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The Vegetation of New Zealand

3. The Period of Publications by New Zealand Botanists

3. The Period of Publications by New Zealand Botanists.

From the founding of the New Zealand Institute (1867) to the publication of Kirk's Students' Flora (1899). In 1867 the New Zealand Institute was founded by Act of Parliament, which assured it an income of £ 5001. To it were affiliated, in due course, the scientific societies of the Provinces. There was now ample means of publication for local workers, who alone can undertake those critical studies which demand observations from living plants. Nor were such workers wanting, as a glance at the Bibliography of this volume shows. Indeed matter was awaiting publication and the first volume of the Transactions of the new Society included plant-geographical essays previously written by certain of those collectors who had done yeoman service for Hooker, — Colenso, Hector, Monro, Travers and Buchanan. Especially important are Hector's principles of plant-distribution in South Island2, and Colenso's phyto-geographical areas of North Island3. The progress during this subperiod was considerable. Year by year new species of spermophytes were published and (though many are certainly

1 1) This sum was increased to £1000 in 1919 and to £1500 in 1926

2 2) He defines western, central and eastern climatic provinces and 8 vertical belts. The influence of the Divide is appreciated and stress is laid on the continental climate of the centre.

3 3) Six areas and seven vertical belts.

page 13invalid) at a low estimate, the number of species allowed in the Handbook was increased by one-half. Localities of which the florulas were virtually unknown were investigated and those but hastily examined were explored afresh; indeed knowledge as to plant-distribution increased fourfold. Floristically, more intensive studies were made of certain critical genera and species. Three works of major importance were published, — The Indigenous Grasses of New Zealand (Buchanan 1880), The Forest Flora of New Zealand (T. Kirk 1889) and The Students' Flora of New Zealand and the Outlying Islands (T. Kirk, 1899). Three botanical collectors and authors stand forth conspicuously — T. Kirk, T. F. Cheeseman and D. Petrie. Colenso, Buchanan, Travers and Knight continued their labours, those of Colenso ceasing only at his death in 1898, he having been an active worker in the field for at least 60 years. Others of the subperiod who have imprinted their mark on New Zealand botany are G. M. Thomson, J. Adams, J. B. Armstrong, T. H. Potts, A. Hamilton, R. Brown ter., and R. M. Laing. In order to gain a chronological view of the progress made the subperiod may be divided into decades, the first terminating with 1877. During this decade lists of species of the following localities were published: Mount Egmont and Marlborough (Buchanan 1869), Great Barrier Island (Kirk 1869), the Thames district (Kirk 1880), the Port Hills and adjacent plain (J. F. Armstrong 1870), the northern district of Auckland (Buchanan and Kirk 1870), Auckland Isthmus (Kirk 1871–72), Titirangi district (Cheeseman 1872), Hot Lakes district (Kirk 1873), Wellington Province (Buchanan 1874), Chatham Islands (Buchanan 1875), 45 additions to the Otago Flora (G. M. Thomson 1877). Lists of introduced plants were drawn up by Kirk, J. F. Armstrong and G. M, Thomson, respectively, for Auckland (1870), Canterbury (1872) and Otago (1875). The Swedish botanist, S. Berggren, visited the Colony and made large collections in nearly all the botanical districts.
The second decade ends with 1887. The localities for which lists were published are: Bluff Harbour; 109 additions to the Otago flora, and Islands in the Hauraki Gulf (Kirk 1878); Okarito to the Franz Josef Glacier (Hamilton 1879); Mt. Pirongia (Cheeseman 1879); Canterbury Province (J. B. Armstrong 1880), Stewart Island (Petrie 1881); Nelson Province (Cheeseman 1882); Macquarie Island (Scott 1883); 90 additions to vascular plants of Thames subdistrict (J. Adams 1884); Stewart Island (T. Kirk 1885)1; Mount Te Aroha (J. Adams 1885); 131 additional species to the flora of Nelson (Kirk 1887). An account of the naturalized plants near Wellington was published by Kirk in 1877. An important illustrated paper by Buchanan on the alpine flora appeared in 1883. G. M. Thomson dealt with the pollination of New Zealand plants and in the same year (1882),

1 1) Details are given regarding the vegetation, together with an account of the first ascent of Mt. Anglem. A few additions are made to the seedplants and there is a full list of ferns. Mr. Trall materially assisted the author.

