Samoan Material Culture
Explanation of Plates
Explanation of Plates
Plate I.—A, cooking house (fale umu) at Fitiuta, Tau; length 18 feet 4 inches, width 11 feet 7 inches; utupoto type with side supporting posts, tie beams, and king posts; thatch of plaited coconut leaves, uncut at eaves; no wall screens; no raised floor; B, long house (faleafolau), with wall screens (pola) down at one end; stone platform and coconut leaves plaited around two wall posts for decorations; native ladder (atolau) used in thatching and repairing the roof; C, round guest house (fale tele) at Fitiuta, Tau; length 31 feet 7 inches; width 27 feet 6 inches, height of supporting post to ridgepole 20 feet; thatch of sugar cane leaves, cut at the eaves; wall screens raised to show circumferential wall posts; low stone platform built up after completion of house; short ridgepole above corresponds with length of middle itu section, bounded by rounded tala on either end; D, long house on stone platform, showing ridge and rounded ends; coconut leaves are placed over the sugar cane leaf thatch with tip ends knotted over ridge to protect thatch from blowing up with the wind.
Plate II.—A, Inside view of tala rounded end of a long house; the high side supporting posts bear the utupoto cross tie beams; the mesial longitudinal beam above the tie beams is the tuitui, which is lashed to each tie beam with an ornamental sennit lashing; the tuitui beam supports the king posts which in turn support the main ridgepole; to the outer side of the upper ends of the side supporting posts are the main plates (amo pou), while resting on the outer ends of the tie beams are the purlins known as tatao; below the tatao are straight main purlins supported by side struts (te'e) running obliquely up from the sides of the supporting posts; below again is the ordinary wall plate, also called amo pou, to which are lashed the side wall posts (pou lalo); the rounded end has the wall screens down on the outside of the end wall posts; these posts support the curb plate (fau lalo); above the curb plate are the arched purlins (fau), the fourth being the middle fau tu, whose lower ends reach the junction of the wall plate and curb plate; above the tatao purlins on the sides, may be noted two intermediate purlins (luanga) followed by a main purlin (amoamo); between the main purlins may be seen a pair of so'a collar beams; the narrow thatch rafters ('aso) can be seen to the outside of the other elements. B, End scaffolding of house with curb plate and arched purlins kept in temporary position by temporary struts: the thatch rafters ('aso) are attached in the middle line to get the longitudinal curve of the end roof. C, Side view of round house in construction, showing middle section and left rounded end with roof thatched. Right end section gives good view of scaffolding, curb plate, oblique direction of arched purlins, and thatch rafters in middle line. The arched purlins show the transverse curve of the roof and the mesial thatch rafters, the longitudinal curve.
Plate III. A, thatching needles (lavelau): 1, length 11 inches, diameter 0.4 inch, hook point and notched end with loop for carrying over wrist; 2, length 14.75 inches diameter 0.4 by 0.5 inch near hook and 0.5 by 1.4 inches in middle, both ends hooked with barb on opposite sides; 3, length 15 inches; thickness 0.2 to 0.3 inch and 0.4 inch deep near hook to 0.8 inch at proximal end; B, Brooms: 1, with handle (salu tu); stick used as handle with leaflet midribs arranged around one end and lashed with sennit braid; 2, handbroom (salu lima), green coconut leaflet midribs torn from leaf with narrow strips of leaf midrib adhering; the strips are plaited together in three-ply braid, midribs then rolled together and lashed with sennit braid at part which forms handle. C, Thatching paddle (alai) made of heavy wood: blade 2 feet 3 inches long, width 3.1 to 3.3 inches, thickness 0.5 to 1 inch, handle, round section 1.7 inches in diameter, total length 7 feet. D, Types of pillows: 1, Upolu type of pillow made of two sections of bamboo; lower section, length 16 inches formed of one internode with ends closed by nodes, diameter 3.5 inches, bottom cut away to form level surface to rest on floor, mesial strip 0.6 inch wide on upper surface formed by cutting away a strip 0.8 inch wide on either side, 13.25 inches long, and cut through at one end to form tongue; top piece 12.5 inches long, no nodes, slipped along under tongue of lower piece, rests on page 684grooves of lower piece while tongue keeps it in position; made by order of high chieftainess Kalala for Bishop Museum; 2, bamboo 3 inches in diameter, length two internodes with nodes at ends left on to close ends and prevent lashings of legs slipping off, legs (vae 'ali) of pualulu wood, v-shaped with natural junction, height of legs 3.75 inches, lower spread 7.75 inches, lashing with sennit braid around circumference of bamboo; 3, bamboo length two internodes of greater length, lashing through holes bored through bamboo from side to side.
