The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Wellington Provincial District]
New Zealand is one of the wealthiest countries in the world with respect to its treasures of minerals hidden away by nature in its enclosing rocks—gold, silver, copper, and coal being the principal, and they are distributed in a fairly impartial manner throughout the Colony from north to south. Goldmining holds the pride of place, the total value of the exports of this one metal alone having been the vast sum of £50,188,838 since the industry first started in 1857. The first field of any importance was at Collingwood in 1857, and on this field some £90,000 worth of gold was obtained by the crudest processes during that year and the following one, and the district has held a population of miners ever since. Recently some very large operations have been undertaken there to work extensive drifts by the latest improved methods of hydraulic sluicing, the capital for the work being chiefly provided by Wellington speculators. In addition to this there have been quartz reefs worked, but with no great profit to the investors. It was in 1861, however, that the rush to Otago brought goldmining to a front place in the industries of the Colony. The great rush to Otago was followed in 1864 by a minor, but still important one to Wakamarina, and that was soon overshadowed by the West Coast excitement in the same and following years. The Auckland quartz reefs, in 1868, came into prominence, and in one year, 1871, produced gold to the value of £1,188,708, the export of the Colony for a period of twelve years, from 1862 to 1874, averaging over two millions sterling per annum. Nor did this represent the whole production, for the export duty of 2s. 6d. per ounce then leviable on gold sent out of the Colony tempted many miners who had made their piles to carry their gold away with them without passing it first through the Customs, for it was not only the half-crown per ounce that was saved by this, but the extra price obtainable for gold at the Australian mints or in England. From 1874 onwards there was a gradual and steady decrease in the output up till 1890, when the export fell to £773,438, but the following year it rose to £1,007,488, owing chiefly to the success of dredges in Otago and Reefton quartz workings. Since then there has again been a decrease. The characteristics of gold-mining are now altogether different from those in the good days of the sixties. Then a stout heart and brawny muscles were the chief requisites for a man to brave the dangers of flooded rivers and the toil of carrying tools and provisions through unexplored country, with a fair chance of finding an easily-worked creek or terrace where few appliances for extracting the precious metal were required. All those creeks and terraces have, since then, been turned over and over again, and Chinamen have, as a rule, completed the work left by the Europeans, and extracted the last grain to be separated by the action of water. The bulk of the gold now obtained in the Colony is by processes involving the expenditure of large capital; chiefly in alluvial work, extensive water-races and reservoirs, and dredges, and in quartz-reefing, batteries, engines, water-races, and underground works in which an enormous expenditure frequently is made in the belief that the discovery of golden lode is probable. The difficulty in saving gold from page 172 the matrix, quartz, has led to thousands of patents being taken out. The gold is so frequently associated with other refractory minerals that all efforts to save it have been futile, and at the best, up till a few years ago, it was proved by assay that the batteries did not save half the gold in the quartz. The Cassell's cyanide process has solved the problem so far as certain mines in the Auckland district are concerned, and as high as ninety-eight per cent, of the gold has been profitably extracted by this process, and the Waihi mine, once despised, is now producing over £2500 per week, owing to the success of the cyanide treatment. This will undoubtedly revolutionise quartz-reefing, and hundreds of reefs, too poor to pay by the quicksilver amalgamation process, will, as capital becomes available, be the means of finding employment for thousands of men. The chief gold-producing districts are: The West Coast, Otago, Auckland, Nelson, and Marlborough, in the order named. The number of men employed being: On alluvial workings, 6618 Europeans and 2241 Chinamen; and in quartz workings, 2551 Europeans and 2 Chinamen. It is the opinion of practical men that for the future the gold-mining industry will be continually on the increase. The introduction of foreign capital, the success of improved chemical treatment at the batteries, and the wider and more technical knowledge gained through the Schools of Mines and the experience gained by past failures, all point to an early expansion of present and further exploration of fields as yet only casually examined, and it is believed that, in the early future, gold-mining will take the lead over all other industries in the Colony. There are three Schools of Mines—at Thames, Reefton, and Otago, where students are taught assaying, and lectures are given on all subjects pertaining to mining in its scientific aspect, where candidates for certificates as mine managers, &c., may learn the technical knowledge necessary to pass examinations; there are minor schools which the lecturers visit, and these are well attended. These schools have been of infinite service, and many students of them who have left this Colony have readily found profitable employment in Australia, the Transvaal and elsewhere on their New Zealand certificates.
