Land Tenure in the Cook Islands
The bibliography is divided into two parts: the first deals with theoretical and comparative studies which were consulted in the course of the research, while the second deals exclusively with source material relating directly to the Cook Islands. In cases where the relevance of works listed is not immediately apparent, a brief annotation is given, showing the reason for their inclusion. If only a particular portion of a work is of relevance, the appropriate pages are shown in brackets. The abbreviations used are explained on page x. Titles of publications are underlined.
Part One: Theory and Comparative Studies
1. Land tenure theory and general
Cadastral Surveys and Records of Rights in Land, Rome 1953.
Clauson, Gerard, Communal Land Tenure Rome 1953.
Conklin, Harold C., ‘An Ethnoecological Approach to Shifting Agriculture’, Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences (second series) 17:133–42.
Digby, Margaret, Co-operatives and Land Use Rome 1957.page 351
Harris, Marshall, ‘Objectives of Land Tenure Policy’, Caribbean Land Tenure Symposium, Trinidad 1947, 30–48.
— ‘A Note on Primitive Systems of Land Holding and on Methods of Investigation’, JAA 3:9–13.
—‘Basic Elements in the World Land Tenure Problems’, Journal of Farm Economics 38:430–7.
—The Owner Cultivator in a Progressive Agriculture, Rome 1958.
Thelwell, Arthur, ‘Comparison of Leasehold and Freehold Systems of Land Tenure’, Caribbean Land Tenure Symposium, Trinidad 1947, 59–71.
—Land Reform, New York 1951.
—Progress in Land Reform, New York 1954.
— (Trusteeship Council), Suggested Outline for Land Study, cyclostyled, New York 1951.page 352
United Nations Organization (Trusteeship Council), Sundry Papers relating to land tenure in Trust territories issued by the Committee on Rural Economic Development, cyclostyled, New York.
2. Selected studies of specific tenure situations
Bell, F.L.S., ‘An investigation into the Relationship Existing Between the systems of Tracing Descent, The institutions of Succession to Rank, Exercise of Authority and Inheritance of Property and the Economy of Central Polynesia’, MA thesis, University of Sydney 1932.
— ‘Land Tenure in Tanga’, Oceania 24:28–57.
Fienberg, D.M., ‘Land Tenure in Relationship to Native Economic Development’, typescript, Sydney 1956.
Healy, A.M., ‘Kenya's Agrarian Reform: Its Implications for New Guinea’, typescript, Canberra 1961.
Oliver, Douglas L., Studies in the Anthropology of Bougainville, Solomon Islands Part 4: Land Tenure in Northeast Siuai, Cambridge, U.S.A. 1949.
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands - Staff Anthropologist, Land Tenure Patterns - Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Guam 1958.
Colonial Office, ‘Report of the Conference on African Land Tenure in East and Central Africa’, JAA October 1956 (special supplement).
Gluckman, Max, ‘Studies in African Land Tenure’, African Studies 3:14–21.
—Essays on Lozi Land and Royal Property, Livingstone 1943.
Frampton, A. de K., ‘Land Tenure in Relation to the British West Indies‘ cyclostyled, Curacao 1950.page 354
Harris, Marshall, Origin of the Land Tenure System in the United States Ames, Iowa 1953.
Holmberg, Allan R., ‘Land Tenure and Planned Social Change: A Case from Vicos Peru’, Human Organisation 18:7–10.
Smith, M.G., ‘The Transformation of Land Rights by Transmission in Carriacou’, Social and Economic Studies 5:103–38.
3. Land tenure in Polynesia and Fiji
South Pacific Conference, ‘Problems Resulting from the impact of Participation in Economic Development with Reference to Land Tenure and the Growing of Permanent Crops‘ cyclostyled, South Pacific Commission, Noumea 1958.
Belshaw, Horace, ‘Land Tenure in New Zealand’, Far Eastern Survey 15:115–19.
—Land Tenure and the Problem of Tenurial Reform in New Zealand, Wellington 1949.page 355
Hawaii Lands Commissioners, ‘Principles Adopted by the Board of Commissioners to Quiet Land Titles’, Revised Laws of Hawaii 1925 3:2120–52.