page 14he published a notable paper on the origin of the flora. During this decade some much-needed studies on the following genera were made: Veronica (J. B. Armstrong 1881), Carex and Coprosma (Cheeseman 1884, 1887). Buchanan's fine folio work on the indigenous grasses appeared in 1880, illustrated with life-size figures. C. Knight (1860–84) published various papers on the lichen flora. The New Zealand University, founded in 1870, began but extremely slowly to influence research, and the early papers on Algae of R. M. Laing (1886) may be traced to its influence. G. M. Thomson's useful book on ferns came out in 1882, and Potts's charming Out in the Open.
The third decade must be extended to April 10 th, 1899. The botanical exploration of New Zealand continued. Cheeseman visited the unbotanized Three Kings Islands and the almost unknown Kermadec Group, publishing lists of their species and other details (1888–91). Kirk voyaged to the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands in the summer of 1890, putting forth in 1891 an account of the botany of the group (Macquarie Island excepted), that of the Snares and Antipodes Islands being previously unknown. F. R. Chapman, of the same expedition, also contributed some important particulars on their vegetation (1891). J. Adams ascended Mounts Te Moehau and Hikurangx describing their vegetation (1889–1897). Hamilton wrote an account of his visit to Macquarie Island (1895). Petrte made a number of interesting journeys, collecting copiously1. Colenso was still active. Macmahon ascended Mt. Stokes. H. J. Matthews collected near L. Wakatipu for his famous garden. F. A. D. Cox made fairly full collections of Chatham Islands plants. L. Cockayne commenced his botanical explorations in 1887 and has continued them year by year up to the present time2. In 1896 Petrie's important List of the Flowering Plants Indigenous to Otago appeared3. The same year Diels's Vegetations-Biologie von Neu-Seeland was published, a pioneer work which laid securely the foundations of ecological botany in New Zealand. The study of mosses by R. Brown and T. N. Beckett formed a feature of this decade, Brown, whose love of botany was intense, publishing many supposed new species4 year by year up till

1 1) Ruahine Mts., Volcanic Plateau, Clinton Valley, Waimakariri Basin and North Westland, Mt. Hikurangi, many parts of Auckland.

2 2) For the decade these included: Humboldt Mts., Puketeraki Mts., the neighbourhood of the Waimakariri and its main tributaries, the Seaward Kaikoura Mts., North Westland, the neighbourhood of L. Wakatipu, and various localities from North Canterbury to Foveaux Strait.

3 3) This represents, in small compass, the wealth of information regarding the species and their distribution that this ardent botanist had acquired during 20 years of careful observation. Especially well had he examined the mountains and valleys of Central Otago which had yielded an amazing harvest.

4 4) Considering Brown's advanced age when he commenced publishing, and the-extreme disadvantages under which he worked, his results are remarkably good, especially his critical treatment of certain groups of minute plants and his establishment of valid genera.

page 15his death. The veteran Colenso forwarded large consignments of Hepaticae to Kew, and these, determined by Stephani, yielded many species new to the flora. Important studies of this decade were the determination of New Zealand Tertiary fossil plants by Ettingshausen and Nylander's exhaustive account of all known species of New Zealand lichens. In 1897 New Zealand science experienced a great loss in the death of T. Kirk. For about 34 years all his time and energy had been devoted to New Zealand botany. Early on, he became leader of botanical thought in the Colony, and that position he held firmly until his death. The incomplete flora which Kirk had prepared at the instance of the Government appeared in 1909. Though lacking the author's guiding hand, it is a fine piece of work, and one must ever regret its non-completion. His most admirable Forest Flora of New Zealand still remains the most authoritative work on the forest trees.

From 1899 to the publication of Cheeseman's Manual (1906). The 8 years of this short sub-period show a decrease in contributions to New Zealand botany, but this was more apparent than real, for there was much activity that did not appear until the publication of Cheeseman's Manual, many collectors1 having been busy supplying that author with material.

In 1899, L. Cockayne commenced his ecological publications with a paper on the burning and regeneration of subalpine scrub2. Laing continued his publications on Algae (1900, 5. 6), Brown his papers on mosses, and Carse wrote on the botany of Mauku. The influence of the University somewhat increased, as shown by an important paper by A. P. W. Thomas (Professor of biology Auckland University College) on the prothallus of Phylloglossum, and several papers by students of Canterbury College. R. M. Laing and Miss E. W. Blackwell wrote a popular book entitled Plants of New Zealand (1906), profusely illustrated by excellent photographs. In 1906 Cheeseman's Manual appeared, he having been employed by the Government for its production. It showed how great the progress in floristic botany had been since the publication of the Handbook in 1867, the species of spermophytes having been raised from 935 to 1415. With the appearance of this book the gifted author sprang into the front rank of the floristic botanists of the day. For 20 years it was the mainstay of New Zealand botanists of all grades and it has been a potent factor for botanical advance.

1 1) One of the most, active was W. Townson, who made a close examination of western Nelson, hitherto unbotanized, and threw a flood of light on its remarkable florula. F. G-. Gibbs did excellent service in many parts of Nelson over a wide area and discovered many novelties. H J. Matthews, T. H. Macmahon, H. Carse, and R. H. Matthews and indeed all the New Zealand botanists and collectors also supplied Cheeseman.