Plate IV. A, Fire-making appliances: two fire sticks of fau wood, lower stick with groove (mata si'a), upper active stick with blunt point (ngatu); position of hands holding stick, fingers in front, thumbs crossing behind; particles of wood from friction collected in forward end of groove. B, Tongs (iofi) of bent coconut leaf midrib used to pick up hot stones to rearrange them around food in earth oven, or to cook liquid food in a wooden bowl; length 1 foot, material 0.5 inch wide and 0.75 inch deep. C, Shell scraper (genus Tonna) with circular opening cut through the whorls, and edges of opening used to scrape talo and breadfruit. D, Water bottles, empty coconut shells cleaned out, fastened in pairs (taulua) with sennit braid and two pairs tied together, for obtaining fresh water at springs, carried on short carrying pole (amo), two pairs at each end (Tau, Manua). E, Coconut shell scraper ('asi), half coconut shell used for scraping talo and breadfruit, the lower left part of the circumference has been cut down to an edge.
Plate V. A, Coconut-grater models: 1, side view; 2, top view; tripod of wood ('ausa'alo) with projecting limb to which is attached piece of coconut shell (tuai) against which flesh of mature nut is grated in preparation of coconut cream (pe'epe'e). B, Climbing bandage (aufanga); two strips of fau bark 0.75 to 1 inch in width, tied into a loop with a reef knot to make a loop 1 foot 2 inches long; the feet are inserted to the instep and the bandage grips against the coconut tree trunk as the climber ascends. C, Coconut cream wringers (tauanga): preparing a wringer by splitting off narrow strips from laufao stem with a wooden fofo'e peeler; the thin strips are laid on a banana leaf and afterwards rubbed between the hands and formed into a tangled mass. D, Wringers: 1, of laufao made from the strips in (C); 2, of coconut, husk fibre (pulu), beaten, cleaned, and tangled together; the grated coconut is enclosed in the wringer and the cream wrung out into a wooden bowl. E, (B 89113) Stone grater (tuai ma'a) lashed with sennit in lozenge pattern to wood representing the free arm of the 'ausa'alo tripod frame. Prepared specially for A. F. Judd at Tau, Manua.
Plate VI. A, Breadfruit pickers: 1, X-shaped picker; a 15-inch rod sharpened at both ends is lashed diagonally to a long pole near the sharpened thinner end; the fork so formed engages the stalk of the breadfruit, which is twisted off and falls to the ground; the rear angle may also be used to hook off the fruit. 2, Netted picker: a pole with a natural fork has a bag net of sennit braid attached to the limbs of the fork; the fruit stalk is engaged by the fork and the fruit twisted off into the bag net, which saves it from bursting on stony ground; used at Fitiuta, Tau. B, Breadfruit pounder (autu'i) formed of breadfruit, with four fau sticks projecting 9.5 inches inserted around the circumference of the stalk attachment to form a handle; used in pounding cooked breadfruit for the taufolo preparation. (Cast by G. P. Wilder.) C, Pounding cooked breadfruit with breadfruit pounder; assistants flick out seeds and hard parts with a piece of wood called i'o fatu.
