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Land Tenure in the Cook Islands

Table of Contents

page i

Table of Contents

Preface v
Acknowledgements vi
Abbreviations x
Glossary and Conventions xii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Part One: The Pre-Contact Land Tenure System of Rarotonga
Chapter 2 Historical background - c. 875 to 1823 A.D. 12
Early settlement 13
Takitumu: the tribe of Tangiia 17
Karika's tribe: Te Au o Tonga or Avarua 20
Arorangi: the tribe that broke away 26
Relations between the tribes 27
Chapter 3 Social organization 31
The tribe (vaka) 31
The major lineage (ngati) 35
The minor lineage (ngati) 40
The extended family (uanga) 42
The nuclear family (puna) and the young unmarrieds (mapu) 42
The commoner (unga or tangata rikiriki) 42
Demographic composition 45
Specialists 47
Marriage 48
Transmission of titles 51
Chapter 4 The distribution of rights to land 60
The role of the titleholder 61
Rights of the tribe 64
Rights of the lineage 66
Rights of the extended family 71
Rights of the individual 73
Chapter 5 The acquisition and loss of rights to land 84
By discovery and settlement 84
By conquests 85
By allocation and occupation within the landholding group 88page ii
By inheritance 89
By reversion 92
By marriage 93
By gift and permissive occupation 96
By adoption 98
The pattern of acquisition 102
The loss of rights to land 104
Chapter 6 The utilization and role of land in Rarotonga 107
The economic exploitation of land 107
The role of land in social relations 114
The state of land rights in 1823 120
Chapter 7 Changes in the distribution of land and land rights 124
New patterns of settlement 124
The effects of social and demographic upheaval 133
Foreign settlement 145
Chapter 8 The form and function of introduced laws 155
The Mission role 155
The functioning of the laws 159
Protection and Federation 1888–98 165
Chapter 9 The new role of land 172
The production of surpluses 172
Changes in production patterns 175
The leasing and lending of land 179
The status of women 180
Differentiation of the social classes 181
Chapter 10 The establishment of the Land Court 190
A shift in the balance of power 190
Annexation and the creation of a Land Court 196
The Court established 198
Foreign settlement 200
The act of 1915 205
Appeals and rehearings 209
Chapter 11 The Land Court in action 211
Determining ownership 211
Title to village lands 217
The progress of Court investigations 222page iii
Chapter 12 Court practice and native custom 225
Rights of women (and through women) 226
The rights of absentees (contingent and secondary right-holders) 233
The effects of erroneous Court interpretations 238
Chapter 13 Tenure reform and productivity 247
Early experiments in increasing productivity 247
Productivity changes since annexation 250
The causes of productivity decline 263
Chapter 14 Recent developments 272
The Occupation Rights scheme 272
Later experiments 278
New patterns of work organization 283
Chapter 15 Future possibilities 286
The demographic context 286
Advantages of the existing system 288
Future possibilities: the range of feasibility 290
Fragmentation of title 293
Facilitating transfer 298
The constitution and functions of the Court 304
Incorporation: a possible tenure innovation 309
A Schedule of laws and other provisions relating to land in the Cook Islands 315
B The Ngati Te Ora case: an illustration of the effects of Court practice 330
C Price index for the Cook Islands 1891–1959 349
Bibliography 350
List of maps, tables and diagrams
The Cook Islands in relation to neighbouring territories xv
Rarotonga: major cultural and physical features 14
The pattern of land division: Turangi and adjacent tapere, Rarotonga 68page iv
The changing pattern of settlement: Turangi ma Nga Mataiapo 130
Ngati te Ora lands, Takuvaine valley, Rarotonga 331
1A Exports of Agricultural Produce from the Cook Islands 1895–1905 252
1B Exports of Agricultural Produce from the Cook Islands 1906–15 253
2A Exports of Agricultural Produce from Mauke 1906–15 256
2B Exports of Agricultural Produce from Mangaia 1906–15 256
3 Exports of Agricultural Produce from the Cook Islands 1921–30 257
4A Exports of Agricultural Produce from Mauke 1930–40 259
4B Exports of Agricultural Produce from Mangaia 1930–40 259
5 Exports of Agricultural Produce from the Cook Islands 1950–9 261
6A Exports of Agricultural Produce from Mauke 1950–9 262
6B Exports of Agricultural Produce from Mangaia 1950–9 262
Ideal structure of a Rarotongan tribe 32
A pre-contact example illustrating the pattern of transmission of rank titles 59
A hypothetical pre-contact household in Rarotonga 75
Genealogy of the Ngati Te Ora 3428