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The Vegetation of New Zealand

List of Plates and Figures

page VIII

List of Plates and Figures.

Plate Fig. Page
I 1. The stony bed of the River Waiau-uha (Hanmer Plains) showing its anastomosing streams 46
II 2. Coastal scrub of Stewart Island. In the foreground wind-swept Leptospermum scoparium occupies the place of the usually dominant Senecio rotundifolius, which here is in the more sheltered background 62, 104
III 3. Mangrove swamp, showing an adult tree, pneumatophores and young plants of Avicennia officinalis 66, 82
IV 4. Aereal roots of Metrosideros tomentosa given off from high up the trunk, descending to and entering the ground 67, 98
V 5. Stilbocarpa Lyallii growing amongst rocks, Ruapuke Island (Stewart district). In the foreground the inflorescence hidden by the leaves can be dimly seen 71
VI 6. The bull-kelp (Durvillea antarctica) as seen at low water. Dog Island, Foveaux Strait 80
VII 7. View of a portion of the extensive Salicornia formation at Wakapuaka (Nelson Harbour-SN.), showing various stages of the incoming of Juncus maritimus var. australiensis salt-swamp 83
VIII 8. Natural foredune formed by Spinifex hirsutus on the west coast of the Ruahine-Cook district near Waikanae 92
VIII 9. Active dune in process of occupation by Phormium tenax, Arundo conspicua and Cassinia leptophylla. West of Ruahine-Cook district 93
IX 10. Leptospermum scoparium heath of a dune-hollow of the Eastern district with Discaria toumatou in the foreground 94
IX 11. Mesembryanthemum australe growing on coastal rock exposed to abundant sea-spray at Lyall Bay, Wellington (Ruahine-Cook district) 96
X 12. Sand-worn stones lying on the exposed rock where dunes have been blown away. Here and there is small Coprosma acerosa 101
X 13. Where dunes have been blown away small bushes of Coprosma acerosa are growing on the shallow layer of sand with a tongue of sand in their lee. Coast of Egmont-Wanganui district 101
XI 14. Celmisia Lindsayi association with mats of that plant in centre; in left hand corner is a tussock of Poa Astoni and to right a scrub of Hebe elliptica, Phormium tenax &c. Nugget Point, South Otago district 102
XII 15. Mat of Celmisia Lindsayi growing on coastal cliff at Nugget Poinz (South Otago district). In lefthand corner is Anisotome intermedia 102
XIII 16. Coastal shingle-slip on Kapiti-Island with an open association consisting chiefly of Cassinia leptophylla and Arundo conspicua 102 page IX
XIV 17. Isolated trees of Olearia angustifolia growing on an exposed part of the coast of Stewart Island. The tree on the left is about 3 m. high, its trunk 37.5 cm. diam. and the rounded crown 12 m. through 103, 104
XV 18. Senecio rotundifolius scrub on the shore of Patterson Inlet, Stewart Island, showing the dense roof and the branches jutting out over the shore for about 3.9 m 104
XVI 19. Metrosideros tomentosa scrub at foot of cliffs facing the shore. Base of the Waitakerei Hills, Kaipara subdistrict 111
XVII 20. Coastal scrub of Rangitoto Island in the Hauraki Gulf, South Auckland district. In centre Griselinia lucida which is always epiphytic in forest 107
XVIII 21. Girdle of Metrosideros tomentosa near Mangonui, just above high water-mark, North Auckland district 107
XIX 22. Dysoxylum forest of Stephen Island — there truly coastal — showing its close roof (Sounds-Nelson district) 115
XX 23. Outskirts of dicotylous-podocarp forest near Te Whaiti (East Cape district) with Podocarpus dacrydioides (tree on right) dominant and towards centre on left a tree-fern (Dicksonia fibrosa) and on right the smaller tree-fern, D. squarrosa 152, 168, 175
XXI 24. The massive trunk of Podocarpus dacrydioides, but more irregular ("fluted") than usual. Dicotylous-podocarp forest of Sounds-Nelson district 129
XXII 25. Base of a massive tree of Podocarpus totara in the dicotylous-podocarp forest of the Mount Peel National Park (Eastern district) 129
XXIII 26. Roots resembling liane stems descending along trunk of Dacrydium cupressinum from an epiphytic epharmone of Griselinia littoralis in forest, Stewart Island 136
XXIV 27. Epiphytes on branches of Beilschmiedia tawa in kauri forest (North Auckland district). Masses of Astelia Solandri 60 cm. high and on left a pendent bunch of Lycopodium Billardieri, 1.2 m. long 136138
XXV 28. Base of Metrosideros robusta showing its irregular habit suitable for occupation by epiphytes. Forest of Kapiti Island (Cook Strait) 137
XXVI 29. Base of trunk of Weinmannia racemosa formed out of aereal roots. Forest of Stewart Island 137, 145, 166, 168