There is a vast extent of coal measures in the Colony, the most important being on the West Coast of the Middle Island. These were discovered by Sir Julius Von Haast in 1860; first at the Brunner Mine, on the Grey River, and subsequently at Mount Rochfort, where the Westport Company's mine is now located, and which exports over 200,000 tons per annum. The Grey field was the first to be worked, and was opened in 1864. The gold-rush to the Coast in that and subsequent years gave it a great impetus; and the quality of the bituminous coals of the West Coast, and their excellent steam and gas-making properties, are now known all over the world. The output is increasing annually from Westport, but there is a temporary falling-off from Greymouth, owing to faults being met with in the old mines; but new ones are being developed, and it is expected that in the course of a few years there will be a large export trade to the West Coast of America and to Asia. These West Coast mines give employment to a large number of miners; and a large portion of the coasting-fleet of the U.S.S. Co. is engaged in the trade. At Mokihinui, twenty-two miles north of Westport, there are also two mines at work, and these include all the bituminous coal-mines of any note in the Colony. There is also pitch coal at Kawakawa, in the Auckland district, and extensive fields of brown coal at Kaitangata and other parts of Otago, at the Nightcaps (Southland), and others in the Malvern Hills in Canterbury; and at Mokau, north of New Plymouth; besides less important fields in other parts of the Colony. The total output for the year 1894 was 719,546 tons from 148 mines, and 1899 men were then employed in the industry, which is a steadily-growing one.
Silver is found, associated with gold, in the quartz reefs in the Auckland district, but it is not mined for its own sake anywhere in the Colony, and the export only reaches some £6000 per annum. Antimony was at one time an important item in our exports, the value in 1890 being over £11,000: but the low price ruling for this metal in Europe caused the company to discontinue working at Endeavour Inlet, near Picton. Mr. Seagar, of Wellington, has invented a new process of smelting, by which he hopes to produce star antimony from the crude ore at a price which will prove remunerative. Manganese and other minerals are also exported to a limited extent. Kauri gum, although a vegetable product, is classed under the head of minerals, and it is entirely confined to the Auckland district, where many hundreds of men find employment, and the production averages something over 8000 tons per annum, the export value in 1894 being £404,567.
Mr. Huntly John Harry Eliott Under-Secretary for Mines, was born in Auckland in 1843. His father Mr. G. Eliot Eliott, joined the Public Service in Auckland in 1840 Mr. Huntly Elliott was first appointed clerk in the Colonial Secretary's Department at Auckland under the Stafford Government, in October 1858, Mr. (afterwards the Hon.) W. Gisborne, being the under Secretary of the department. Mr. Eliott remained in the Colonia Secretary's Office until the inauguration of the Public Works Policy in November, 1870. On the creation of the new department, Mr. Eliot became chief clerk therein. He was subsequently appointed Immigration Officer for Wellington district, and in 1877 was appointed Under-Secretary for the Lands and Immigration Department, the administration of the Mines Department being subsequently added to Mr. Eliott's duties. At present Mr. Eliott holds the appointment of Under-Secretary for Mines.
