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The Cultivation of New Zealand Plants

Chapter V. — Shrubs Suitable for Cultivation

Chapter V.
Shrubs Suitable for Cultivation.

Alseuosmia macrophylla (hh.), beautiful, 5 ft., has lvs. more or less obovate-lanceolate, 5 to 6 in. long, dark-green, glossy; fls. fragrant, 1½ in. long, crimson, Sp. Hab., lowland and montane forest, south to N. Westland. Cult., good soil, shade. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed. A. quercifolia (hh.) has fls. and lvs. smaller. A. Banksii and A. linariifolia are smaller and less hardy still. Cult., etc., as for the others.

Archeria racemosa (hh.) is 15 ft., erect; lvs., heath-like, ⅓ in. broad; fls. pink. Hab., Little Barrier Island to East Cape, montane. Cult., well-drained soil, more or less shade. Prop., young plants, seed. A. Traversii (vh.) has narrower lvs. and white fls. Hab., S. Island, forest and subalpine scrub, to 4,000 ft. Cult., etc., as before.

Brachyglottis rangiora (rangiora, hh.), 14 ft., is effective at all seasons; lvs. very handsome, broad-oblong to almost rotund, up to 12 in. long, milk-white beneath; fls. in conspicuous masses, small, ivory-white, beautiful, Sp. Hab., most likely all in cultivation have come by cuttings from one wild plant of doubtful habitat. Cult., any soil, except wet. Prop., cuttings. B. repanda (hh.) has rather smaller lvs. Hab., forest, rock, south to Greymouth. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed; there is a variegated variety.

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Carmichaelia (New Zealand broom, vh. unless stated otherwise)—There are about 21 species. All have green, leafless (or almost so) stems, except when young or in shade; frequently grow in dry ground and dry climate; many ascend to subalpine belt; fls. usually with white ground, striped, streaked or blotched purple. Cult., usually in almost any soil in sun; the dwarf species in sunny part of alpine garden or even in border. Prop., rooted pieces, young plants, seed. The following is a selection:—C. australis (makaka, h.) is 6 ft., or more; stems flat, varying in. width. C. compacta (vh.) is charming; 4 ft., most floriferous, sweet-scented. Hab., driest part of Central Otago. C. Enysii (vh.) forms dense, low mats of short, slender green stems; fls. abundant. C. uniflora, C. nana, and the taller, more robust C. Monroi (several vars.) are similar, but the last does not make carpets. Hab., for all four, stony ground, montane or subalpine, but the last two descend to the lowlands. C. grandiflora (vh.), of spreading habit, bears abundance of sweet-scented fls.; there are several varieties, one with white fls. Hab., stony ground, subalpine scrub, to 4,000 ft. C. angustata (vh.), often by sides of streams, is similar. C. odorata (vh.), the best for the open border, 10 ft., is erect and bushy. Hab., banks of streams, Ruahine Mountains to Marlborough Sounds. C. Williamsii (hh.), 8 ft., is remarkable for its very wide, flat stems; fls. large, pale-yellow, striped and blotched purple, Sp. Hab., East Cape district. Corallospartium crassicaule (coral-broom, vh.), allied to Carmichaelia, though not handsome, is striking for the alpine-garden in dry ground, with its peculiar very thick, yellowish, erect, leafless, grooved stems; fls., cream. Hab., dry, stony, ground in driest mountains of S. Island. C. racemosum (vh.) is more slender; grows in wetter climate. Chordospartium page 44Stevensonii (vh.) is a low, weeping, Carmichaelia-like tree with racemes of beautiful purple fls. Hab., eastern Marlborough. Cult., open border, dry ground. Notospartium Carmichaeliae (pink broom, vh.) and N. torulosum (vh.), come with the above; the first has pink fls. in abundance, and the latter purple; both become small trees. Hab., the first eastern Marlborough, bank of rivers, rock, and the second in similar positions south to Mt. Peel (Canterbury).

Cassinia (tauhinu, cottonwood vh. to hh.)—Erect, bushy shrubs; lvs. heath-like, small, entire, tomentose beneath; heads white, numerous, in corymbs. Cult., easy, even poor, dry soil in sun; bear trimming and need it when old. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed. C. albida (vh.) and the more hoary var. canecens, both about 4 ft., are excellent. Hab., to 4,000 ft., Nelson and Marlborough. C. Vauvilliersii (vh.), of much wider distribution, is similar, but lvs. dark glossy-green, yellow-tomentose beneath. C. amoena (hh.), of the North Cape hill, 1 to 2 ft., is dense and floriferous, very pretty. C. leptophylla (tauhinu, h.), and C. retorta (hh.), 12 ft., are white-tomentose. C. fulvida (vh.) is similar, 5 ft., has branches and lvs. beneath yellow-tomentose; the var. montana is not so yellow. There are hybrids between C. leptophylla and C. fulvida.