2 2) This was followed by communications dealing with seedlings (1899, 1900, 1901), Plant-geography of Waimakariri (1900), Chatham Island (1902), Subantarctic Islands (1904) and several shorter papers.

page 16

From the appearance of the Manual in 1906 to the end of 1916. The appearance of the Manual gave a fresh impetus to research. The former collectors, their ranks increased by younger naturalists, enabled Cheeseman almost yearly to bring out papers supplementary to his work1, the number of students of the flora &c. also gradually increased. The Government employed L. Cockayne to make a series of botanical surveys2. The Philosophical Institute of Canterbury organized an expedition to the Lord Auckland and Campbell Islands and published a work in 2 volumes, which inter alia contains a full account of the flora and vegetation3 of the Subantarctic Botanical Province. W. R. B. Oliver who with some companions, spent a year on the Kermadec Islands in order to study their natural history, wrote an admirable account of their vegetation and flora. A. H. Cockayne broke new ground with a paper — the forerunner of many which appeared later — treating of the effect of burning tussock-grassland. E. Cheels "Bibliography of Australian, New Zealand and South Sea Island Lichens" (1906) must receive mention.

From 1911 to 1913 inclusive various articles were published, some ecological4, others floristic5. To some extent the influence of the University increased6 and this is specially marked by the appearance of J. Holloway's paper on the Lycopodiaceae — the first of his brilliant series of publications. Another paper novel to New Zealand science was L. Cockayne's " Observations concerning Evolution, derived from Ecological Studies in New Zealand".

1 1) These are entitled "Contributions to a Fuller Knowledge of the Flora of New Zealand" (1907–1920); also he published several papers describing new species &c, the last appearing in 1923.

2 2) The results appear in the following richly-illustrated Reports: Kapiti Island (1907), Waipoua Kauri forest and Tongariro National Park (1908), Stewart Island (1909) and two on Sand-dunes (1909–11).

3 3) Cheeseman and L. Cockayne deal respectively with the floristic and ecological botany of the group; Laing with the marine Algae and the ecological botany of Campbell Island; Petrie with the taxonomy of the grasses; and the Fungi, Hepaticae, Lichenes, and Musci are respectively the work of Massee, Stephani, Lindau and Brotherus. The origin of the fauna and flora is discussed by Chilton and Cheeseman respectively.

4 4) L. Cockayne and Laing (The Mount Arrowsmith "district"), Laing (The Spenser Mountains), Popplewell (certain parts of the Stewart and South Otago districts), Phillips Turner (the Waimarino forest and its environs), Aston (the Tararua Mountains, and effect of introduced mammals on vegetation), Petrie (denuded Central Otago).

5 5) Carse (flora of Mangouni County — partly ecological), Aston (list of species of Wellington Province), Petrie (flora of Mount Hector), Crosby-Smith (flora of Princess Mountains), Townson (flora of part of North-western district), L. Cockayne (lists of species near Franz Josef Glacier and on Clinton Saddle).

6 6) The following may be cited: Young Stages of Cyathea and Dicksonia (G. B. Stevenson); Anatomy of Lycopodium (J. H. Holloway); Fungi of Epiphytic Orchids (T. L. Lancaster); Anatomy of Subantarctic Plants (Miss Herriott); New Zealand Halo' phytes (Miss Cross).

page 17

Overseas an increasing interest was taken in New Zealand plants. Goebel, who had visited the Dominion in 1898 and saw a good deal of the vegetation of the Eastern and Western Districts, wrote an important paper on certain Muscineae, and his Experimentelle Morphologie and Organographie, ed. 2. contain many observations regarding New Zealand plants, while inter alia he has described the life-history of Loxsoma. Diels, who with E. Pritzel had spent some time in the Colony in 1902, published his excellent and suggestive Jugendformen und Blutenreife in which many New Zealand plants play a prominent part. Various parts of Das Pflanzenreich deal with critical New Zealand genera, especially Luzula (Buchenau), Uncinia and Carex (Kukenthal), Halorrhagis and Gunner a (Schindler) and Sphagnum (Warnstorf). H. N. Dixon commenced a critical study of New Zealand mosses, with a valuable paper on Dicranoloma. The embryology of the New Zealand gymnosperms has received considerable attention at the hands of botanists of Chicago University, E. C. Jeffrey of Harvard and others. Miss Gibbs wrote on the female strobilus of Podocarpus. Kidston and Gwynne-Vaughan described two Jurassic Osmundaceae. Massee continued his excellent papers on New Zealand fungi. Bitter, in his elaborate work on Acaena, described many new forms for New Zealand. The studies of Beauverd cleared up several doubtful points regarding the Gnaphaloid Compositae. Dqmin showed the New Zealand species of Koeleria to be distinct from any in Europe or South America. D. G. Lillie, biologist on the Terra Nova, made large collections of Jurassic plants in New Zealand, which were dealt with by E. A. N. Arber in his "Eearlier Mesozoic Floras of New Zealand".