Mr. Henry Andrew Gordon, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., M.A. Inst. M.E., F.G.S., etc., Inspecting Engineer of the Mines Department, was born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, in 1831. He was educated at King's College, Aberdeen, and qualified as an engineer at Greenock. In 1851 he went out to India, where he engaged in professional work, and three years later arrived in Victoria, and engaged in mining. Hearing of prosperity in New Zealand, Mr. Gordon crossed the Tasman Sea, and landed in Port Chalmers in 1861. Until 1865 he was in business on the Otago goldfields as a general storekeeper. When the West Coast rush was at its height, he accepted an appointment as engineer and mine manager, and for six years acted for mining companies. Early in 1874, Mr. Gordon entered the Civil Service as Inspector of Works under the Public Works Department in Westland. During the following year he became Assistant-Engineer on the Coast, and in the course of his duties superintended the construction of the Nelson Creek water-race, laid out the line of railway from Stillwater to Nelson Creek, now part of the Midland Railway Company's line, and for some time afterwards had charge of the Greymouth Harbour works. About 1882 he was transferred to the Mines Department in Wellington as Inspecting Engineer. In Masonry Mr. Gordon is a member of Lodge Waterloo, N.Z.C.; he has been through all the chairs, and in 1871, with Messrs. Lazar and Shepherd, opened the first Royal Arch Chapter on the West Coast. In 1873 the subject of this notice was married to Miss Mary Sinclair, daughter of Mr. Robert Sinclair, of Edinburgh. His family consists of four daughters and a son.
Mr. William Skey, Government Analyst under the Mines Department, and Colonial Analyst under the Adulteration Act, is descended from an old French family named Forteseu, who, just before the massacre of Saint Bartholomew, fled from their native land, owing to religious persecution, and took refuge under the “flag of the brave and the free.” Mr. Skey was born in London in 1835, his father, a lawyer in Temple Chambers, dying in the following year. Educated at public schools and private schools in the country, he chose the life of an agriculturalist, which he followed for some years. His career was greatly influenced by close intercourse with one of his guardians, a man of high scientific attainments, and having abundance of means and leisure. He early developed a taste for the science of chemistry, and erected a rustic laboratory of slabs and thatch on the farm where he was placed as a cadet. Here he studied some standard works, and with a little apparatus commenced to try his hand at testing artificial manures, and did other analytical work for the farmers among whom he lived. On attaining his majority, Mr. Skey inherited a legacy, and commenced to search for a homestead, but not being satisfied, farm rents then being very high, he became assistant manager on a farm for two years. At this time La Placès method of extracting spirits from beetroot was being tried in France, and the English Government having permitted the establishment of a limited number of distilleries, Mr. Skey and his employer started a small still to test the process. The preliminary trial being satisfactory, they obtained a permit and erected a complete plant, but after three years' hard work the scheme proved a failure, resulting in heavy loss, and was abandoned. In 1860, with his brother, Mr. Henry Skey, of Dunedin, he came out to New Zealand. For the first two years Mr. Skey had a varied experience, first at bush-falling and afterwards at gold-mining. He was a short time at the famous Gabriel's Gully, but abandoned a digger's life, and returned to Dunedin to seek an appointment. In 1862, after submitting to an examination by Mr. F. Woods, F.C.S., he was appointed laboratory assistant to Dr. (now Sir James) Hector, then Provincial Geologist. Mr. Skey had now entered on the line that has proved to be his life work. Studying carefully under Mr. Woods, a teacher of English reputation, who was in charge of the laboratory, he advanced rapidly in the knowledge of analytical chemistry, and on his superior officer's retirement was placed in charge. The whole staff was removed to Wellington in 1865, and Mr. Skey was appointed analyst for the Colonial Geological Survey Department, a position which he retained till 1893, when, with his brother officers, he was transferred to the Department of Mines. As an author, Mr. Skey has written page 174 numerous papers detailing his scientific discoveries, which were read before the Philosophical Society, and also appear in the London Chemical News, and many standard works. He has also composed some very original poems, which he contemplates issuing in book form at an early date. It may be remarked that some of Mr. Skey's rhymes have already been published under the title of “The Pirate Chief, and other Poems.”