XXVII 30. Winter aspect of the deciduous Plagianthus betulinus, its branches completely covered by some of the smaller epiphytes (9 species) with Cyclophorus serpens and Earina mucronata dominant 137, 144
XXVIII 31. Pittosporum divaricatum — a typical example of the divaricating life-form growing in subalpine scrub on Arthur's Pass (900 m. altitude), Western district 140, 236
XXVIII 32. Late stage in the life-history of the lowland vegetation near the Franz Josef glacier (Western district) with Blechnum discolor (fronds erect, pale) and Leptopteris superba in the foreground 148
XXIX 33. Metrosideros perforata, a high-climbing root-climber, growing as a shrub in the open 145
XXX 34. A portion of the kauri subassociation showing the characteristic undergrowth of Astelia trinervia. Waipoua forest, North Auckland district in 1907 158 page X
XXXI 35. Interior of an extensive area of the kauri subassociation. The large trunks are those of the kauri (Agathis australis) and the slender ones mostly those of Beilschmiedia taraire. Waipoua Kauri forest, North Auckland district in 1907 158
XXXII 36. Interior of an open kauri subassociation showing the slender trunks of Beilschmiedia taraire ready to replace the kauri trees when such die; the massive trunks are those of the kauri. Waipoua kauri forest. North Auckland district in 1907 158
XXXIII 37. View of roof of kauri forest, the kauris rising high above the other trees. In foreground on right Cyathea medullaris, its crown above the foliage of the forest margin. Waipoua kauri forest in 1907 158
XXXIV 38. Interior of rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) forest of the Western district with Qiuntinia acutifolia as undergrowth 164
XXXV 39. Nothofagus cliffortioides forest at about 560 m. altitude (Waimakariri Valley, junction of Eastern and Western districts) marking the average line reached by the westerly rain. Between the riverbed and forest margin its junction with the tussock-grassland can be seen 165, 392
XXXVI 40. Colony of Gleichenia Cunninghamii on floor of Weinmannia racemosa forest near Lake Brunner, North-western district in 1897 169
XXXVII 41. Semi-swamp forest near Dargaville (Kaipara subdistrict) in 1911, showing the long straight trunks of Podocarpus dacrydioides and the abundance of epiphytic Astelia Solandri 175
XXXVIII 42. Liverwort cushion of Plagiochila gigantea nearly 90 cm. high by 75 cm. through at the base and Lycopodium volubile growing on it; on left, trunk of Weinmannia covered with Anew a eriocaulon. Dacrydium intermedium association, Stewart Island 181
XXXIX 43. Colony of Nothofagus fusca in lowland Nothofagus Menziesii-cliffortioides forest at 270 m. altitude near the head of Lake Te Anau, Fiord district 185
XL 44. Portion of the Mineral Belt — the substratum a magnesian soil — showing the sudden transition from forest (on limestone) to the mostly open vegetation but with some tall tussock-grassland in foreground and some shrubland to left and in centre 187, 193
XLI 45. Pomaderris Edgerleyi as a member of Auckland manuka shrubland on the North Cape Promontory, North Auckland district 191
XLI 46. Raoulia tenuicaulis (juvenile form in background) growing on the stony bed of the River Otira (Western district) at 300 m. altitude 207, 240
XLII 47. Low river-bed forest in the Otira Valley (Western district) at 376 m. altitude with Pittosporum Colensoi on the left and Suttonia divaricata on the right. 210
XLII 48. Another piece of the low forest of Fig. 47. In front a tree of the "araliad-form" (Pseudopanax crassifolium var. unifoliolatum) and various divaricating shrubs in the undergrowth 210
XLIII 49. Nothofagus cliffortioides forest giving place to low tussock-grassland where exjposed to the full blast of the frequent north-west wind, near source of River Poulter at about 800 m. Western district just within the area of high rainfall 230 page XI
XLIII 50. Snow avalanche in a gully on Mount Tarndale (North-eastern district) which has cut a path through the Nothofagus cliffortioides forest 231
XLIV 51. New vegetation on ice-worn rock alongside the Franz Josef glacier (Western district) with Metrosideros lucida in centre and fully-developed scrub in background 232, 233
XLIV 52. Interior of scrub on old moraine near the terminal face of the Franz Josef glacier. The stems are mostly those of Coprosma rugosa 232, 233
XLV 53. Hard, massive cushion of Dracophyllum rosmarinifolium about 60 cm. high, surrounded by low Olearia Colensoi scrub on Mount Anglem, Stewart Island, at about 850 m. altitude 238
