The Vegetation of New Zealand
3. The Period of Publications by New Zealand Botanists
3. The Period of Publications by New Zealand Botanists.
1 1) This sum was increased to £1000 in 1919 and to £1500 in 1926
2 2) He defines western, central and eastern climatic provinces and 8 vertical belts. The influence of the Divide is appreciated and stress is laid on the continental climate of the centre.
3 3) Six areas and seven vertical belts.
1 1) Details are given regarding the vegetation, together with an account of the first ascent of Mt. Anglem. A few additions are made to the seedplants and there is a full list of ferns. Mr. Trall materially assisted the author.
1 1) Ruahine Mts., Volcanic Plateau, Clinton Valley, Waimakariri Basin and North Westland, Mt. Hikurangi, many parts of Auckland.
2 2) For the decade these included: Humboldt Mts., Puketeraki Mts., the neighbourhood of the Waimakariri and its main tributaries, the Seaward Kaikoura Mts., North Westland, the neighbourhood of L. Wakatipu, and various localities from North Canterbury to Foveaux Strait.
3 3) This represents, in small compass, the wealth of information regarding the species and their distribution that this ardent botanist had acquired during 20 years of careful observation. Especially well had he examined the mountains and valleys of Central Otago which had yielded an amazing harvest.
4 4) Considering Brown's advanced age when he commenced publishing, and the-extreme disadvantages under which he worked, his results are remarkably good, especially his critical treatment of certain groups of minute plants and his establishment of valid genera.
From 1899 to the publication of Cheeseman's Manual (1906). The 8 years of this short sub-period show a decrease in contributions to New Zealand botany, but this was more apparent than real, for there was much activity that did not appear until the publication of Cheeseman's Manual, many collectors1 having been busy supplying that author with material.
In 1899, L. Cockayne commenced his ecological publications with a paper on the burning and regeneration of subalpine scrub2. Laing continued his publications on Algae (1900, 5. 6), Brown his papers on mosses, and Carse wrote on the botany of Mauku. The influence of the University somewhat increased, as shown by an important paper by A. P. W. Thomas (Professor of biology Auckland University College) on the prothallus of Phylloglossum, and several papers by students of Canterbury College. R. M. Laing and Miss E. W. Blackwell wrote a popular book entitled Plants of New Zealand (1906), profusely illustrated by excellent photographs. In 1906 Cheeseman's Manual appeared, he having been employed by the Government for its production. It showed how great the progress in floristic botany had been since the publication of the Handbook in 1867, the species of spermophytes having been raised from 935 to 1415. With the appearance of this book the gifted author sprang into the front rank of the floristic botanists of the day. For 20 years it was the mainstay of New Zealand botanists of all grades and it has been a potent factor for botanical advance.
1 1) One of the most, active was W. Townson, who made a close examination of western Nelson, hitherto unbotanized, and threw a flood of light on its remarkable florula. F. G-. Gibbs did excellent service in many parts of Nelson over a wide area and discovered many novelties. H J. Matthews, T. H. Macmahon, H. Carse, and R. H. Matthews and indeed all the New Zealand botanists and collectors also supplied Cheeseman.
2 2) This was followed by communications dealing with seedlings (1899, 1900, 1901), Plant-geography of Waimakariri (1900), Chatham Island (1902), Subantarctic Islands (1904) and several shorter papers.
From the appearance of the Manual in 1906 to the end of 1916. The appearance of the Manual gave a fresh impetus to research. The former collectors, their ranks increased by younger naturalists, enabled Cheeseman almost yearly to bring out papers supplementary to his work1, the number of students of the flora &c. also gradually increased. The Government employed L. Cockayne to make a series of botanical surveys2. The Philosophical Institute of Canterbury organized an expedition to the Lord Auckland and Campbell Islands and published a work in 2 volumes, which inter alia contains a full account of the flora and vegetation3 of the Subantarctic Botanical Province. W. R. B. Oliver who with some companions, spent a year on the Kermadec Islands in order to study their natural history, wrote an admirable account of their vegetation and flora. A. H. Cockayne broke new ground with a paper — the forerunner of many which appeared later — treating of the effect of burning tussock-grassland. E. Cheels "Bibliography of Australian, New Zealand and South Sea Island Lichens" (1906) must receive mention.