Mr. Alexander McKay, Government Geologist, has been in the Colony thirty-three years. Born in the Glenkens district of Kirkcudbrightshire, Galloway, he received the rudiments of education at the parish school of his native place. He came to New Zealand in 1863, and landed at the Bluff per ship “Helenslee.” Till the middle of 1864 he followed the occupation of gold-miner in Otago, and thence came to Marlborough to the Whakamarina rush in April, 1864, but shortly returned to Otago, and subsequently visited New South Wales and Queensland, in which latter country he travelled to the limits of the settled districts, still following the occupation of a gold-miner. In 1866 he returned to New Zealand, and for the next four years was engaged exploring and prospecting the south-west part of the MacKenzie Country, on the borders of Canterbury and Otago. There he conducted explorations alone and at all seasons of the year, thus earning the sobriquet of “the wild man of the MacKenzie Country.” Mr. McKay claims to be the first man who refrigerated meat io New Zealand, having in this manner preserved for long periods both mutton and game in the ice of the glaciers of the Southern Alps. In 1868 he first became acquainted with Dr. (afterwards Sir) Julius Von Haast, and contributed to the enrichment of the exhibits in the Canterbury Museum, then being founded by Von Haast. In 1870 he was engaged prospecting for coal at the Ashley Gorge, Canterbury, where he again came into contact with Von Haast, who, at this time, engaged him as his assistant in prosecuting certain geological surveys he had then in hand at the instance of the General Government. After exploring the central mountain region of Canterbury and the Shag Point coal-field in north-eastern Otago, the expedition returned to Christchurch, and during the following winter Mr. McKay explored and made large collections from the saurian beds of the middle Waipara district, North Canterbury. The valuable results thus obtained were added to the collections in the Canterbury Museum. During 1872 Mr. McKay also explored and excavated in the “Moa Bone Cave,” near Sumner, Canterbury, and acquired considerable notoriety in connection with the dispute that subsequently arose between Dr. Haast and the governors of the New Zealand Institute, re the rights of publication of the results in that cave. The Canterbury Institute referred the matter for decision to the Royal Society (England), but the result, as it never was published, appears to have confirmed the decision of the New Zealand Institute. During the latter part of 1872 Dr. (now Sir James) Hector was in Christchurch, and noting the additions to the museum collections of the fossil saurians from the Waipara, he engaged Mr. McKay to make a collection at Amuri Bluff, of similar remains for the geological survey. This work he finished by March, 1873, and brought to Wellington a very large collection of rare and valuable fossils that now constitute one of the chief attractions in the Colonial Museum. In the end of 1873 he made a geological survey of the southern part of Otago, and in the early part of 1874 of part of the goldfields of the West Coast of the South Island, and the same year also accompanied Dr. Hector to the east coast of Auckland Province, and examined the couutry from Gisborne to the mouth of the Waipawa River. Mr. McKay was now appointed a permanent officer of the Geological Department, and during the past twenty-two years has made fully 100 distinct surveys, and published full and elaborate reports on the different districts page 175 examined by him, which extended to the extremities of both islands of New Zealand. After earning the title of assistant geologist in 1892, he was removed to the Mines Department, and the official title was altered to “Mining Geologist.” Mr. McKay is a Fellow of the London Geological Society and of several other learned societies. He has long been a student of photography, and to him science is indebted for the invention of the telephoto lens, which is considered to be one of the most important discoveries recently made in connection with photography.
Clerks—T. S. M. Cowie, H. E. Radcliffe.
Draughtsman—C. H. Pierard.
Board of Examiners under “The Coal Mines Act, 1891”—The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand, the Surveyor-General, the Inspecting Engineer of Mines, W. M. Mowatt (Chief Inspector of Machinery, Wellington), James Bishop, of Brunnerton, Thomas Brown, of Denniston, and William Shore, of Kaitangata.
Board of Examiners under “The Mining Act, 1891”—The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand, the Surveyor-General, the Inspecting Engineer of Mines, W. M. Mowatt (Chief Inspector of Machinery, Wellington), Thomas Dunlop, of Thames, Patrick Quirk Caples, and George Casley, of Reefton.
The Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand, is chairman of both Boards.
Thomas Hutchinson Hamer, Chief Clerk, Mines Department, is Secretary of both Boards.
Geological Survey, Museum, And Observatories.
This scientific branch of the Mines Department has done an enormous amount of useful work in the Colony. Under the able supervision of Sir James Hector, geological surveys have been made of nearly every district in New Zealand and voluminous illustrated reports published in the Transactions of the Philosophical Institute, showing cross sections of the stratification and nature of the rocks, which are invaluable to the prospector for minerals. The geology of New Zealand possesses so much variety that the explorations of Sir James Hector, S. H. Cox, and A. McKay, which have been recorded, are of great value. The Wellington Museum is under the control of this department, and contains a magnificent collection of geological specimens from all parts of the world, and in the same building the Government Analyst, Mr. William Skey, has his quarters. Mr. Skey's researches have gained him a world-wide reputation, and his investigations into the causes of the loss of gold, and discoveries in that direction, are quoted in the best modern works on Metallurgy. The Astronomical and Meteorological observatories are taken and recorded by this department, and the warnings of approaching storms are of the utmost value to miners.
The Hon. A. J. Cadman, Minister of Mines, is in charge.
Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S., the Director, is referred to at length on the following page.
Mr. R. B. Gore is the Curator and Meteorological Observer. (See New Zealand Institute.)
Mr. Thomas King, Astronomical Observer at the Colonial Observatory, was born in Glasgow in 1858. With his parents he came to New Zealand per ship “Whirlwind,” landing in Auckland in 1860. Educated at the Auckland College and Grammar School, he removed to Wellington, and entered the service of Messrs. W. and G. Turnbull and Co., with whom he remained for many years. In the year 1885 he joined the staff of Messrs. Levin and Co. For many years Mr. King has studied astronomy, and undertakes the observations at the Colonial Observatory, from which the time in New Zealand is regulated.
New Zealand Institute, established under an Act of the General Assembly of New Zealand intituled “The New Zealand Institute Act, 1867.” Board of Governors (ex officio), His Excellency the Governor and the Hon. the Colonial Secretary; nominated — Mr. W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S., Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S., Messrs. W.M. Maskell, Thomas Mason, E. Tregear, F.R.G.S.; elected — Messrs. James McKerrow, F.R.A.S., S. Percy Smith, F.R.G.S., Major-General Schaw, C.B., R.E. manager, Sir James Hector; honorary treasurer, Mr. W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S.; secretary, Mr. R. B. Gore. The first scientific society in New Zealand was founded in 1851, the first president being Sir George Grey, K.C.B., D.C.L. It was named “The New Zealand Society,” and was located in Wellington. Nine years later another society was established in Christchurch, as the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, the first president being Mr. Julius Haast (afterwards Sir Julius von Haast, K.C.M.G., Ph.D.). The Institute commenced with four branch societies in 1869, and only 258 members, but there are now eight societies affiliated, and the number of members increased to 1327 in 1881, but has since fallen off to about 950, each of whom pays a guinea a year, which may be considered as a voluntary tax for an educational purpose. The names of the affiliated societies are the Wellington Philosophical Society and the Auckland Institute, both incorporated on the 10th of June, 1868; the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, established on the 22nd of October, 1868; the Otago Institute, founded on the 18th of October, 1869; the Westland Institute, organised on the 21st of December, 1874; the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, incorporated on the 31st of March, 1875; the Southland Institute, established on the 21st of July, 1880; the Nelson Philosophical Society, formed on the 20th of December, 1883. Each member of the scientific societies affiliated to the New Zealand Institute receives a share of the parliamentary grant in the form of an annual volume of the transactions for the year of all the various societies. The presentation of this volume is regarded as a substantial equivalent for the subscriptions, and the fund which is created by local subscriptions is applied locally towards the maintenance of public museums in the different centres of population. The average size of the annual volume of Transactions and Proceedings is 640 pages and about forty plates. The funds at the disposal of the Board of Governors of the Institute have consisted only of the annual grant by Parliament of £500, an annual contribution from the Wellington Philosophical Society as all equivalent for rent of the library-room and the use of the lecture-hall, and a small sum arising from the sale of volumes. Nearly the whole of the funds are spent in the printing of the volume of Transactions.