Coprosma,—There are, at least, 40 woody species, varying from trees to mat-and cushion-plants; many are much-interlacing shrubs and others striking ever-greens or small trees; the dioec. fls. are insignificant, but the drupes are frequently abundant and beautiful. Hab., all kinds of stations and altitudes. Prop., young plants, seed (germinates well), and cuttings of large leaved vars. The following is a selection of the best:—C. acerosa (vh.), makes open, flattened, orange-page 45coloured wiry cushions, 2 ft.; drupes translucent stained blue. Hab., unstable dunes. C. rugosa (vh.), frequently subalpine, is similar, but much taller and erect. C. brunnea (vh.), is one of the élite of the flora, its stems hugging the ground but concealed by their strings of white, pale-blue, amethyst, or dark-blue, translucent, jewel-like drupes. Hab., stony river-bed in the montane and lower subalpine belt C. Baueri (taupata, hh.) is finally a beautiful small tree; lvs. wonderfully glossy, bright-green; drupes, orange. It bears trimming to any extent; makes splendid hedges; there are two variegated vars., the more deeply variegated is extremely beautiful trained to the wall of a house, etc., they may also sprawl over banks, etc. C. chathamica (h.) is similar to C. Baueri but not so good. C. grandifolia (kanono, hh.), 15 ft., has very large, broad lvs.; drupes, reddish-orange, showy. Hab., lowland forest to lat. 43° almost, C. lucida (karamu, vh.) is similar but lvs. smaller. Hab., forest to above 3,000 ft. C. robusta (vh.) is valuable for its rapid growth; lvs. still smaller. Hab. forest to 2,500 ft., swamp. Cult., rather rich soil for C. grandifolia, but any soil, or situation, for the two others. There are many hybrids between C. robusta and C. propinqua (not dealt with here), known as C. Cunninghamii, some with pretty yellow, white, or black drupes. C. linariifolia (yellow-wood, vh.) is 12 ft., or more; lvs. dark green, linear, 1 in. long; drupes black. Hab., forest to 3,000 ft. Cult., fairly good soil. C. Petriei (vh.) is a dense carpet-plant; drupes large, showy, sunk in the carpet, in one var. port-wine coloured and in the other var. pale translucent blue. Hab., stony tussock-grassland. Cult., alpine-garden, in slight shade. C. ramulosa (vh.) forms broad, twiggy mats; drupes red, translucent, abundant, showy. Cult., alpine-garden, partial shade.

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Those wanting a fuller collection might growl:—C. arborea (hh.), a small tree; C. areolata (vh.); C. Banksii (h.), C. cuneata (vh.), C. foetidissima (vh.), C. parviflora (vh.), C rhamnoides (vh.), C. serrulata (vh.), and C. tenuifolia (vh.).

Cordyline pumilio (dwarf cabbage-tree, hh.) is usually stemless. Hab., gumlands, Auckland. Cult., ordinary soil, pot-culture. Prop., young plants, seed.

Coriaria sarmentosa (tutu, vh.) is at times a small tree; lvs. shining green, ovate, 1 to 3 in. long; fts. masses of purplish-black berries. Hab., lowland and montane forest, bracken-heath, shrubland. Cult., rather good soil. Prop., rooted pieces, cuttings, seed. There are also herbaceous forms.

Corokia buddleoides (korokio, hh.), bushy, 12 ft., has lanceolate lvs., 3 to 5 in. long, dark-green, shining white-tomentose beneath; fls. numerous, yellow, Sp.; drupes dark red. Hab., forest-outskirts, Auckland, south to lat. 38°. Cult., any fair soil in sun. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed. C. macrocarpa (h.), of the Chathams, has broader lvs. and larger drupes. C. Cotoneaster (vh.) is ball-like and interlacing; lvs. small, white-tomentose beneath; fls. abundant, small, starry, yellow; drupes showy, orange, yellow or red. Hab., scrubs, to 3,000 ft., in dry districts. Cult., any soil, sun. Prop., young plants, seed. C. Cheesemanii is a hybrid between the latter and C. buddleoides.

Cyathodes acerosa (vh.) is the name for a number of distinct true-breeding plants, ranging from prostrate to dense, erect shrubs, 16 ft. high; lvs. short, needle-like, white beneath; drupes showy, white, red, or dark-red. Hab., scrub, rock, forest, to about 4,000 ft. Cult., any soil unless too wet. Prop., young plants, rooted pieces, seed. C. robusta (h.) of the Chathams is taller; drupes larger, white; lvs. not sharp. page 47C. Colensoi (vh.) forms open mats; lvs. small, glaucous beneath; drupes white or claret. Hab., montane, in open, fell-field, etc., to 5,000 ft. Cult., alpine-garden, slight shade. Prop., rooted pieces, seed. C. empetrifolia (vh.) forms small, open cushions of wiry stems; lvs. very small. Hab., boggy ground, to 5,000 ft. Cult., rather difficult, shade, alpine-garden. Prop., rooted pieces, seed.