XLVI 54. Low subalpine scrub, Stewart Island, the tuft-shrub, Dracophyllum Menziesii, rising above the Olearia Colensoi. Mount Anglem at about 850 m 238, 280
XLVII 55. Celmisia coriacea var. stricta showing the close-growing erect rosettes of this class of the genus. Indigenous-induced (after fire) association at 900 m. altitude on the Takitimu Mountains, South Otago district 238, 294
XLVIII 56. Aciphylla Scott-Thomsonii, showing the Yucca-form common in the genus, growing on Flagstaff Hill, South Otago district. 239
XLIX 57. Subalpine scrub on the Tooth Peaks, South Otago district near its junction with the Fiord district at 900 m. altitude, composed of Senecio cassinioides and Aciphylla maxima with peduncles 4.5 m. high. 239, 278
L 58. Great cushions of Haastia pulvinaris — one of the largest vegetable-sheep — growing at 1500 m. altitude on shingle-slip on Mount Tarn-dale, North-eastern district near its junction with the North-western district 240, 290
L 59. Replacement of tussock-grassland by cushions of Raouiia lutescens — the cushion-form being due to the original mat being filled with sand — near Tarras (North Otago district) owing to denudation by drifting sand 240
LI 60. Horizontal trunk of Olearia ilicifolia in the subalpine Podocarpus-Libocedrus forest near source of the River Rakaia (Southern Alps, Western district) at 920 m. altitude showing the deciduous outer bark 236, 247, 266
LI 61. Close view of cushion of Phyllachne clavigera 247, 349
LI 62. Veronica spathulata growing in the scoria desert at base of Mount Ngauruhoe at 1500 m. altitude (Volcanic Plateau district) 247, 291
LIII 63. Mat of Leucogenes Leontopodium as a member of the fell-field association of the Tararua Mountains at about 1300 m. altitude (Ruahine-Cook district) 247, 301, 313
LIV 64. The cupressoid Eelichrysum coralloides of fairly open habit, growing on a dry rock-face at about 1250 m. altitude on Shingly Range, North-eastern district 252, 285
LIV 65. Helichrysum coralloides growing on dry rock, as in Fig. 64, but exposed to strong wind and forming a close cushion 252, 285page XII
LV 66. To right and centre, outskirts of Nothofagus cliffortioides forest; to left in foreground tall tussock-grassland of Danthonia Raoulii var. rubra; on right much Phormium Colensoi; in distance, the active volcano NgauTuhoe. Waimarino Plain at about 1000 m. altitude 255
LVI 67. Upper limit of Nothofagus cliffortioides forest at about 1200 m. altitude on Shingly Range, North-Eastern district 255259
LVI 68. Regeneration of Nothofagus cliffortioides forest — the old trees having died naturally — by the same species. Wairau Valley at 900 m. altitude (North-western district) 255259
LVII 69. Tall shrubland on outskirts of Nothofagus cliffortioides forest at base of Mount Hahungatahi (Volcanic Plateau district) at 900 m. altitude with Cordyline indivisa (tuft-tree), Hebe salicifolia and Phormium tenax 259
LVIII 70. Epharmonic cushion of the straggling or turf-making Dacrydium laxifolium and growing on it Hebe tetragona and Celmisia longifolia. Fell-field at 1200 m. altitude near base of Mount Ruapehu (Volcanic Plateau district) 298
LIX 71. The epiphytic moss, Weymouthia Billardieri hanging from twigs of Hoheria glabrata in the mountain-ribbonwood low forest of Clinton Valley (Fiord district) at 600 m. altitude 267
LIX 72. Interior of low forest on Price's Peak, Stewart Island, at an altitude of about 270 m., showing the numerous bryophyte cushions of Plagiochila gigantea and Dicranoloma Billardieri 271
LX 73. Exterior view of shrub-composite subalpine-scrub of Mount Anglem, Stewart Island, at about 700 m. altitude. The main mass is Olearia Colensoi but in foreground is some Dacrydium Bidnnllii and jutting through the roof shoots of Dracophyllum longifolium 278, 280
LXI 74. Subalpine scrub of Mount Greenland (Western district) at about 800 m. altitude; on extreme left is Quintinia acutifolia, then Metro-sideros lucida (both trees of the forest below), in centre Pittosporum divaricatum and on right Nothopanax simplex. 279, 280
LXI 75. Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) scrub on Frazer Peaks (South of Stewart Island); on right, where extremely dense the scrub has regenerated after being burned. 280
LXII 76. Terminal face of old lava-flow from the Red Crater of Mount Tongariro, Volcanic Plateau 283
LXIII 77. Ewartia Sinclairii growing on dry rock in the lower subalpine belt at 900 m. altitude of the Awatere Valley, North-eastern district. 285
LXIV 78. Vegetation of dripping rock in Clinton Valley, Fiord district with an undescribed grass (not yet collected in flower) and drooping Celmisia verbascifolia on either side and to right Phormium Colensoi 286