The outstanding feature of 1914 was the appearance of Cheeseman's Illustrations of the New Zealand Flora, a work in 2 volumes1. Destined to be eventually of the most extreme importance was the opening of the Canterbury College Biological Station at Cass, which is situated at the junction of the comparatively dry Eastern and the extremely wet Western Botanical districts an ideal situation for research in the midst of vegetation of many kinds and of a rich flora, while there is example after example of extreme epharmony and many polymorphic swarms of hybrids. The botanical exploration of the Region made some progress and various floristic2 anatomical3 and ecological4 papers appeared. During September a meeting

1 1) It contains 250 plates of life-size drawings illustrating most of the genera. An important part is a list of all previous illustrations. The drawings were prepared at Kew by Miss Matilda Smith under the supervision of W. B. Hemsley.

2 2) New species &c. (Cheeseman, Peteie), the flora of the Ruahines (Aston), the subalpine element of the Banks Peninsula flora (Laing), the flora of Southland (Crosby-Smith), new localities for plants (Aston, Cockayne).

3 3) Leaf-anatomy of certain trees and shrubs (Miss L. A. Suckling).

4 4) Rate of growth of the kauri (Cheeseman), vegetation and flora of the lower and upper Routeburn (Poppelwell), ecological study of sanddune plants (Miss E. J. Peqg), vegetation of White Island (W. R. B. Oliver).

page 18of the British Association was held in Australia and in consequence the following botanists took the opportunity of visiting New Zealand: L. H. Bailey, Miss E. M. Berridge, A. B. Rendle and Miss E. Saunders. Part II, dealing whit the Dicranaceae, appeared of H. N. Dixon's valuable studies in New Zealand bryology.

The most important publication of 1915 was Latng's list of the Norfolk Island flora. The other publications can be divided into floristic1, anatomical2, and ecological3.

Perhaps the year 1916 is distinguished by the commencement of L. Cockayne's papers on Floristic Botany which apply different methods4 for the recognition of species from those generally in use. Also several ecological papers appeared5, Holloway's splendid work continued, Petrie and Cheeseman added 15 new species to the flora and Easterfeeld and Mc Dowell dealt with the chemistry of 2 podocarps. During this same year New Zealand came botanically into special prominence through Willis using the distribution of its spermophyte flora to test his now well-known and greatly criticised "Age and Area" theory, all his data being taken from Cheeseman's Manual of 1906 — he, himself, never having visited New Zealand. Almost needless to say the paper contains many incongruities and much of the data is now known to be inaccurate.

From the commencement of 1917 to tke end of 1927. This subperiod of 10 years has been one of great activity. It has wittnessed the production of Holloway's work on Tmesipteris — destined to become a classic, the appearance of Guthrie-Smith's unique account of the plant and animal ecologie of a limited area, based on the observations of 30 years, also of G. M. Thomson's great work on the naturalized animals and plants of New Zealand and the appearance in 1921 of the first edition of this book. Further, hybridism amongst the wild plants, on a scale undreamt of has been recognised, and bids fair to revolutionize the conception of many

1 1) New species &c. (Cheeseman, Petrie, Cockayne), classification of the forms — mostly cultivated — of Phormium (Miss B. D. Cross), the pteridophytes of Mangonui County (Carse), new localities for plants (Aston).

2 2) The protocorm of Lycopodium laterale (Holloway), prothallia of 3 lycopods (Miss K. V. Edgerley), a study of Nothopanax arboreum (Miss E. M. Pigott).

3 3) Recent changes in vegetation near L. Taupo (Fletcher), vegetation of an islet off Stewart Island (Poppelwell).

4 4) The author's views on taxonomic methods were published in 1917 in a paper dealing with the question of species and varieties, and experiment not personal judgment is considered fundamental and most "intermediates" are held to be hybrids. In all, 5 parts of the series have appeared, the last two written in conjunction with H. H. Allan.

5 5) A. H. Cockayne (economic ecology of tussock-grassland); Aston (new vegetation subsequent to the Tarawera eruption); L. Cockayne and Foweraker (the plant-covering near Cass); Poppelwell (the vegetation of 2 islets lying off Stewart Island); J. W. Bird (lianes of Riccarton Bush).

page 19species, while its genetic meaning should be far-reaching. In this regard the visit of J. P. Lotsy to this country and his important lectures at the University Colleges (published by Canterbury University College) must be emphasized. Names new to New Zealand botany have come to the fore and of such those of G. H. Cunningham and H. H. Allan already stand high. In the case of Cunningham his studies on the indigenous rusts and other fungi are models of what such publications should be, and Allan is studying wild hybrids in the field and reproducing them artificially in his garden. Finally the work of botanical exploration has proceeded as never before. In this regard the activity of A. Wall in collecting specimens for the herbarium of Canterbury Museum has been amazing. L. Cockayne in connection with research for the Department of Agriculture and the State Forest Service, has investigated much of the vegetation of both Islands — some unknown previously. Nor can the energy of Speden, H. H. Allan, Gibbs, W. A. Thomson, Aston, J. S. Thomson, Holloway, W. Mackay and G. Simpson be overlooked.