Dacrydium laxifolium (pygmy pine, vh.) forms a carpet on boggy ground, or scrambles over low shrubs; almost dioec.; lvs. cypress-like or juvenile spreading. Hab., usually in mountains where rainfall is high, to 5,000 ft. Cult., alpine-garden, moist soil, partial shade. Prop., rooted pieces, seed, cuttings.

Dracophyllnm.—There are about 26 species—erect, prostrate, or cushions—with stiff stems and needle-like lvs.; most are purely high-mountain plants, but a few of these descend to sea-level in the south; some are difficult to establish. Prop., best from rooted pieces, or young plants, when obtainable. The following is a small selection:—D. filifolium (vh.) is 6 ft., erect, slender; lvs. very narrow, long, grasslike; ascends to nearly 5,000 ft. Cult., alpine-garden, shade. D. montanum, D. Lessonianum and D. Urvilleanum (vh.) are similar in appearance and cultural requirements. D. Menziesii (vh.) is a miniature D. Traversii (see fig. 9) worth every effort to establish in the alpine-garden. Cult., not particularly difficult in wet localities, but requires drainage and shade in dry districts. Prop., well-rooted young plants, or a fair-sized, rooted piece of an old plant may be tried, seed (very slow). D. recurvum (vh.) forms reddish, open, twiggy cushions, Volcanic Plateau, to 5,000 ft., in pumice; is difficult but striking when established. Cult., alpine-garden in more or less shade. Prop., page 48rooted pieces (easy to collect), seed. D. Sinclairii (hh.), 4 to 6 ft., is handsome with showy white fls. in short racemes for a long season. Cult., well-drained soil, sunny border. Hab., usually coasted, south to lat. 38°. Prop., young plant, seed. D. uniflorum (turpentine-shrub vh.), 4 ft., is brownish, with wide-spreading branches. Hab., stony ground of drier mountains, 2,000 to 4,500 ft. Cult., sunny border in fair soil. Prop., rooted pieces, seed. D. acicularifolium (vh.) has longer lvs., and more erect. Those desirous of a fuller collection of these curious shrubs, which certainly give a distinctive character to a garden, may procure:—D. muscoides and D. politum, difficult cushion-plants of boggy peat; D. rosmarinifolium, D. Kirkii and D. subulatum.

Elytranthe (mistletoe, vh.) contains E. Colensoi and E. tetrapetala (vh.), shrubby parasites with green lvs. and gorgeous scarlet fls. Both may be established by inserting the sticky berries on small branches, or twigs, of Nothofagus Menziesii (for the first) and N. cliffortioides (for the second); probably there will be many failures. In nature the berries are attached to their host by the middle of April.

Epacris alpina (vh.) is small, erect, twiggy, reddish-brown; fls. white, S. Hab., mountains in open ground, to 4,000 ft. Cult., alpine-garden, slight shade. Prop., rooted pieces, seed. E. pauciflora (hh.) is rather taller; fls. Sp., S., A.

Exocarpus Bidwillii (vh.) has rather rush-like stems, far-spreading, brownish, leafless; "seed" black, seated on the red, fleshy flower-stalk. Hab., mountains of dry districts, stony ground, full sun-shine, to 4,000 ft. Cult., well-drained sunny part of alpine-garden. Prop., rooted pieces, seed.

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Gaultheria antipoda (vh.), 1 to 2 ft., is erect; lvs. small, roundish; fls. white, Sp., S.; berries white or red. Hab., open ground to 4,000 ft. Cult., border, alpine-garden, medium soil. Prop., young plants, rooted pieces, seed. G. depressa (vh.) is very pretty with its large white (rarely red) berries; makes prostrate patches. Hab., wettish ground, sphagnumbog, to 4,500 ft. Cult. alpine-garden, shade. Prop., rooted pieces, seed. G. perplexa (vh.) has prostrate, dark reddish, entangled, wiry stems, narrow lvs., red berries. Hab., dry, open, stony ground, to 3,000 ft. Cult., border, dry place in alpine-garden. Prop., as above. Various other forms of G, antipoda, etc., can be collected. G. oppositifolia (niniwa, vh.) has fls. resembling a glorified lily-of-the-valley, 4 ft. high or more. Hab., Volcanic Plateau, pumice soil, to 3,500 ft. Cult., border, fairly good soil. Prop., young plants, rooted pieces, seed. G. rupestris (vh.) is occasionally a small tree; fls. similar to those of the last but smaller; ascends, as a rock-plant, to over 5,000 ft. Cult., etc., as for G. oppositifolia, also alpine-garden. G. fagifolia (vh.) is the name of a series of hybrids between the last two species. Pernettya nana (vh.) has habit of G. depressa, but dwarfer, and makes larger, denser patches; fls. white, S.; berries red. Cult., etc., as for G. depressa.

Geniostoma ligustrifolium (hangehange, hh.) is tall, much-branched, rather fast; lvs. more or less ovate, 2 to 3 in. long, soft, rather pale-green. Hab., lowland forest south to Marlborough Sounds. Cult., good soil, shrubbery. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed.