LXIV 79. Notothlaspi rosulatum growing on single-shlip of river-terrace at about 750 m. altitude at Castle Hill, Eastern district. 290
LXV 80. Gentiana bellidifolia growing on scoria at about 1500 m. altitude on Mount Tongariro, Volcanic Plateau district. 291, 297
LXVI 81. Open cushion of Carmichaelia orbiculata growing as a member of the pumice fell-held at 1140 m. altitude (Volcanic Plateau district) with Celmisia spectabilis and Danthonia setifolia growing through the cushion. 298 page XIII
LXVII 82. Eymenanthera alpina growing on rock at 270 m. altitude surrounded by the depleted ground, originally tussock-grassland, on the Dunstan Mountains, North Otago district 224
LXVIII 83. Portion of thick mat of Celmisia hieracifolia in fell-field of Mount Hector, Tararua Mountains, at about 1400 m. altitude. (Ruahine-Cook district). 301, 313
LXVIII 84. Low cushion of Raoulia grandiflora in fell-field of Mount Hector, Tararua Mountains, at about 1400 m. altitude (Ruahine-Cook district) 301
LXIX 85. Ranunculus Lyallii as member of subalpine wet-mountain fell-field on Mount Murray at about 1100 m. altitude near source-of River Rakaia (east of Western district), with subalpine-scrub in background 239
LXX 86. Tall tussock-grassland of almost pure Danthonia Raouliiva. v. flavescens in the lower subalpine belt of Mount Dick, South Otago district 306
LXXI 87. Portion of herb-field, Arthur's Pass, at 920 m. altitude with Celmisia coriacea in bloom mixed with Phormium Colensoi (Western district) 315, 316
LXXI 88. Herb-field of Baird Range near Franz Josef glacier (Western district) at about 1200 m. altitude with a mat of Celmisia Walkeri overlying a rock and C. petiolata in the background 315, 316
LXXII 89. Pimelea Gnidia — of Hebe-form — growing with Astelia Cockaynei (foreground), Phormium Colensoi (right hand corner of background) and Dracophyllum filifolium (left of centre in background) as part of shrubby herb-field of Tararua Mountains (Ruahine-Cook district) 313
LXXIII 90. Low cushion of Celmisia argentea in herb-moor of Table Hill, Stewart Island at 570 m. altitude with Danthonia pungens in background 315, 321
LXXIV 91. Ranunculus Lyallii in herb-field near source of River Rakaia (Western district) at 1200 m. altitude 239, 315
LXXIV 92. Donatia novae-zelandiae, 1.5 m. long, and growing on it Celmisia glandulosa var. vera, Pentachondra pumila, and above its upper margin is a line of Danthonia crassiuscula. Hanging valley at source of River Routeburn (Fiord district) at about 1200 m. altitude 318
LXXV 93. Cushions of Montia fontana in shallow running water at about 1200 m. altitude in the Volcanic Plateau district 323
LXXVI 94. Colony of Rhopalostylis Cheesemanii in the dry forest of Sunday Island, Kermadec Islands 328
LXXVII 95. Vegetation of sand-covered coastal rock of Chatham Island with Hebe chathamica on left, Sonchus grandifolius on right and Festuca Cozii in centre 333
LXXVIII 96. Penguin rookery on Snares killing the vegetation; in centre tussock-moor and in background low forest of Olearia Lyallii 338
LXXIX 97. Interior of Metrosideros lucida forest of Lord Auckland Island showing the prostrate and semi-prostrate trunks 338
LXXX 98. Portion of herb-moor of Adams Island (Lord Auckland group) at about sea-level with Pleurophyllum criniferum in foreground in blossom and bud 340, 348page XIV
LXXXI 99. Poa ramosissima growing on coastal cliff, Masked Island, Carnley Harbour (Lord Auckland group) and above it a colony of Blechnum durum 344
LXXXII 100. Interior of southern-rata forest of the Lord Auckland Islands showing the tangle of branches. Here the usual undergrowth is absent and only a few ferns are present 344
LXXXIII 101. Roof of Olearia Lyallii forest of Ewing Island, Lord Auckland group 345
LXXXIV 102. In foreground is tussock-moor with tussocks of Danthonia antarctica and behind is the windshorn shrub-form of Metrosideros lucida at about 300 m. altitude, Lord Auckland Island 345
LXXXV 103. Colony of Stttbocarpa polaris in "Fairchild's Garden", Adams Island (Lord Auckland group) and Dracophyllum longifolium in background 348
LXXXVI 104. Piece of induced steppe of Central Otago caused by repeated burning and overstocking (sheep and rabbits) but approaching the desert stage; in foreground is a cushion of Baoulia lute- scens 363, 364
LXXXVI 105. Lycopodium fastigiatum making "fairy rings" in artificial grassland in valley at head of Lake Wanaka, east of Western district 366
LXXXVII 106. View of a forest-area after a successful bush-burn 370