From 1911 to 1913 inclusive various articles were published, some ecological4, others floristic5. To some extent the influence of the University increased6 and this is specially marked by the appearance of J. Holloway's paper on the Lycopodiaceae — the first of his brilliant series of publications. Another paper novel to New Zealand science was L. Cockayne's " Observations concerning Evolution, derived from Ecological Studies in New Zealand".
1 1) These are entitled "Contributions to a Fuller Knowledge of the Flora of New Zealand" (1907–1920); also he published several papers describing new species &c, the last appearing in 1923.
2 2) The results appear in the following richly-illustrated Reports: Kapiti Island (1907), Waipoua Kauri forest and Tongariro National Park (1908), Stewart Island (1909) and two on Sand-dunes (1909–11).
3 3) Cheeseman and L. Cockayne deal respectively with the floristic and ecological botany of the group; Laing with the marine Algae and the ecological botany of Campbell Island; Petrie with the taxonomy of the grasses; and the Fungi, Hepaticae, Lichenes, and Musci are respectively the work of Massee, Stephani, Lindau and Brotherus. The origin of the fauna and flora is discussed by Chilton and Cheeseman respectively.
4 4) L. Cockayne and Laing (The Mount Arrowsmith "district"), Laing (The Spenser Mountains), Popplewell (certain parts of the Stewart and South Otago districts), Phillips Turner (the Waimarino forest and its environs), Aston (the Tararua Mountains, and effect of introduced mammals on vegetation), Petrie (denuded Central Otago).
5 5) Carse (flora of Mangouni County — partly ecological), Aston (list of species of Wellington Province), Petrie (flora of Mount Hector), Crosby-Smith (flora of Princess Mountains), Townson (flora of part of North-western district), L. Cockayne (lists of species near Franz Josef Glacier and on Clinton Saddle).
6 6) The following may be cited: Young Stages of Cyathea and Dicksonia (G. B. Stevenson); Anatomy of Lycopodium (J. H. Holloway); Fungi of Epiphytic Orchids (T. L. Lancaster); Anatomy of Subantarctic Plants (Miss Herriott); New Zealand Halo' phytes (Miss Cross).
Overseas an increasing interest was taken in New Zealand plants. Goebel, who had visited the Dominion in 1898 and saw a good deal of the vegetation of the Eastern and Western Districts, wrote an important paper on certain Muscineae, and his Experimentelle Morphologie and Organographie, ed. 2. contain many observations regarding New Zealand plants, while inter alia he has described the life-history of Loxsoma. Diels, who with E. Pritzel had spent some time in the Colony in 1902, published his excellent and suggestive Jugendformen und Blutenreife in which many New Zealand plants play a prominent part. Various parts of Das Pflanzenreich deal with critical New Zealand genera, especially Luzula (Buchenau), Uncinia and Carex (Kukenthal), Halorrhagis and Gunner a (Schindler) and Sphagnum (Warnstorf). H. N. Dixon commenced a critical study of New Zealand mosses, with a valuable paper on Dicranoloma. The embryology of the New Zealand gymnosperms has received considerable attention at the hands of botanists of Chicago University, E. C. Jeffrey of Harvard and others. Miss Gibbs wrote on the female strobilus of Podocarpus. Kidston and Gwynne-Vaughan described two Jurassic Osmundaceae. Massee continued his excellent papers on New Zealand fungi. Bitter, in his elaborate work on Acaena, described many new forms for New Zealand. The studies of Beauverd cleared up several doubtful points regarding the Gnaphaloid Compositae. Dqmin showed the New Zealand species of Koeleria to be distinct from any in Europe or South America. D. G. Lillie, biologist on the Terra Nova, made large collections of Jurassic plants in New Zealand, which were dealt with by E. A. N. Arber in his "Eearlier Mesozoic Floras of New Zealand".
1 1) It contains 250 plates of life-size drawings illustrating most of the genera. An important part is a list of all previous illustrations. The drawings were prepared at Kew by Miss Matilda Smith under the supervision of W. B. Hemsley.
2 2) New species &c. (Cheeseman, Peteie), the flora of the Ruahines (Aston), the subalpine element of the Banks Peninsula flora (Laing), the flora of Southland (Crosby-Smith), new localities for plants (Aston, Cockayne).
3 3) Leaf-anatomy of certain trees and shrubs (Miss L. A. Suckling).
4 4) Rate of growth of the kauri (Cheeseman), vegetation and flora of the lower and upper Routeburn (Poppelwell), ecological study of sanddune plants (Miss E. J. Peqg), vegetation of White Island (W. R. B. Oliver).