Helichrysum coralloides (coral-shrub, vh.) is a remarkable erect or cushion shrub with straight, spreading stems covered with shining green tubercles page 50(lvs.) surrounded by dense white hairs; fls. cream, S., fragrant. Hab., dry or shaded rocks, in dry mountains of E. Marlborough, 3,000 to 7,000 ft. Cult., border, alpine-garden in fair amount of shade. Prop., young plants, seed, cuttings. H. Selago (vh.), very similar, has more slender shoots; there are several distinct unnamed vars, H. microphyllum (vh.) is taller and still more slender. Cult., etc., as for its allies. H. glomeratum (vh.), 4 ft., is much branched, rather slow; lvs. small, broad, thin, white beneath. Bob., rocky banks, to 2,000 ft. Cult., dry soil, sun. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed. H. Purdiei (vh.) is a series of crosses between the last and E. bellidioides; its twigs are slender. Cult., dry place, border or alpine-garden. Semi-woody rather than a shrub. Prop., rooted pieces, cuttings.

Hymenanthera chathamica (h.) is almost a tree; dioec.; fairly quick; lvs. lanceolate, 3 to 5 in. long, thick, pale-green, toothed. Hab., forest, Chathams. Cult., almost any soil in sunny spot. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed. H. novae-zelandiae (hh.) is almost identical, but smaller. Hab., coastal, north of N. Island. H. obovata (h.) is still more slender, straggly; lvs. smaller, entire. Hab., mainly coastal, vicinity of Cook Strait, Cult., alpine-garden. H. crassifolia (h.) forms rigid, open cushions on rocks. Hab., frequently coastal. Cult., alpinegarden, dry part. H. dentata var. aipina (vh.) is more rigid and almost spiny. Hab., rock, dry ground in mountains, 1,000 to 5,500 ft. Cult., as for last. Prop., young plants, seed.

Leucopogon fasciculatus (vh.) greatly resembles manuka; 12 ft. and more; fls small, white, Sp. Hab., forest, shrubland, to 3,500 ft. Cult., shrubbery, moist soils. Prop., young plants, seed. L. Richei (h.), of page 51open ground, Chathams, and Auckland gumlands, is somewhat similar in form and requirements. L. Fraseri (vh.) is very small, forms patches; lvs. more or less oblong, brownish, short, pungent; fls. white, Sp.; fts. orange, juicy. Hab., all kinds of situations, to 5,000 ft. Cult., alpine-garden, border, dry, sunny. Prop., rooted pieces, seed.

Myrtus bullata (ramarama, h.) is handsome, erect, bushy; lvs. roundish, 1 to 2 in. long, blistered, reddish-brown; fls. white, S.; berries dark-red. Hab., lowland forest, south to N. Marlborough and N. Nelson. Cult., fairly good soil, border, shrubbery. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed. M. obcordata (rohutu, vh.) is tall, erect; lvs. obcordate, small; fls. white, S.; berries, dark-red. Cult. etc., as for M. bullata. M. Ralphii (vh.) is the name of a series of hybrids between the last two species, many being excellent for cultivation. M. pedunculata (vh.), related to M. obcordata, is more twiggy; lvs. obovate to oblongovate, smooth, greyish; berry yellow. Cult., etc., as for the others, but rather better soil.

Olearia (tree-daisy)—New Zealand possesses at least 40 species (and a number of hybrids) which for beauty of form and profusion of blossoms are unsurpassed, while their value for garden decoration equals that of the veronicas. Following, the species are arranged in three classes including O. insignis.

Group 1.—Most are mountain species usually of subalpine scrub or the uppermost belt of low forest, vh.; flower-heads small, numerous, white, generally in large panicles; lvs. stiff, thick, tomentose beneath. Cult., almost any well-drained soil, tolerate wind and full sun, bear trimming well, apt to become "leggy" with age. Prop., cuttings (strike readily) autumn or early page 52spring, may bloom the succeeding season, young plants, seed (often not fertile).