Sir James Hector, M.D., K.C.M.G., F.R.S., Chancellor of the New Zealand University, Director of the Geological Survey and Observatories in New Zealand, Manager of the New Zealand Institute and Chairman of the Boards of Examiners under the “Coal Miners Act” of 1891, and “The Mining Act” of 1891, has for many years been foremost in scientific research in the Colony. His father, who was an Edinburgh lawyer and “Writer to the Signet,” of repute as a conveyancer and reader of black letter deeds, used to translate and read old manuscript to Sir Walter Scott, on which were founded some of the Waverley romances. Born in that lovely city on the 16th of March, 1834, Dr. Hector was trained at the Edinburgh Academy and High School until he was fourteen. Entering his father's office for some time, he was subsequently articled to the eminent actuary, Mr. James Watson, with whom he continued for three years, but during this time he attended university and art classes. In 1852 he matriculated at the Edinburgh University as a student of medicine, which at that time afforded the only avenue for scientific study, for which he had shown a decided bent from an early age, especially in the direction of chemistry and natural history. During his course of training, geology claimed the largest share of his time, his holidays being devoted to long walking expeditions in search of geological and botanical specimens. This led to his being called on to give an account of the geological and physical features of the ground gone over by the students in their excursions, to the Botanical Society, of which Professor Balfour was the chief. Dr. Hector soon became noted as “a leader and authority on geological matters among the students,” having previously to his University course attended the lectures on mechanics, mineralogy, geology, and palaeontology of Professors Lee, Macadam, Rose, and Page. In 1856, having completed his course of medical studies, he gained his M.D. degree, passing both his major examinations in one year. For a short time after taking his degree, Dr. Hector acted as an assistant to Sir James Simpson. But it was not in the practice of the profession that the subject of this notice was destined to employ his time. He was selected, on the recommendation of his University, as surgeon and geologist to an expedition to explore the territory extending from Canada, west of Lake Superior, in British North America, which was ordered in March, 1857, by the House of Commons. Sir Roderick Murchison the Director-General of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, appointed and instructed Dr. Hector, and four years was the period occupied by these explorations, including the time spent in preparing full reports of the results, which form a Parliamentary Blue Book, illustrated with maps and sections. The leader of the expedition was Captain Palliser, but the principal portion of the scientific work was performed by Dr. Hector, who, accompanied by only two men, went arduous journeys on foot with snow shoes and dogs, so as to gain full information regarding the country. His explorations extended in the summer to the Rocky Mountains, where he discovered five passes, one of which, named the “Kicking Horse Pass,” after an accident which nearly cost him his life, is now the route of the great Trans-continental Canadian Railway. The country explored, which was previously untrodden save by Indians, is now settled and traversed by roads and railways. Before returning to England, Dr. Hector examined and reported on the coal mines of Vancouver Island, and visited the goldfields of British Columbia and California and some of the mines of Northern Mexico. Returning to England, via Panama and the West Indies, he had the pleasure of laying before the different scientific societies the results of his explorations. In 1861 the Royal Geographical Society awarded the expedition the gold medal for its geographical discoveries, and in 1891 Sir J. Hector was personally awarded the Founder's gold medal of the society, which is the greatest distinction that can be gained for geographical research. In 1861 Sir K. Murchison made two offers of employment to Dr. Hector to Kashmir and New Zealand, but recommended him to accept the latter as geologist to the Provincial Government of Otago. Arriving in Dunedin in 1861, the first three years of his work were occupied in the exploration of all parts of the Otago province, including the mountain regions and West Coast Sounds, and the results are recorded in maps and reports embracing every branch of scientific research. When the Dunedin