortly after landing in New Zealand he joined the Naseby Brigade. Later on he became a member of the Port Chalmers Brigade, of which he was captain for several years. Mr. Mitchell has taken an active part in the work of the United Fire Brigade Association of New Zealand since its formation in 1878, and now holds its gold star for twenty-five years of service. He was president of the Association in 1888 and 1889. Mr. Mitchell was for many years a member of the Order of Oddfellows, and passed through the various chairs of his lodge. He has been twice married; firstly, to Miss Mary Wright, of Ayrshire, Scotland, who died in 1895, Leaving a family of one son and three daughters; and secondly, to Miss Lee, of Port Chalmers.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo.Mr. H. G. Mitchell.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo.
Mr. H. G. Mitchell.

The Dunedin City Abattoirs are situated in the Taieri district, about three miles from Dunedin city. They were established by the Dunedin City Council in May, 1898. The building is of brick and stands on a concrete foundation. It is divided into two departments; one for cattle and the other for sheep. The former possesses five pens, each capable of accommodating twenty-five head, and the latter affords room for about 800 car-casses. Adjoining the main building is a department for pigs, with interior dimensions of twenty-four feet by thirty-nine feet. This was specially designed for the purpose, and possesses every obtainable convenience and laboursaving appliance. The manager's office, the inspector's laboratory, the caretaker's room, and men's dining-room are situated in detached buildings. The block on which the abattoirs stand is ten acres in extent, and is divided into two paddocks.

Dunedin from Roslyn.

Dunedin from Roslyn.

Mr. William Dempster Snowball , M.R.C.V.S., who holds the joint positions of inspector and manager of the Dunedin City Abattoirs, was born in Scotland in 1863. He gained his diploma at the Royal Veterinary College, London, in 1884, and three years later sailed to Victoria, Australia, where he practised his profession at Ballarat till 1897, when he was appointed to his present position. Mr. Snowball has occupied the post of veterinary surgeon to the Otago Mounted Rifles since 1898.