O. arborescens (nitida) is most charming; lvs. broadly ovate, 1½ to 2½ in. long, white beneath with satiny tomentum, more or less toothed; fls. in the greatest profusion, Sp.; the var. angustifolia has thin lanceolate lvs. O. capillaris has small lvs., ¼ in. long; there are hybrids between this and O. arborescens worth cultivating. O. avicenniaefolia is eventually a low tree; lvs. broadly lanceolate, greyish, white-tomentose beneath. O. furfuracea (akepiro, h.) has lvs. broadly oblong or broadly ovate, 2 to 4 in. long, shining silvery beneath, margin often wavy. The related O. Allomii (hh.) is only 1 to 3 ft. high. Hab., Great Barrier Island. O. pachyphylla (hh.) is smaller than O. furfuracea and its flower-heads furnished with numerous involucral scales, are quite ¾ in. long. Hab., Bay of Plenty. O. Haastii (vh.) is rare as a wild plant, yet the commonest in the gardens of Great Britain; lvs. about 1 in. long, more or less oblong, white tomentose beneath. O. oleifolia (vh.) has longer lvs.; it and O. avicenniaefolia probably cross. O. nummularifolia has smaller lvs. than O. Hastii, more or less orbicular; flower-heads solitary. O. cymbifolia (vh.) is the last-named with the lvs. bent back so as to be boat-shaped; there are many wild hybrids between the two. O. moschata (vh.) is distinct with its small whitish obovate lvs., white-tomentose beneath. There is a beautiful hybrid between this and O. ilicifolia in the Queenstown Gardens (see fig. 1), most likely a wild plant. O. Forsteri (akiraho, vh.) has only one floret to each flower-head, and belongs to the sub-genus Shawia. It frequently grows on rocks; lvs. oblong to broadly ovate, 1½ in. to 3 in. long, waved on margin; fls. fragrant, A.; there is a large-leaved variety page 53O. coriacea has smilar flower-heads, but hard, small, saddle-shaped lvs. Hab., dry rocks, E. Marlborough. O. ilicifolia (mountain-holly, vh.) has linear-oblong or lanceolate lvs., 2 to 4 in. long, greyish above, yellowish-white beneath, musk-scented, margin strongly waved and spinous-toothed. O. macrodonta, closely allied, has greener, broader, toothed (not spinous) lvs. O. lacunosa (vh.) (see fig. 20), is most striking with its dark-green, long, narrow, glossy lvs., 7 in. long by ¼ to 1 in. broad, with a prominent midrib beneath from which pass off stout veins making sunken interspaces covered with rust-coloured tomentum; there are wild hybrids, excellent for gardens, between this and O. arborescens. O. mollis is probably O. lacunosa x ilicifolia, but more nearly resembles the latter. The delightful O. suavis is possibly another "lacunosa" hybrid. O. excorticata (vh.) is much like O. lacunosa but has broader lvs.

Geoup 2.—Coastal species (except O. Colensoi) of great beauty of form, with sometimes long-stalked brilliantly-coloured flower-heads, suggesting glorified michaelmas daisies; lvs. thick, toothed, usually lanceolate, white-tomentose beneath. Cult., fairly easy, south and west of S. Island, difficult and disappointing in dry or hot localities, and in the N. Island generally; moist, deep, well-drained soil; frequent rain, or watering necessary. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed.

O. angustifolia (tete-a-weka, h.) is eventually a small, dense, round-headed tree; power-heads 2 in. diam., centre purple, rays white, S. Hab., extreme south of South Island, common Stewart Island exposed to sea-spray. O. Traillii (h.) is a cross between this and O. Colensoi, heads in racemes. O. semidentata, (h.), one of the élite of the New Zealand flora, growing in bogs, Chathams, is most page 54lovely with its brilliant purple fls. O. chathamica (h.) is taller, its heads purple in centre, but rays usually white. O. Colensoi (vh.), N. and S. Islands, ascends to 5,000 ft., has broad, toothed lvs., 2 to 4 in. long; fls. poor, in racemes. The Stewart Island coastal form has much larger lvs. and may really be the next species. O. Lyallii (vh.) is a small tree; lvs. very broad, up to 8 in. long, white-tomentose beneath. Hab., Lord Auckland and Snares Islands.

Group 3.—Various lowland, or montane, species of forest, swamp, or sea-coast.

O. albida (hh.), up to 20 ft,, has lvs. oblong, white beneath; panicles large; fls. A. Hab., coastal, south to just past lat. 38°. Cult., good soil, sun, specimentree. O. Cumninghamii (heketara, hh.), eventually a small tree, is covered in young parts with, buff or white tomentum; lvs. broadly ovate to elliptic, rather thin, toothed, white beneath. Hab., lowland forest, south to N. Marlborough and N. Nelson. Cult., good soil, slight shade. O. lineata (vh.) is an extremely graceful tree with slender, drooping branchlets; lvs. extremely narrow, 1 in. long; fls. fragrant, S. Hab., shrubland, dry parts of S. Island, to upper montane belt. O. fragrantissima (h.) is a small tree with thin, elliptic-lanceolate lvs., silky tomentose beneath; heads crowded; fls. fragrant, S. Hab., open forest, rare, Canterbury, Otago. Cult., good soil, sun. O. Hectori (vh.) is similar, but heads are stalked. O. Traversii (Chatham akeake, vh.) is a most important small tree, growing naturally on dunes, and rocks, and in forest, and swamp; it is valuable for hedges, dunereclamation, seaside planting, shelter and ornament; lvs. oblong to broad-ovate, 1 to 2 in. long, silky beneath.

Olearia insignis (vh.) is a justly famous, beautiful shrub of low, far-straggling growth; lvs. oblong to page break
Photo. E. Atkinson Fig. 12. The Chatham Island Lily (Myostidium horlensia) in the garden of Mr. Esmond Atkinson, York Bay, Wellington.

Photo. E. Atkinson
Fig. 12. The Chatham Island Lily (Myostidium horlensia) in the garden of Mr. Esmond Atkinson, York Bay, Wellington.