By no means second to botanical exploration and publications comes the cultivation of the indigenous plants. The increase in this direction during the subperiod has been highly gratifying. In North Island the cultivation of shrubs and trees is most in vogue, though there are exceptions, but, in proceeding south, conditions become gradually more favourable for high-mountain species, so that the best collections are to be seen in the South Otago district. Of special importance, since they are got together and used for scientific purposes, are those in the suburbs of Dunedin of W. A. Thomson, J. Scott Thomson and George Simpson, but for wealth of species admirably grown the garden of J. Speden at Gore (SO.) comes first. The most important step of all, however, has been the dedication of a large reserve by the Wellington City Council for the purpose of an "Open-air native plant museum", where a full collection of the indigenous plants is to be established and pieces of the primeval vegetation are to be made artificially, so that both the flora and vegetation will be represented.

The pleasure which the foregoing record of botanical progress gives for the subperiod is grievously marred by the passing away near its close of the two great figures — Cheeseman and Petree — who, year by year, for more than half a century, had added fact after fact to the knowledge of New Zealand plants. Cheeseman's name will ever live in his Manual of the New Zealand Flora, which continues the labours of his illustrious predecessors—he no less to be held in highest honour—recorded already in this chapter. As for Petrie no one can ever ascend to those alpine moorlands of Otago or sail up the lovely Stewart Island, land-locked arms of the Pacific, without being again and again reminded of his splendid pioneer work. Both Cheeseman and Petree presented their great herbaria to the page 20Nation, the former being lodged in the Auckland Museum and the latter in the Dominium Museum (Wellington).

In 1917 Holloway dealt with vegetative reproduction in Lycopodium, Poppelwell gave an account of the vegetation of Haast Pass and environs, Foweraker treated of the mat-plants of a shingly river-bed from the ecological-anatomical viewpoint, L. Cockayne published a map of the Botanical Districts1, and W. R. B. Oliver gave an excellent account of the flora and vegetation of Lord Howe Island2. Petrie presented his yearly contribution of new species and Traill described the effect of a heavy snowstorm in Stewart Island. It was this year also that L. Cockayne's paper — already referred too — on the species question appeared.

The outstanding feature of 1918 was Holloway's great work on Tmesipteris3, already mentioned. L. Cockayne commenced his researches on the great tussock-grassland plant-formation for the Department of Agriculture4, various studies of a more or less ecological character were produced5, and Petrie, Carse, and L. Cockayne published floristic papers, and here comes in A. Wall's excellent paper on the distribution and relationship of the two species of Senecio which is a striking example of the efficiency of the methods of the "natural" taxonomy. Also A. W. Hill's paper on Caltha in the Southern Hemisphere is important for New Zealand6.

The year 1919 was marked by Cheeseman's report on the vascular flora of Macquarie Island, Holloway's continuation of his lycopod studies, and Laing's account of the vegetation und flora of Banks Peninsula and a second, greatly enlarged edition of L. Cockayne's New Zealand Plants and their Story. Miss Betts continued her Mineral Belt series, and a number of minor papers appeared7.

1 1) This was an attempt to divide the Region into natural phytogeographical areas which could be substituted for the unnatural political divisions used hitherto, e. g. Auckland, Taranaki, Canterbury, &c. These districts are nowmade use of by most New Zealand botanists.

2 2) This paper has a distinct New Zealand bearing and can be neglected by no student of the flora or the vegetation.

3 3) Lawson of Sydney University had published the year previous a preliminary account of the prothallus but this paper Holloway had not seen. On the other hand, the latter's account of the development of the embryo was altogether new.

4 4) Altogether 12 articles have been published in the New Zealand Journal of Agriculture (1919–22). Portions of all the tussock-grassland area from north to south of South Island were studied and many mountains ascended to the alpine belt. My assistant W. D. Rlid rendered extremely valuable aid.

5 5) Poppelwell and W. A. Thomson (the Holly ford Valley), Poppelwell (2 more Stewart Island islets) Miss M. W. Betts (ecological-anatomical studies of some Mineral Belt plants).

6 6) Excellent figures are given of the leaves of the species and those of the Tasmanian. Australian and New Zealand species are of particular interest here.