Perhaps the year 1916 is distinguished by the commencement of L. Cockayne's papers on Floristic Botany which apply different methods4 for the recognition of species from those generally in use. Also several ecological papers appeared5, Holloway's splendid work continued, Petrie and Cheeseman added 15 new species to the flora and Easterfeeld and Mc Dowell dealt with the chemistry of 2 podocarps. During this same year New Zealand came botanically into special prominence through Willis using the distribution of its spermophyte flora to test his now well-known and greatly criticised "Age and Area" theory, all his data being taken from Cheeseman's Manual of 1906 — he, himself, never having visited New Zealand. Almost needless to say the paper contains many incongruities and much of the data is now known to be inaccurate.
1 1) New species &c. (Cheeseman, Petrie, Cockayne), classification of the forms — mostly cultivated — of Phormium (Miss B. D. Cross), the pteridophytes of Mangonui County (Carse), new localities for plants (Aston).
2 2) The protocorm of Lycopodium laterale (Holloway), prothallia of 3 lycopods (Miss K. V. Edgerley), a study of Nothopanax arboreum (Miss E. M. Pigott).
3 3) Recent changes in vegetation near L. Taupo (Fletcher), vegetation of an islet off Stewart Island (Poppelwell).
4 4) The author's views on taxonomic methods were published in 1917 in a paper dealing with the question of species and varieties, and experiment not personal judgment is considered fundamental and most "intermediates" are held to be hybrids. In all, 5 parts of the series have appeared, the last two written in conjunction with H. H. Allan.
5 5) A. H. Cockayne (economic ecology of tussock-grassland); Aston (new vegetation subsequent to the Tarawera eruption); L. Cockayne and Foweraker (the plant-covering near Cass); Poppelwell (the vegetation of 2 islets lying off Stewart Island); J. W. Bird (lianes of Riccarton Bush).
By no means second to botanical exploration and publications comes the cultivation of the indigenous plants. The increase in this direction during the subperiod has been highly gratifying. In North Island the cultivation of shrubs and trees is most in vogue, though there are exceptions, but, in proceeding south, conditions become gradually more favourable for high-mountain species, so that the best collections are to be seen in the South Otago district. Of special importance, since they are got together and used for scientific purposes, are those in the suburbs of Dunedin of W. A. Thomson, J. Scott Thomson and George Simpson, but for wealth of species admirably grown the garden of J. Speden at Gore (SO.) comes first. The most important step of all, however, has been the dedication of a large reserve by the Wellington City Council for the purpose of an "Open-air native plant museum", where a full collection of the indigenous plants is to be established and pieces of the primeval vegetation are to be made artificially, so that both the flora and vegetation will be represented.
The pleasure which the foregoing record of botanical progress gives for the subperiod is grievously marred by the passing away near its close of the two great figures — Cheeseman and Petree — who, year by year, for more than half a century, had added fact after fact to the knowledge of New Zealand plants. Cheeseman's name will ever live in his Manual of the New Zealand Flora, which continues the labours of his illustrious predecessors—he no less to be held in highest honour—recorded already in this chapter. As for Petrie no one can ever ascend to those alpine moorlands of Otago or sail up the lovely Stewart Island, land-locked arms of the Pacific, without being again and again reminded of his splendid pioneer work. Both Cheeseman and Petree presented their great herbaria to the page 20Nation, the former being lodged in the Auckland Museum and the latter in the Dominium Museum (Wellington).
In 1917 Holloway dealt with vegetative reproduction in Lycopodium, Poppelwell gave an account of the vegetation of Haast Pass and environs, Foweraker treated of the mat-plants of a shingly river-bed from the ecological-anatomical viewpoint, L. Cockayne published a map of the Botanical Districts1, and W. R. B. Oliver gave an excellent account of the flora and vegetation of Lord Howe Island2. Petrie presented his yearly contribution of new species and Traill described the effect of a heavy snowstorm in Stewart Island. It was this year also that L. Cockayne's paper — already referred too — on the species question appeared.
The outstanding feature of 1918 was Holloway's great work on Tmesipteris3, already mentioned. L. Cockayne commenced his researches on the great tussock-grassland plant-formation for the Department of Agriculture4, various studies of a more or less ecological character were produced5, and Petrie, Carse, and L. Cockayne published floristic papers, and here comes in A. Wall's excellent paper on the distribution and relationship of the two species of Senecio which is a striking example of the efficiency of the methods of the "natural" taxonomy. Also A. W. Hill's paper on Caltha in the Southern Hemisphere is important for New Zealand6.