|Handle, length to lower part of blade||9.5||10.5||8.4||10.25|
Plate VIII. A, Kava roots and mortars: 1, root with part of stem left as a handle to form tungase, given ceremonially to visiting chiefs; 2, larger tungase; 3, 'ava uso; the thin roots of kava bundled together and presented to visiting chiefs who are related (uso, brother), given to Bishop Museum expedition at Vailoa in recognition of the Polynesian brotherhood of Samoa, Hawaii, and New Zealand; 4, small kava mortar used in braying root for one person; 5, large stone used as kava mortar, formerly a grinding stone for stone adzes, obtained at Nu'uali, Tutuila; also natural stone used as pounder. B, Coconut shell kava cups (ipu'ava): 1, large, shallow cup with hole bored through mull projection to support cord; 2, large, deep cup; 3, smaller, average-sized cup; 4, cup made of ordinary drinking nut, used in kava-naming ceremony. C, Kava strainers (to tau 'ava): 1, newly made strainer of fau bast looped over a supporting strip of bast; 2, old strainer tangled up after continued use.
Plate IX. Round kava bowls (tanoa 'ava) with wide rim surfaces directed upwards provided with legs and suspensory lugs. A, (2145) Top and back view: outside diameter 16.25 inches, inside depth in center 4 inches, outside depth 7.5 inches, thickness near rim 0.5 inch, width of upper surface of rim 1 inch, external surface sloped out, forming sharp outer rim edge; average diameter of legs near attachment 3 by 2 inches, at lower end 1.8 by 1.7 inches. In the v-shaped lug each arm is 2 inches long, thickness at junction 1 inch, depth 1 inch, arms with sharp free edge, ends cut at a slant. B (C880), Top and back view: outside diameter 20.25 inches, inside depth 5 inches, outside depth 7.5 inches; the width of the upper rim surface 1.1 inches, narrow outer part of width 0.3 inch, slightly raised, cut with parallel, oblique lines 0.2 inch apart for ornamentation. Outer edge of leg junction 0.5 inch from rim. Originally there were five legs, but one directly opposite suspensory lug had been cut off, the outer surface of the bowl trimmed evenly over the junction, while a long oval of different color marked the site. V-shaped lug with short arms; depth 0.5 inch, free edge,, sharp. Diameters at junction in the leg are 4.3 by 2.2 inches; diameters at lower end 1.4 by 1.1 inches. C (2151), Back view: outside diameter 20.5 and 19.5 inches, inside depth 4.75 inches, outside depth 7.75 inches. The outer and inner surfaces inclined toward each other form narrow rim surface 0.4 inch in width. V-shaped lug is solid. D (8186), Back view: outside diameter 16.25 inches, inside depth 3.5 inches, outside depth 7 inches. There are 12 legs 0.25 inch from bevelled outer edge of rim, quadrangular in section.
Plate X. A and B, Upper and back view of elliptical kava bowls, rim at ends prolonged, with four legs, and suspensory lug: A (6000), inside long diameter 13.5 inches, cross diameter 11.6 inches, inside depth 3.5 inches, outside depth 5 inches; rim surface width in middle transverse line 0.25 inch, at pointed ends 0.75 inch; suspensory lug, straight projection with long axis parallel with rim. B (2150) Inside long diameter 11 inches, cross diameter 9 inches, inside depth 3.25 inches, outside depth 4.75 inches; rim upper surface width in middle transverse line 0.2 inch, at pointed ends 1.25 inches; v-shaped lug with two arms almost in same straight line, both curved on free edge, making the deeper apical part project downwards in a blunt point. C (2146), Round bowl: outside diameter 17.25 inches, inside depth 4 inches, outside depth 5.75 inches, thickness near rim 0.4 inches, width of rim surface 0.55 inches. Legs with outer concave curve. T-shaped lug. D, Large, round masoa bowl for preparing arrowroot. Circular opening 2 feet 3.75 inches in diameter. Depth in center 9.5 inches. Rim plain with, slight bevel from outer circumference to meet outer surface of bowl. Handles formed of four projections cut out of solid and set at equal distances around the rim. Attachment page 686to bowl 4 to 5 inches wide, 1.5 inches deep, projection outwards 1.5 inches, acute-angled groove 0.3 inch deep between handle and rim to maintain rim bevel; handles rounded off transversely with vertical diameter of 2 inches; the ends are cut off square. The cavity of bowl is evenly concave in all directions. Outer surface, when inverted, is dome-shaped Four legs evenly spaced about 4.5 inches from center; lower ends round in section, 1.5 inches in diameter, attachment oval with long diameter of 2.25 to 2.5 inches in line radiating from center; cross diameter 2 inches, broader end internal, height on inner side 1.25 inches, height from rim to ground 11 inches.