7 7) Miss Herriott (the indigenous species persisting in Hagley Park, City of Christchurch); Cheeseman and Petrie (each 3 new species); and Carse (a variety of Pteris n acilenta).

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Holloway's detailed and elaborate paper on the structure of the prothallus of 5 species of Lycopodium was easily the outstanding feature of 1920, the most ambitious of the remaining papers1 being Wall's account of the ecology and systematic position of Ranunculus pauciflorus. Attention may also be called to L. Cockayne's experiments conducted in semi-arid Central Otago for the Department of agriculture in regard to the relative palatability of certain pasture-plants for sheep, and his observations concerning regeneration of depleted land.

The year 1921 stands out conspicuously in the history of New Zealand botany through the appearance of the books of Guthrie-Smith and L. Cockayne, already referred to, a second important memoir on Tmesipteris by Holloway and the commencement of G. H. Cunningham's admirable mycologial publications. The State Forest Service was established by Act of Parliament under the Directorship of L. M. Ellis. As a part of his world tour E. H. Wilson visited New Zealand, travelling extensively in both Islands. Important systematic changes — long awaited — were the separation of Hebe from the unwieldy genus Veronica by Pennell of the New York Botanical Garden and the reinstatement of the family Winteraceae by Hutchinson of Kew, as also the genus Wintera for the New Zealand species — universally referred to as Drimys. The other papers were of little moment2, excepting perhaps L. Cockayne's Cawthron lecture3 and a too brief account by H. B. Kirk on the rate of growth of certain forest trees. Towards the close of the year D. H. Campbell of Leland Stanford University visited the Dominion and collected liverworts in the dicotylous-podocarp forests of Westland and later published a semi-popular account of the New Zealand flora and vegetation. Finally, attention must be called to L. Cockayne's discovery of hybridism to an intense degree between certain of the species of Nothofagus. In this work W. D. Reid took a prominent part.

The years 1922–23 are best taken together, since the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, made up of papers sent for publication in December 1921, did not appear until 1923. Early in 1922 G. M. Thomson's great work on acclimatization, already referred to, appeared. Economic

1 1) Cheeseman (pneumatophores in Eugenia maire), Petrie (description of 5 new species), Poppelwell (lists of species of Ben Lomond — far from complete — and Hoko-nui Hills), W. Martin (list of pteridophytes of Banks Peninsula), Miss Betts (continuation of anatomy of Mineral Belt species, and a similar study on rosette-plants of tussock-grassland).

2 2) W. R. B. Oliver (clearing up certain points in nomenclature), Petrie and Cheeseman (each a short paper with new species), W. Martin and A. Wall (each a short paper with new localities for species); the latter of special interest as showing Wall's remarkable activity, the localities ranging from the Hunmui to Foveaux Strait and many at over 1500 m. aititude.

3 3) This deals with tiie distribution of vascular plants within the Region.

page 22ecology, as has been seen, was slowly coming into its own, and its advance was evident in Levy's valuable series of papers appearing in book-form as The Grasslands of New Zealand and L. Cockayne's articles on the results of his Central Otago experiments conducted for the Department of Agriculture1. Another of H. N. Dkon's much-wanted Bulletins on bryology appeared, dealing with the Dicranaceae (in part), the Leucobryaceae, the Fissidentaceae, the Calymperaceae and the Pottiaceae2. Cunningham's splendid paper3 on the rust-fungi of New Zealand was issued and marked him at once as a mycologist of the front rank. L. Cockayne broke new ground for New Zealand botany with a paper classifying the wild hybrids on the opportunity afforded the parent species for crossing and enumerating 130 supposed hybrids4. Holloway abandoned for a time his Lycopodium-Tmesipteris studies and turned to the Hymenophyllaceae5. A short but quite important paper was that of Christensen on the burial of plants by shingle in an aggrading river-bed, some species being killed outright and others rooting from the trunk &c. and surviving. Miss E. M. Herriott treated of the ecology and anatomy of Durvillea and there were a number of short papers floristic6 and ecological7.
The leading publications of 1924 were a number of papers by G. H. Cunningham on various families of fungi and the second part of Hollo-way's studies on the Hymenophyllaceae; also a short paper by Erdtman

1 1) The history of economic ecology in New Zealand by L. Cockayne is published in the Report of Proceedings of the Imperial Botanical Conference of 1924 and a list is given of 31 papers, series of papers and books.

2 2) R. Brown, ter with rare discrimination — the reader should have seen (as I have many times) the amazing difficulties under which my old and honoured friend worked — founded two new genera — Hennedia and Dendia — from minute plants and both are considered valid groups, though the former name is changed to Hennediella — there being an algal genus called Hennedia — and the latter is reduced by Brotherus to a subgenus.

3 3) W. D. Reid collected with great judgment much material for this work in the high-mountain belts while with me on the tussock-grassland investigation. Several other papers on fungi by Cunningham also appeared.