Newbury, Colin, ‘The Administration of French Oceania 1842–1906’, Ph.D. thesis, ANU 1956.
Nayacakalou, R.R., ‘Land Tenure and Social Organization in Western Samoa’, JPS 69:104–22.
Mouat, L.S. and Davis E.J., ‘Engineering Experiences in the South Seas 1906–1910’, Transactions of the Northern Engineering Institute of New South Wales 1913:60–79. (Deals primarily with the initial land survey of Tonga.)page 356
Prasad, Shew, ‘A Landholding Co-operative Society’, South Pacific Bulletin 11 (no.2):65–6.
Part Two: The Cook Islands
Anonymous, ‘The Origin of Mitiaro’, typescript, LMS Library Rarotonga, n.d.
Arundel, John T., Journal 1870–1919, ANU. (Visited Cook Islands in 1870–1 and 1890.)
Buzacott, Aaron, Journals and Papers, Mitchell Library.
Buzacott (Mrs), E., MS on life in Rarotonga in the 1830's, Mitchell Library.
— Journals, Mitchell Library.page 357
Cowan, C.T. (Tau Puru Ariki), MS on Cook Island customs pertaining to land, ANU 1960.
[Hutchen, J.J.K.] ‘Phases of Native Life and Christian Work in Hervey Islands’, handwritten, Mitchell Library, n.d.
Lyth, R.B., Diary 8.10.1836–8.10.1842. (Visited Cook Islands December 1837.)
Numa, John A., MS on Rarotongan history, typescript, Rarotonga 1954.
Pitman, Charles E., Journal, 1827–42, 6 volumes, Mitchell Library.
Polynesian Society Incorporated, Collection of vernacular MSS in the Rarotongan language (largely anonymous), Polynesian Society, n.d. (Microfilm copies held by ANU.)
— ‘A Dictionary of the Rarotongan Language’, 6 volumes, CIA, Rarotonga, n.d.
— ‘Land and Other Customs Peculier to Manihiki and Rakahanga’, CIA, Rarotonga, n.d.
Te Rainga io Mangaia (Census of Mangaia), handwritten, CIA, 1880.
Tupper (Captain), ‘Report upon a visit to the following islands:- Nassau, Danger, Hunphrey, Rierson, Penrhyn, Suwarrow in HMS Plyades 1899’, typescript, SBC.
Vaine Rere, MS on Atiu customs relating to land, ANU 1960.
A Former Resident of Lahaina (pseud.), ‘A Sketch of Rarotonga, one of the Hervey Islands’, The Friend 1.3.1849.page 358
Cheeseman, Thomas F., ‘The Flora of Rarotonga, the Chief Island of the Cook Group’, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London (second series) 6:261–313.
Cook, James, A Voyage Towards the South Pole and Round the World (second edition), vol.3, London 1785. (Pages 180–223 deal with the Cook Islands.)
Cowan, C.T. (Tau Puru Ariki), ‘Ata-Ki-Te-Kura and Apopo-Te-Ivi-Roa’ (Names of ancestors), Tumu Korero 1:9–11, 2:4–7; ‘Te Tua Ia Tangiia’ (The history of Tangiia), Tumu Korero 6:2–4, 8:2–3 and 13–14, 9:4–9, 10:5–9.
— ‘The Genealogy of the kings of Rarotonga and Mangaia’, AAAS 627–37.
— ‘Some Traditions of the Hervey Islands’, JRAI 6:3–8.
— ‘Concerning the use of the word Unga for Slave’, JPS 20:128–9.
—Jottings from the Pacific, London 1885.
—Historical Sketches of Savage Life in Polynesia, Wellington 1880.page 359
Gill, W. Wyatt, The South Pacific and New Guinea, Past and Present, with notes on the Hervey Islands, Sydney 1892. (Pages 10–38 deal with the Cook Islands.)
—Life in the Southern Isles, London 1876.