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Photo. E. Bruce Levy Fig. 13. The woody climbing-plant Parsonsia heterophylla (kaiwhiria)

Photo. E. Bruce Levy
Fig. 13. The woody climbing-plant Parsonsia heterophylla (kaiwhiria)

Photo W. D. Reid Fig. 14. Ourisia caespitosa growing amongst large stones at about 4,000 ft. altitude on the Tararua Mountains, Wellington.

Photo W. D. Reid
Fig. 14. Ourisia caespitosa growing amongst large stones at about 4,000 ft. altitude on the Tararua Mountains, Wellington.

page 55obovate, 4 to 6 in. long in rosettes at ends of the stiff arching branches, white-tomentose beneath, as also branchlets and flower-stalks; head, hemispherical, 2 to 3 in. diam., covered with many white tomentose scales; inner florets yellow, outer white. Hab., dry rocks, to 3,000 ft., E. Marlborough, along with Veronica Hulkeana, but ascends to greater altitude. Cult., poor, dry soil, dry banks, but grows well in good soil. Prop., young plants, seed, cuttings. (Will before long be moved into another genus and a new name substituted for Olearia).

Pentachondra pumila (vh.) is 3 to 4 in. high; lvs. very small; fls. white, S. Hab., mountains between about 1,500 to 5,000 ft. in the open. Cult., alpinegarden, more or less shade. Prop., rooted pieces, seed.

Phebalium nudum (mairehau, hh.) is bushy, reddish; lvs. narrow-oblong, 1 in. long, more or less stained red, aromatic; fls. white, fragrant, Sp. Hab., lowland forest, N. Auckland. Cult., good soil, partial shade. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed.

Pimelea—Beautiful tall or dwarf shrubs, in form like veronicas; frequently silvery with silvery hairs; fls. white, dioec, the male far the more showy. Nearly all ascend high in the mountains. Cult., alpinegarden, sun or shade, according to climate. Prop., young plants, rooted pieces, cuttings of young shoots, seed.

P. arenaria (aute-taranga, h.) is much-branched, low, close-growing; lvs. small, silky beneath. Hab., unstable dunes. Cult., border, in sun. P. Lyallii (vh.) is much lower; stems more slender. Hab., dunes, south of S. Island, Stewart Island. P. buxifolia (vh.) is 1 to 5 ft. high; lvs. not hairy; fls., numerous, S. Sab., open ground or scrub on many N. Island mountains. P. Traversii (vh.) is page 56smaller and its branches blackish and scarred. Hab., rock, from 2,000 to 5,000 ft. P. prostrata (vh.) forms mats; lvs. without hairs; there are 1 or 2 closelyallied species with hairy lvs., hitherto referred to P. Lyallii. P. sericeo-villosa (vh.) forms small densely hairy cushions in arid montane localities. P. aridula (vh.) is a beautiful medium-sized, spreading shrub growing in the driest localities. P. virgata (hh.) is similar. P. longifolia (taranga, vh.), 5 ft., is extremely handsome; lvs. broadly lanceolate, 1 to 3 in. long; fls. in dense, many-flowered heads, fragrant, Sp. Hab., coast to 3,000 ft. Cult., border, slight shade in dry climate. Prop., young plants, seed. P. Gnidia (vh.) is similar, but smaller in stature, lvs., and fls.; its var. pulchella may be a cross between the two species.

Pittosporum rigidum (vh.), up to 12 ft., is bushy and lvs. oblong to elliptic, about ½ in. long, glossy; fls. brownish-purple, Sp. Hab., main range, N. Island at forest-line. Cult., border in good soil. Prop., young plants, seed. P. divaricatum (vh.) has its stems wiry and much interlaced. Hab., forest, scrub, 1,000 to 4,000 ft. Cult., etc., as for the last. P. pimeleoides (hh.), 1 to 5 ft., is much-branched with extremely slender branches; lvs. small linearlanceolate to oblong; fls. yellowish-red, A. Hab., forest, N. Auckland. Cult., good deep soil, shade. Prop., young plants, seed. P. reflexum, (hh.), closelyrelated, is much smaller; lvs. narrow, bent back. Hab., etc., as for the last.

Plagianthus divaricatus (shrubby ribbonwood, h.) is semi-deciduous; stems wiry dark-coloured, much entangled; lvs. narrow, short; fls. very short, honey-scented, Sp. Hab., salt-swamp. Cult., good soil, sun. Prop., rooted pieces, seed (germinates well).

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P. cymosus, (h.), a low tree, may be a hybrid between this and P. betulinus.

Podocarpus nivalis (mountain-totara, vh.), generally more or less prostrate, is similar in its parts to P. totara, but the lvs. are blunt. Hab. stony débris on the mountains, to nearly 6,000 ft.; also lowland sphagnum-bog. Cult., any well-drained soil, border, alpine-garden. Prop., rooted pieces, cutting's, seed. P. acutifolius (vh.), eventually a small tree, is similar; lvs. pungent. Cult., etc., similar.