The year 1919 was marked by Cheeseman's report on the vascular flora of Macquarie Island, Holloway's continuation of his lycopod studies, and Laing's account of the vegetation und flora of Banks Peninsula and a second, greatly enlarged edition of L. Cockayne's New Zealand Plants and their Story. Miss Betts continued her Mineral Belt series, and a number of minor papers appeared7.
1 1) This was an attempt to divide the Region into natural phytogeographical areas which could be substituted for the unnatural political divisions used hitherto, e. g. Auckland, Taranaki, Canterbury, &c. These districts are nowmade use of by most New Zealand botanists.
2 2) This paper has a distinct New Zealand bearing and can be neglected by no student of the flora or the vegetation.
3 3) Lawson of Sydney University had published the year previous a preliminary account of the prothallus but this paper Holloway had not seen. On the other hand, the latter's account of the development of the embryo was altogether new.
4 4) Altogether 12 articles have been published in the New Zealand Journal of Agriculture (1919–22). Portions of all the tussock-grassland area from north to south of South Island were studied and many mountains ascended to the alpine belt. My assistant W. D. Rlid rendered extremely valuable aid.
5 5) Poppelwell and W. A. Thomson (the Holly ford Valley), Poppelwell (2 more Stewart Island islets) Miss M. W. Betts (ecological-anatomical studies of some Mineral Belt plants).
6 6) Excellent figures are given of the leaves of the species and those of the Tasmanian. Australian and New Zealand species are of particular interest here.
7 7) Miss Herriott (the indigenous species persisting in Hagley Park, City of Christchurch); Cheeseman and Petrie (each 3 new species); and Carse (a variety of Pteris n acilenta).
Holloway's detailed and elaborate paper on the structure of the prothallus of 5 species of Lycopodium was easily the outstanding feature of 1920, the most ambitious of the remaining papers1 being Wall's account of the ecology and systematic position of Ranunculus pauciflorus. Attention may also be called to L. Cockayne's experiments conducted in semi-arid Central Otago for the Department of agriculture in regard to the relative palatability of certain pasture-plants for sheep, and his observations concerning regeneration of depleted land.
The year 1921 stands out conspicuously in the history of New Zealand botany through the appearance of the books of Guthrie-Smith and L. Cockayne, already referred to, a second important memoir on Tmesipteris by Holloway and the commencement of G. H. Cunningham's admirable mycologial publications. The State Forest Service was established by Act of Parliament under the Directorship of L. M. Ellis. As a part of his world tour E. H. Wilson visited New Zealand, travelling extensively in both Islands. Important systematic changes — long awaited — were the separation of Hebe from the unwieldy genus Veronica by Pennell of the New York Botanical Garden and the reinstatement of the family Winteraceae by Hutchinson of Kew, as also the genus Wintera for the New Zealand species — universally referred to as Drimys. The other papers were of little moment2, excepting perhaps L. Cockayne's Cawthron lecture3 and a too brief account by H. B. Kirk on the rate of growth of certain forest trees. Towards the close of the year D. H. Campbell of Leland Stanford University visited the Dominion and collected liverworts in the dicotylous-podocarp forests of Westland and later published a semi-popular account of the New Zealand flora and vegetation. Finally, attention must be called to L. Cockayne's discovery of hybridism to an intense degree between certain of the species of Nothofagus. In this work W. D. Reid took a prominent part.
1 1) Cheeseman (pneumatophores in Eugenia maire), Petrie (description of 5 new species), Poppelwell (lists of species of Ben Lomond — far from complete — and Hoko-nui Hills), W. Martin (list of pteridophytes of Banks Peninsula), Miss Betts (continuation of anatomy of Mineral Belt species, and a similar study on rosette-plants of tussock-grassland).
2 2) W. R. B. Oliver (clearing up certain points in nomenclature), Petrie and Cheeseman (each a short paper with new species), W. Martin and A. Wall (each a short paper with new localities for species); the latter of special interest as showing Wall's remarkable activity, the localities ranging from the Hunmui to Foveaux Strait and many at over 1500 m. aititude.
3 3) This deals with tiie distribution of vascular plants within the Region.
1 1) The history of economic ecology in New Zealand by L. Cockayne is published in the Report of Proceedings of the Imperial Botanical Conference of 1924 and a list is given of 31 papers, series of papers and books.