—Selections from the Autobiography of the Rev. William Gill, Yates and Alexander, London 1880.
—The Islands of the Blest, Dunedin, n.d.
— ‘Report on the Trade and Social Condition of the Eastern Pacific’, NZPP A3 1902:47–55.
— ‘Report on the Cook and Northern Islands’, NZPP A3 1903:22–7.
— ‘Cook and Other Islands Report’, NZPP A3 1904:67–74.
— ‘Report for the year ending 31.3.1908’, NZPP A3 1908:4–15.
— ‘The Whence of the Maorils JPS 12:51–61 and 120–30.
— ‘The Cook Islands: Settlement in an Island Group of the South West Pacific’, Malayan Journal of Tropical Geography 5:1–11.
Kiva, ‘E Tuatua Tupuna no Rarotonga’ (Some Rarotongan ancestors), JPS 6:1–6.page 360
—Geology of Mangaia, Honolulu 1927.
Merchants, Planters and Traders of the Cook Islands, Cook Islands Administration - An Arbitrary Autocracy Rarotonga 1920.
— ‘A South Sea Island and its People’, Fortnightly Review 54 (n.s.):775–86.
— ‘Maori Polity on the Island of Rarotonga’, JPS 3:20–6.
— (translator - original by ‘one of the Natives of Rarotonga’), ‘Genealogies and Historical Notes from Rarotonga’, JPS 1:65–75.
Pakoti, John, ‘Te Autara Ia Aitutaki: Tona Katiri Anga’ (The Story of Aitutaki: its peopling), JPS 4:59–70.
Pallander, Edwin, The Log of an Island Wanderer; Notes of Travel in the Eastern Pacific, London 1901. (Pages 25–55 deal with the Cook Islands.)page 361
Savage, Stephen, ‘Origin of the Names of Rarotongan Arikis or High Chiefs’, JPS 18:217–18.
— ‘History and Traditions of the Taranaki Coast’ (chapter 4 - ‘Toi and His Descendants’), JPS 16:175–88. (Compares Rarotongan and New Zealand genealogies.)
Ta'unga and others, No Te Au Enua Etene I Aere Ei Te Pai Orometua 1846 (About the heathen lands visited by the mission ship in 1846), Rarotonga 1847.
[Takamoa Theological College], Te Tuatua No Te Au Uipanga Ia Me 1844 (Report of the May meetings 1844), Rarotonga 1844.
—Ethnology of Tongareva, Honolulu 1932.
—Ethnology of Manihiki and Rakahanga, Honolulu 1932.
—Arts and Crafts of the Cook Islands, Honolulu 1944.
— ‘Ko to Rarotonga Are-Korero teia no Iro-nui-ma-oata’ (The Rarotongan tradition of Iro-nui-ma-oata), JPS 26:1–18 and 45–65.
Vakapora, Uatini, ‘E Tuatua No Te Kapuaanga I Te Enua Ko Rurutu‘ (Story of the peopling of Rurutu - from Rarotonga), JPS 20:21–8.page 362
— ‘The Pukapukans on Nassau Island’, JPS 67:256–65.
Ward, James (ed.), Perils, Pastimes and Pleasures of an Emigrant in Australia, Vancouver Island and California, London 1849. (Pages 162–81 deal with the Cook Islands.)
Williams, John, A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands London 1838.
Collections and series
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mission (microfilmed collection of selected documents held by ANU from the archives of the American Board).
Arundel Papers, collection of papers of the late John T. Arundel, ANU.
London Missionary Society, Letters, Journals and Reports of the South Seas Missions 1797–1906 (microfilm copies held at National Library, Canberra).
Moss Papers, papers and letters of the late Frederick J. Moss, Auckland Institute and Museum.
National Archives, the Department of State, Washington, ‘Research in Records of American Activities in the Central Pacific 1790–1870‘ (microfilm copies held by ANU).
New Zealand National Archives, files pertaining to the Cook Islands, 1888–1901.