Pomaderris apetala (tainui, h.) is about 15 ft.; branchlets white-tomentose; lvs. wrinkled above, oblong-ovate to broad-lanceolate, 2 to 4 in long; fls. in panicles, numerous, Sp. Hab., lat. 38° to lat. 39°. west of N. Island. Cult., almost any soil, sun. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed. P. Edgerleyi (hh.), straggling, almost prostrate, has linear-oblong lvs., 1 to 2 in. long, rusty-tomentose beneath, as also young stems; fls. yellowish, Sp. Hab., N. Auckland to lat. 37°. Cult., almost any soil, sun. Prop., rooted pieces, young plants, cuttings, seed. P. rugosa (hh.) is similar, but 4 to 8 ft. high. Hab., from about lat. 36° to lat. 37° on east of N. Island. P. elliptica (kumarahou, hh.), an erect, charming shrub, 4 ft. high or more, has lvs. bluish-green with whitish hairs beneath; fls. showy, yellow in large panicles, Sp. Hab., N. Auckland, south to lat. 38°, on gumlands. Cult., as for P. Edgerleyi. Prop., rooted pieces, young plants, cuttings, seed. P. phylicaefolia (hh.) is heathlike, prostrate. Hab., chiefly as for the last. Cult., etc., similar.

Pseudopanax lineare (mountain lancewood, vh.) is a remarkable shrub, up to 10 ft., resembling at first juvenile P. crassifolium var. unifoliolatum, except that the lvs. point upwards; adult lvs. dark-green, page 58very thick, linear-oblong, 2 to 4 in. long. Hab., boggy forest, subalpine-scrub. Cult., good deep soil in slight shade. Prop., young plants, seed.

Rhabdothamnus Solandri (waiuatua, hh.) has slender, somewhat entangled, greyish, rough branches about 5 ft. high; lvs. more or less rotund, yellowishgreen, rough with coarse hairs; fls. up to 1 in. long, open, orange, striped purple in throat, red on margin of lobe; blooms all seasons. Hab., lowland forest, N. Island. Cult., deep, good soil, slight shade. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed.

Rubus parvus (vh.) is a charming creeping foliageplant forming a carpet; lvs. simple, linear to linearlanceolate, 1 to 3 in. long, evenly toothed, beautiful with bronze sheen, but many-hued according to season and light-intensity; fls. abundant, white, frequently solitary, S.; fts. bright red, large, hard. Hab., stony ground, usually in shade, N.W. Nelson, Westland, to 3,000 ft. Cult., almost any soil, border, alpine-garden. Prop., rooted pieces, seed. R. Barkeri (vh.) cannot be too highly recommended as a most beautiful foliage-plant; stems far-creeping, occasionally rooting, and a wide area is quickly covered; lvs. ternate and leaflets larger, broader and more coarsely toothed than the leaf of R. parvus, delightfully coloured, reddish, purple, bronze, green, etc., particularly in autumn and winter. Hab., only one plant has been seen wild (lowland Westland). Cult., any soil or situation, grows rapidly, excellent for draping banks or walls (see fig. 1). Prop., rooted pieces, cuttings. Grown in many gardens and under many conditions the plant has bloomed once only (Mr. D. L. Poppelwell's garden at Gore) since its discovery 25 years ago! Probably a hybrid between R. australis var. glaber and R. parvus.

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Schefflera digitata (pate, h.), eventually a low tree, has lvs. 7 to 10-foliate, leaflets oblong to broadlanceolate, 3 to 6 in. long, thin, sharply toothed. Hab., wet ground in lowland and montane forest. Cult., good deep soil, shade. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed.

Senecio (shrub-groundsel)—The herbaceous groundsels of the Old World are, in part, represented in New Zealand by trees and shrubs which, in form and for horticulture, are similar to the olearias, and their cultural treatment is also identical; fls. yellow, or in a few species white.

Group 1.—High-mountain species found chiefly in subalpine scrub. Cult., as for Olearia group 1.

S. Adamsii (vh.), 3 to 5 ft., is viscid in all its parts; lvs. oblong, 1 to 2 in. long, thick, white or palebuff tomentose beneath. S. Bidwillii (vh.) is 5 ft. high, the young parts and lvs. beneath are pale bufftomentose; lvs. 1 to 2 in. long, very thick, shininggreen above; fls. cream, fragrant, S. S. bifistulosus (vh.) has not been collected for more than 60 years; lvs. 1 in. long by ½ in. broad, with margins bent back to midrib; evidently desirable. S. cassinioides (vh.) when in bloom is a blaze of gold; 12 ft. high; lvs. small, more or less linear, extremely aromatic, yellowish-tomentose beneath; fls. S. S. elaeagnifolius (vh.) is finally a low tree; lvs. obovate to ellipticoblong, 2 to 4 in. long, pale buff-tomentose beneath; fls. poor; the var. Buchanani (vh.) is striking, with its lvs. strongly marked by pale veins. S. laxifolius (vh.) is about 4 ft. high, compact; lvs. not thick, broadly lanceolate, 1 to 2 in. long, white-tomentose beneath; fls. showy, S. S. lapidosus (vh.) is less than 12 in. high; lvs. 1 in. long, grey above, white beneath; fls. solitary, showy, S. S. Monroi (vh.), 4ft. high, is page 60charming, the young parts, and lvs. beneath are covered with smooth whitish tomentum; lvs. oblong, ½ to 2 in. long, dark glossy-green above, margins, crenate, wrinkled; fls. showy, S. Hab., dry parts of Marlborough, coast to 5,000 ft. S. revolutus (vh.) straggles as a wide mat over stony ground (see fig. 11) in the mountains of W. Otago at from 3,500 to 5,000 ft.; lvs. viscid, thick, dark-green, wrinkled, 1 in. long.