2 2) R. Brown, ter with rare discrimination — the reader should have seen (as I have many times) the amazing difficulties under which my old and honoured friend worked — founded two new genera — Hennedia and Dendia — from minute plants and both are considered valid groups, though the former name is changed to Hennediella — there being an algal genus called Hennedia — and the latter is reduced by Brotherus to a subgenus.
3 3) W. D. Reid collected with great judgment much material for this work in the high-mountain belts while with me on the tussock-grassland investigation. Several other papers on fungi by Cunningham also appeared.
4 4) These in 1925 Cockayne raised to 208, and it was explained that the matter was not one of groups of one or two individuals but of great polymorphic swarms.
5 5) Two papers have been published, the second in 1924, which deal respectively with life-forms and the phytogeographical distribution. Both contain a wealth of information previously unpublished and procured in the field by the author at all seasons and in many localities and habitats.
6 6) Christensen paid great attention to the flora and vegetation of the Hanmer area for some 9 years, with the result that no part of the high mountains of equal extent is better known. By the ecologi-cal method he discovered jordanons of critical species and clearly proved that Helichrysum Purdiei, who no one doubted its being an excellent species, was merely one hybrid of a great hybrid swarm.
7 7) Petrie and Cheeseman (each his usual quota of new species), Satnsbury (an account of a new locality for the otherwise almost extinct Pittosporum obcordatum and a description of the seedling), Wall (on Raoulia mammillaris).
Though the output of botanical publications for 1925 was not large they were on the whole of considerable moment. Foremost comes the 2nd edition of Cheeseman's Manual of New Zealand Flora, which is not — like the first edition — a critical examination of all available material but, for the most part, is the old edition unaltered, together with the species published since 1906 which the distinguished author considered valid, and the newer knowledge (but not in all cases) added concerning distribution. That more could be expected at the advanced age of the author is out of the question. The work closes worthily a most distinguished career. Next come Lotsy's lectures on evolution considered in the light of hybridization published by Canterbury College a noteworthy departure in regard to a New Zealand University College which it is to be hoped is the forerunner of other high-class University publications. Though Lotsy's lectures2 deal with evolution &c. in general, there is an introduction on plant-hybridism in New Zealand and a full list of the wild hybrids by L. Cockayne.
The remaining publications of 1925 are all of importance. They comprise a paper on strictly orthodox lines on the biogeographical relations of the New Zealand Region, the subject being so presented that the different parts are concise and readily assimilated (W. R. B. Oliver); a continuation of Cunningham's studies on fungi; a fairly complete account of the vegetation of the Poor Knights Islands (W. R. B. Oliver3; an account of the vegetation and flora of the Mount Cook area (Wall4; Yeates gave an excellent account of the nucleolus of Tmesipteris'5; L. Cockayne dealt with the occurrence of high-mountain species at a low altitude6.
1 1) H. H. Allan (an account of the introduction and behaviour of spartina-grass in New Zealand), L. Cockayne (on a spineless Discaria).
2 2) These have subsequently been translated into both Dutch and German. Lotsy also published in Genetica an account of certain red-leaved forms of Nothofagus which he had discovered.
3 3) Xeronema — previously known by only one New Caledonian species — was discovered, but the species X. Callistemon W. R. B. Oliver is different, though fairly close.
4 4) The outstanding feature is records of the species at 2100 m. to 2400 m. altitude.
5 5) This was his thesis for the Ph. D. degree of the University and was published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society.
6 6) A contribution to the Festschrift of Karl von Goebel.
Towards the close of the year E. C. Jeffrey of Harvard visited New Zealand and collected a good deal of material of hybrids and podocarps for cytological and anatomical research.
In 1926 the publication of matter relative to the wild hybrids began in earnest, the medium of publication — thanks to Lotsy who had seen so many New Zealand hybrid swarms in nature — being Genetica. The most ambitious of these papers — the authors inexperienced in this class of work — dealt with a wild Hebe community (H. H. Allan. G. Simpson and J. S. Thomson)1 and the hybrids of Nothofagus (L. Cockayne and E. Atkinson). Allan produced the first two papers of his series "Illustrations of wild hybrids in the New Zealand flora" and an account of the synthesis of the so-called species Coprosma Cunninghamii by crossing C. propinqua with pollen from C. robusta2. In addition L. Cockayne and H. H. Allan have published locally preliminary notes concerning various hybrids and, in a letter to Nature deal with the naming of hybrid swarms. J. S. Thomson and G. Simpson have collected splendid material of many hybrid swarms in the South Otago and Fiord districts, W. Mackay of Greymouth made the interesting discovery of a second Rubus hybrid closely allied to R. Barkeri, and Carse has described a hybrid Cordyline, a hybrid Hebe and a hybrid Metrosideros, and Wall a doubtful hybrid Ranunculus.