4 4) These in 1925 Cockayne raised to 208, and it was explained that the matter was not one of groups of one or two individuals but of great polymorphic swarms.

5 5) Two papers have been published, the second in 1924, which deal respectively with life-forms and the phytogeographical distribution. Both contain a wealth of information previously unpublished and procured in the field by the author at all seasons and in many localities and habitats.

6 6) Christensen paid great attention to the flora and vegetation of the Hanmer area for some 9 years, with the result that no part of the high mountains of equal extent is better known. By the ecologi-cal method he discovered jordanons of critical species and clearly proved that Helichrysum Purdiei, who no one doubted its being an excellent species, was merely one hybrid of a great hybrid swarm.

7 7) Petrie and Cheeseman (each his usual quota of new species), Satnsbury (an account of a new locality for the otherwise almost extinct Pittosporum obcordatum and a description of the seedling), Wall (on Raoulia mammillaris).

page 23of Stockholm proved that pollen of podocarps occurred in Chatham Island peat. W. Martin gave a useful, popular account of the indigenous plants in the neighbourhood of Dunedin. Yeates dealt with the root nodules of podocarps. H. H. Allan1 commenced his studies of wild hybrids, bringing strong evidence that Coprosma Cunninghamii was merely a small part of the great swarm C. propinqua X robusta. Garratt of Yale produced a pamphlet for the State Forest Service dealing with the macroscopic and microscopic features of 28 New Zealand woods. Nannfeldt showed that the New Zealand species of Centella was endemic.

Though the output of botanical publications for 1925 was not large they were on the whole of considerable moment. Foremost comes the 2nd edition of Cheeseman's Manual of New Zealand Flora, which is not — like the first edition — a critical examination of all available material but, for the most part, is the old edition unaltered, together with the species published since 1906 which the distinguished author considered valid, and the newer knowledge (but not in all cases) added concerning distribution. That more could be expected at the advanced age of the author is out of the question. The work closes worthily a most distinguished career. Next come Lotsy's lectures on evolution considered in the light of hybridization published by Canterbury College a noteworthy departure in regard to a New Zealand University College which it is to be hoped is the forerunner of other high-class University publications. Though Lotsy's lectures2 deal with evolution &c. in general, there is an introduction on plant-hybridism in New Zealand and a full list of the wild hybrids by L. Cockayne.

The remaining publications of 1925 are all of importance. They comprise a paper on strictly orthodox lines on the biogeographical relations of the New Zealand Region, the subject being so presented that the different parts are concise and readily assimilated (W. R. B. Oliver); a continuation of Cunningham's studies on fungi; a fairly complete account of the vegetation of the Poor Knights Islands (W. R. B. Oliver3; an account of the vegetation and flora of the Mount Cook area (Wall4; Yeates gave an excellent account of the nucleolus of Tmesipteris'5; L. Cockayne dealt with the occurrence of high-mountain species at a low altitude6.

1 1) H. H. Allan (an account of the introduction and behaviour of spartina-grass in New Zealand), L. Cockayne (on a spineless Discaria).

2 2) These have subsequently been translated into both Dutch and German. Lotsy also published in Genetica an account of certain red-leaved forms of Nothofagus which he had discovered.

3 3) Xeronema — previously known by only one New Caledonian species — was discovered, but the species X. Callistemon W. R. B. Oliver is different, though fairly close.

4 4) The outstanding feature is records of the species at 2100 m. to 2400 m. altitude.

5 5) This was his thesis for the Ph. D. degree of the University and was published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society.

6 6) A contribution to the Festschrift of Karl von Goebel.

page 24

Towards the close of the year E. C. Jeffrey of Harvard visited New Zealand and collected a good deal of material of hybrids and podocarps for cytological and anatomical research.

In 1926 the publication of matter relative to the wild hybrids began in earnest, the medium of publication — thanks to Lotsy who had seen so many New Zealand hybrid swarms in nature — being Genetica. The most ambitious of these papers — the authors inexperienced in this class of work — dealt with a wild Hebe community (H. H. Allan. G. Simpson and J. S. Thomson)1 and the hybrids of Nothofagus (L. Cockayne and E. Atkinson). Allan produced the first two papers of his series "Illustrations of wild hybrids in the New Zealand flora" and an account of the synthesis of the so-called species Coprosma Cunninghamii by crossing C. propinqua with pollen from C. robusta2. In addition L. Cockayne and H. H. Allan have published locally preliminary notes concerning various hybrids and, in a letter to Nature deal with the naming of hybrid swarms. J. S. Thomson and G. Simpson have collected splendid material of many hybrid swarms in the South Otago and Fiord districts, W. Mackay of Greymouth made the interesting discovery of a second Rubus hybrid closely allied to R. Barkeri, and Carse has described a hybrid Cordyline, a hybrid Hebe and a hybrid Metrosideros, and Wall a doubtful hybrid Ranunculus.