Exhibition of 1865 was projected, Dr. Hector was appointed Commissioner, and in its interests he made a rapid tour throughout the whole Colony. Under his skilful direction the Exhibition was a brilliant success. Early in 1865 the Colonial Government engaged Dr. Hector as Director of the Geological Survey for the whole Colony, and he at once proceeded to survey the country, aided by a small staff of assistants. In 1866 he issued his first annual report, which has been repeated regularly up to the present date. These reports have dealt with every subject that bears on the development of the natural resources of the Colony. To Dr. Hector is also due the management of the New Zealand Institute, which dates from 1868, since which time he has performed as a labour of love the onerous work of its management and the editing of the copious volumes of transactions, which appear each year with unfailing regularity. In 1870 Dr. Hector was a witness before the Joint Committees of both Houses of the Legislature on the page 177 colonial industries, and a perusal of this evidence and other reports will testify to his practical knowledge of the resources of New Zealand. He had a trip to England and the Continent in 1875, and in the following year as he returned he represented the Colony as Commissioner at the Philadelphia Centenary Exhibition. At the Exhibitions at Sydney in 1879, and at Melbourne in 1880 and 1888, he represented the Colony as Executive Commissioner. Dr. Hector prepared a complete, though condensed, handbook on New Zealand for distribution at the Sydney Exhibition, and this has since passed through several editions as a separate publication. He has ever taken a profound interest in education, more particularly in relation to the higher branches; hence it is not surprising that he should have been unanimously elected to be Chancellor of the New Zealand University, a position which he has retained since 1885. He belongs to many of the learned societies, notably the Royal Physical Society, to which he was elected in 1857, the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Geological Society of London, and the Royal Geographical Society in 1860, the Royal Society of London, the Linnaean Society, the Zoological Society, and the Statistical and Mineralogical Society of London in 1866, and many others in America and the Continents of Europe and Australia. Dr. Hector received in 1874, by permission of His Majesty, the Order of the Golden Crown from the Emperor of Germany. In 1875 he received the Order of G.M.G., in recognition of his services in America, and the Geological Society also awarded him the Lyell Medal for that year. For his distinguished services, Dr. Hector was created a K.C.M.G. by Her Majesty in 1886. Sir James Hector has been an earnest worker in organising the Botanical Gardens for the use of the increasing population o the Empire City, and his efforts have been crowned with success. Sir James was married on the 29th of December, 1868, to Georgiana, eldest daughter of the late Sir David Monro.
Mr. W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. Hon. Treasurer, is described under “Ex-Members of the House of Representatives.”
Mr. Richard B. Gore, Curator of the Colonial Museum, and Secretary to the Geological Survey Department, to the New Zealand Institute, and Meteorological Observer and Statist, has for over thirty years been a public servant of the Colony. He is a descendant from an Irish family, being the third son of the late Colonel Henry Ross Gore, C.B., and was born in Plymouth, England, in 1840. Educated partly in Ireland, and afterwards at King's College, London, Mr. Gore passed the Civil Service examinations and joined the war office, where he had three years experience. In 1862, having decided to come to the colonies, he landed in Auckland per ship “Black Eagle.” After a short time in the northern capital, Mr. Gore went to Christchurch, and thence to Dunedin, where he joined Sir James (then Doctor) Hector in the Geological Survey Department, with which he has been connected as secretary from its inception. In 1864 Mr. Gore was married in Dunedin to a daughter of Mr. John Murphy, of County Clare, Ireland. His family numbers eight, four daughters and four sons. His eldest daughter is married to Mr. Thomas Walter, son of the late Mr. Walter of the London Times. Mr. Gore's sons are well known, the eldest, Mr. H. M. Gore, is on the Hansard staff, Messrs. A. H. and R. Gore are in the Australian Mutual Provident Society, and the youngest is employed in the office of the Commissioner of Crown Lands, Wellington.