Public Records Office, London, files F.O.58 (Consul Rarotonga to Foreign Office), C.O.209 (Governor of New Zealand to Colonial Office), C.O.225 (Western Pacific High Commission to Colonial Office); from notes by R.P. Gilson. Miscellaneous Admiralty records (from photostats and microfilm copies held by ANU).
Tahiti British Consulate Papers, Mitchell Library, Sydney.page 363
Newspapers and periodicals
Boston Daily Whig 1.8.1846
Cook Islands Gazette 1898–1959
Cook Islands News 1951–9
Cook Islands Review 1952–9
The Friend (Honolulu) 1848–90 passim
Ioi Karanga (Rarotonga) 1898–1900
Messager De Tahiti 1864
Nautical Magazine (Sydney) 1840, 1860 and 1874
New Bedford Mercury 15.4.1825
The Polynesian 24.10.1840
The Shipping Gazette and Sydney General Trade List 17.7.1850
Sydney Herald 18.10.1832
Te Karere (Rarotonga) 1897–1910
Te Punavai Rarotonga 1843–4
Te Torea (Rarotonga) 1895–9
Tuatua Mou (Rarotonga) 1909–16
Tumu Korero (Rarotonga) 1953–4
Weekly Alta California 16.11.1850
Official MSS and files
Atiu Island Council Minutes 1917–59.
Cook Islands Administration, files and records relating to land matters 1892–1960.
— Proceedings of the Legislative Council of the Cook Islands 1947–57.
— Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly of the Cook Islands 1958–9.
Department of Island Territories, files and records relating to land matters 1915–58.
Harvey, John (Judge), ‘Report to the Right Hon. the Minister of Island Territories‘ typescript, Wellington 1946.
Native Land Court, files and records relating to land matters 1891–1960.
Official publicationspage 364
Census and Statistics Department, Population Census 1945 vol.2 (Island Territories), Wellington 1947.
Island Territories, Department of, Reports on the Cook Islands 1890–1960, Wellington.
New Zealand Parliamentary Debates 1898–1958
Gunson, W. Neil, ‘Evangelical Missionaries in the South Seas 1797–1860’, Ph.D. thesis, ANU 1959.
Lay, T.E., ‘A Study of Certain Aspects of Human Ecology in the Polynesian High Islands During the Precontact Period’, Ph.D. thesis, University of California 1958–9.
McArthur, Norma, Populations of the Pacific (in press). Page references given are to cyclostyled draft.
Best, Elsdon, ‘The Discovery and Settlement of Rarotonga by Polynesians‘, JPS 36:122–34.page 365
Burrows, Edwin, ‘Western Polynesia, A Study in Cultural Differentiation‘, Etnologiska Studier 7:1–192.
Elbert, S.H., ‘Internal Relationships of Polynesian Languages and Dialects‘, South-Western Journal of Anthropology 9:147–73.
Firth, Raymond, ‘A Note on Descent Groups in Polynesia‘, Man 57:4–8.
Fraser, John, ‘The Origin of the Rarotongans’ in ‘Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa‘, JPS 6:67–76.
Gilson, R.P., ‘Negotiations Leading to British Intervention in Rarotonga‘, Historical Studies 7:62–80.
— ‘The Background of New Zealand's Early Land Policy in Rarotonga’, JPS 64:267–80.
Goldman, Irving, ‘Variations in Polynesian Social Organization‘, JPS 66:374–90.
Hooper, A.B., ‘The Migration of Cook Islanders to New Zealand‘, JPS 70:11–17.
Mason, Ronald, Frontier Forsaken, an outline History of the Cook Islands Auckland 1947.
Montgomery, James, Journal of Voyages and Travels by Rev. Daniel Tyerman and George Bennett Esq., vol.2, London 1831. (Pages 115–22 deal with the Cook Islands.)
Vayda, A.P., ‘Polynesian Cultural Distributions in New Perspective‘, American Anthropologist 61:817–28.page 366
Wheeler, Daniel, Memoirs of the Life and Gospel Labours of the Late Daniel Wheeler, London 1842. (Pages 541–56 and 775–8 deal with the Cook Islands.)