Group 2.—Coastal species.

S. compactus (vh.) is much after the manner of S. Monroi; lvs. white-tomentose on margin and beneath. S. Greyi (vh.) is much like S. laxifolius, but lvs. obtuse, larger and fls. in corymbs. S. perdicioides (raukumara, h.), up to 6 ft. or more: lvs. more or less oblong, 1 to 2 in. long, thin, toothed, strongly scented; heads in corymbs; fls. yellow. Hab., shore of Poverty Bay. S. rotundifolius (mutton-bird shrub, vh.) is finally a small tree; young parts and lvs. beneath covered with dense pale-buff tomentum; lvs. orbicular, 2 to 5 in. diam., thick; fls. poor. Cult., border, admirable for shelter, not damaged by heavy sea-gales. A most important plant.

Group 3.—Forest species.

S. Hectori (vh.) is 12 ft. high or more; lvs. semideciduous, broad-lanceolate, up to 12 in. long, white-tomentose beneath; fls. white, showy, S., A. Hab., N.W. Nelson. Cult., rich, deep soil in shade. A magnificent shrub. S. Huntii (rautini, vh.) is a magnificent, small, symmetrical round-headed tree; lvs. viscid, broad-lanceolate, 2 to 4 in. long, pale shining green above, greyish-green beneath, in semi-rosettes at ends of the naked branches; fls. in large panicles, yellow, extremely showy, S. Hab., outskirts of upland forest, Chatham Islands in deep peat. Cult., even quite page 61poor soil, sun. S. Stewartiae (vh.) is similar, but not suitable for cultivation in a dry climate. Hab., Snares Islands. S. Kirkii (hh.) is symmetrical, candelabra-like, up to 12 ft.; very showy with multitude of white fls.; lvs. rather soft, dark-green, smooth, pale beneath. Hab., lowland forest, N. Island, frequently an epiphyte. Cult., good, deep soil, more or less shade. S. myrianthos (hh.), up to 12 ft., has broad-lanceolate lvs., 3 to 7 in. long, toothed, silvery beneath; panicles more than 2 ft. long; fls. white, sweet. Hab., C. Colville peninsula. Cult., good soil, more or less shade.

Suttonia divaricata (vh.) is at times a small tree with weeping twigs, but usually a much interlacing, wiry shrub; lvs. small, glandular dotted red; fts. mauve. Hab., lowland forest to subalpine-serub. Cult., rather good, deep soil. Prop., young plants, seed. S. nummularia (vh.) has prostrate, very slender, flexible stems; lvs. brown, small roundish; fts. mauve. Hab., rocky ground, 3,000 to 5,000 ft. Cult., fairly shady place, alpine-garden. Prop., rooted pieces, seed.

Teucridium parvifolium (h.), much-branched, 2 to 4 ft. with slender 4-angled, brownish branches; lvs. very small, more or less ovate; fls. 2-lipped, ⅓ in. long. Sp. Hah., lowland forest. Cult., slight shade, border. Prop., cuttings, young plants, seed.

Traversia baccharoides (vh.) is closely related to Group 1 of Senecio; up to 5 ft. high, glutinous in young plants; lvs. obovate-lanceolate, l½ in. to 2½ in. long, bright-green, thin, without hairs; fls. cream, sweet, S. Hab., N.W. Nelson to N. Canterbury, subalpine-scrub. Cult., border, alpine-garden, slight shade, soil fair. Prop., rooted pieces, young plants, seed, cuttings.

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Wintera (Drimys) axillaris (horopito, hh.) is finally a small tree, up to 20 ft. with black bark; lvs. broadly oblong, 2 to 5 in., glossy, dark-green, glaucous beneath; fls. greenish-yellow, Sp.; berries black. Hab., lowland and montane forest to N. Marlborough and N.W. Nelson. Cult., good deep soil in slight shade. Prop., young plants, cuttings, seed. W. colorata (pepper-tree vh.) is smaller; lvs. beautifully coloured, blotched with reds and purples. Hab., lowland and subalpine forest. Cult., etc., as for the last. W. Traversii (vh.) is 3 to 6 ft.; lvs. oblong-obovate, 1 in. long, glaucous beneath. Hab., forest, N.W. Nelson to 3,000 ft. Cult., alpine-garden, shade. Prop., young plants, rooted pieces, cuttings, seed.