Floristic botany made special progress by the appearance of H. N. Dixon's Part IV of his moss Bulletin which extends to the Darsoniaceae. The usual batch of new species appeared at the hands of different authors and Carse with the aid of C. Christensen of Denmark made some changes in fern nomenclature. Cunningham continued his fungi studies and Sprague and Summerhayes of Kew removed the species of Gaya into the section Apterocarpa of Hoheria.
A number of important ecological papers appeared of which H. H. Allan's on Mount Peel vegetation is the most intensive study so far produced in New Zealand; the same author also dealt with a peculiar coastal scrub and with some striking cases of epharmony. The State Forest Service, which had employed L. Cockayne to study the Nothofagus forests as a whole, published the first part of his results dealing with the taxonomy of Nothofagus and the ecology of the formation. G. Simpson and J. S. Thomson produced an ideal short account of a botanical excursion to an unbotanized mountain range. In fossil botany P. Marshall described a new species of Osmundites illustrated by excellent microphotographs.
1 1) Simpson and Thomson labelled many of the hybrids in situ with copper labels and numbered plants ready for genetic research are now growing in their gardens and in those of L. Cockayne and H. H. Allan. Nearly all the data in the paper was the work of Simpson and Thomson.
2 2) Allan has now raised seedlings of the F 2 generation and he has crossed Rubus parvits with R. schmidelioides and raised a plant equivalent to one which has been found m the wild state.
The present year (1927) has been one of considerable botanical activity. To New Zealand botanists it will long be remembered through the visit of G. E. du Rietz and his accomplished wife, Mrs. Greta du Rietz. During a stay of about 7 months they visited portions of nearly all the botanical districts, collecting everywhere and at all altitudes the various lichens. This family is greatly in need of revision and Du Rietz's conclusions — though of necessity the work will occupy several years — will be of the utmost taxonomic, ecological and phytogeographical importance.
Coming to the work of New Zealand botanists Cunningham continued his researches on fungi and produced several notable papers1. R. M. Laing issued a much-needed Reference List of New Zealand seaweeds. L. Cockayne and H. H. Allan published jointly several comprehensive and critical pappers2, the most ambitious being one dealing with taxonomic conceptions and methods. Allan also continued his work on wild hybrids and, inter alia, by crossing two species of Rubus, showed conclusively the origin of a curious form of Rubus, the parentage of which had previously been quite uncertain. He also concluded his memoir on the vegetation of Mount Peel (E.). A number of other authors issued papers on various subjects3. Overseas, A. W. Hill published an important paper on the species and distribution of Lilaeopsis and two endemic species were established for New Zealand; and Sprague and Summerhayes critically examined the status of Fusanus and restored the genus Mida for the New Zealand and Juan Fernandez species.
Part V of H. N. Dixon's important Studies of the New Zealand Musci appeared which included the genera from Aulacopilum to Rhacopilum inclusive. A new departure in botanical research for New Zealand (already highly developed by E. C. Jeffrey of Harvard) was W. P. Evans's research on the microstructure of the Steventon lignite which showed it to be composed chiefly of coniferous wood but spores also occurred. Finally, as showing the increasing interest in botany in the Dominion, third editions were published of Laing and Blackwell's Plants of New Zealand and of L. Cockayne's New Zealand Plants and their Story.
1 1) The New Zealand Lycoperdaceae; Supplements to the Uredinales and Ustilaginales of New Zealand.
2 2) Notes on New Zealand Floristie Botany in which 32 species admitted as indigenous by Cheeseman in the Manual, ed. 2, are rejected as being exotic; The Taxonomic Status of the New Zealand species of Hebe in which the 86 species of the Manual, ed. 2, are reduced to 67 and 3 new species are added.
3 3) Wall dealt with the difficult question of the distribution of rare or local plants; Miss T. Murray treated of certain Fungi parasitic on New Zealand species of Rubus; Miss R. Pigott discussed the development &c. of Corynocarpus; G. M. Thomson, after a lapse of many years, took up once more his much-needed study of pollination; Crosby-Smith gave a short account of the fast vanishing Awarua sphagnum bog and recorded the occurrence of Donatia.