Floristic botany made special progress by the appearance of H. N. Dixon's Part IV of his moss Bulletin which extends to the Darsoniaceae. The usual batch of new species appeared at the hands of different authors and Carse with the aid of C. Christensen of Denmark made some changes in fern nomenclature. Cunningham continued his fungi studies and Sprague and Summerhayes of Kew removed the species of Gaya into the section Apterocarpa of Hoheria.

A number of important ecological papers appeared of which H. H. Allan's on Mount Peel vegetation is the most intensive study so far produced in New Zealand; the same author also dealt with a peculiar coastal scrub and with some striking cases of epharmony. The State Forest Service, which had employed L. Cockayne to study the Nothofagus forests as a whole, published the first part of his results dealing with the taxonomy of Nothofagus and the ecology of the formation. G. Simpson and J. S. Thomson produced an ideal short account of a botanical excursion to an unbotanized mountain range. In fossil botany P. Marshall described a new species of Osmundites illustrated by excellent microphotographs.

1 1) Simpson and Thomson labelled many of the hybrids in situ with copper labels and numbered plants ready for genetic research are now growing in their gardens and in those of L. Cockayne and H. H. Allan. Nearly all the data in the paper was the work of Simpson and Thomson.

2 2) Allan has now raised seedlings of the F 2 generation and he has crossed Rubus parvits with R. schmidelioides and raised a plant equivalent to one which has been found m the wild state.

page 25

The present year (1927) has been one of considerable botanical activity. To New Zealand botanists it will long be remembered through the visit of G. E. du Rietz and his accomplished wife, Mrs. Greta du Rietz. During a stay of about 7 months they visited portions of nearly all the botanical districts, collecting everywhere and at all altitudes the various lichens. This family is greatly in need of revision and Du Rietz's conclusions — though of necessity the work will occupy several years — will be of the utmost taxonomic, ecological and phytogeographical importance.

Coming to the work of New Zealand botanists Cunningham continued his researches on fungi and produced several notable papers1. R. M. Laing issued a much-needed Reference List of New Zealand seaweeds. L. Cockayne and H. H. Allan published jointly several comprehensive and critical pappers2, the most ambitious being one dealing with taxonomic conceptions and methods. Allan also continued his work on wild hybrids and, inter alia, by crossing two species of Rubus, showed conclusively the origin of a curious form of Rubus, the parentage of which had previously been quite uncertain. He also concluded his memoir on the vegetation of Mount Peel (E.). A number of other authors issued papers on various subjects3. Overseas, A. W. Hill published an important paper on the species and distribution of Lilaeopsis and two endemic species were established for New Zealand; and Sprague and Summerhayes critically examined the status of Fusanus and restored the genus Mida for the New Zealand and Juan Fernandez species.

Part V of H. N. Dixon's important Studies of the New Zealand Musci appeared which included the genera from Aulacopilum to Rhacopilum inclusive. A new departure in botanical research for New Zealand (already highly developed by E. C. Jeffrey of Harvard) was W. P. Evans's research on the microstructure of the Steventon lignite which showed it to be composed chiefly of coniferous wood but spores also occurred. Finally, as showing the increasing interest in botany in the Dominion, third editions were published of Laing and Blackwell's Plants of New Zealand and of L. Cockayne's New Zealand Plants and their Story.

Although the account of botanical investigation put forth in this chapter

1 1) The New Zealand Lycoperdaceae; Supplements to the Uredinales and Ustilaginales of New Zealand.

2 2) Notes on New Zealand Floristie Botany in which 32 species admitted as indigenous by Cheeseman in the Manual, ed. 2, are rejected as being exotic; The Taxonomic Status of the New Zealand species of Hebe in which the 86 species of the Manual, ed. 2, are reduced to 67 and 3 new species are added.

3 3) Wall dealt with the difficult question of the distribution of rare or local plants; Miss T. Murray treated of certain Fungi parasitic on New Zealand species of Rubus; Miss R. Pigott discussed the development &c. of Corynocarpus; G. M. Thomson, after a lapse of many years, took up once more his much-needed study of pollination; Crosby-Smith gave a short account of the fast vanishing Awarua sphagnum bog and recorded the occurrence of Donatia.

page 26cannot claim to be complete, yet it shows there has been remarkable activity since the early days of settlement. It has told of the deep debt New Zealand owes to her splendid botanical pioneers, with William Colenso at their head. The influence of the great Hooker, friend of all New Zealand botanists, stands forth clearly. It also should have made plain how the New Zealanders themselves have by degrees come to the fore, so that at the present time there are a number of accomplished and, better still, ardent students of plant-life in whose capable hands may be left in all confidence the manifold problems which cry aloud for solution.