Plate XI. A, Roof sheets of plaited coconut leaf (laupola): length 7 feet, depth 14 inches; right and left sides of leaf plaited separately; end edges plaited; upper edge formed by midrib; lower edge by free leaflet ends; check stroke; used in pairs. B, Ridge sheet of coconut leaf (fa'atafiti): upper surface, middle whole leaf and split half leaves on either side with leaves interlaced. C, Ridge sheet: under surface, which is turned upward when placed over upper ridgepole.
Plate XII. A, Wall screens (pola sisi) made of coconut leaf; length 3 feet, depth 12 inches; 1, vertical rows of twill; 2, geometrical design of large triangles; 3, smaller triangles; 4, back showing course of dextral wefts passing over upper edge to be included in finishing braid. Braid tail on right upper corner fixed by passing back through wefts. B, Coconut leaf rough baskets ('ato); 1, 'ato fili tasi with one line of braid at the bottom finish; split mibrib rim in one piece; 2, 'ato fili tolu with round finish at bottom but rest of technique same as (B, 1). C, Temporary food platters: 1, mailo platter used for serving fa'ausi food preparation to high chiefs; 2, laulau platter made of green leaflets in check and discarded after use. D, Permanent laulau food platter plaited in vertical rows of twill and kept for serving food to guests and family: 1, front lower border shows twist of leaflets and upper border the three-ply braid finish; 2, back lower border showing midrib strips carrying leaflet wefts; upper border with braid edging and braid tail on right inserted through wefts of body. B, Carrying sheet of coconut leaf (laupolapola): length 19 inches, width 23 inches; right and left sides of leaf split off, plaited in check separately, and joined down the middle with two-course, three-ply braid; used by women for carrying material on the back.
Plate XIII. Plaiting 'ato baskets: A, Plaiting of strip finished, dextral wefts turned down at top edge (below in Plate) and marginal free wefts projecting at both ends. Note odd leaflet left free on plaiter's right hand. B, Ends of plaiting joined by plaiting free marginal wefts of A together. Note dextrals turned down and free ends of sinistral wefts, projecting upwards. C, Commencing first course of bottom closure in 'ato fili tasi. The so'o join shown by weft crossing midrib rim in middle line. D, Second course of braided bottom closure completed and ends plaited on into free tail. E, Plaiting second course of bottom closure of 'ato fili tolu. F, Finish of 'ato fili tolu with braided tail, which is pushed through to inside of basket.
Plate XIV. A, Coconut leaf fishing baskets (ola): 1, ola malu with rim of two midrib strips and two braided tails from bottom pushed through sides (Savaii); 2, ola malu with rim of one midrib strip with two half leaflets diverged at rim to form dextral and sinistral wefts. Note two-braid tails from bottom (Savaii). B, Ola tu, large basket with two midrib strips at rim to supply two opposite sets of wefts, plaited in horizontal lines of twilled-twos and used by women as a manipulated trap into which fish are driven from rock piles. C, Specialized types of coconut leaf baskets: 1, si'u ola, a better class of basket for containing fish, with rim of two midrib strips with leaflets twisted over each other, plaited in horizontal twilled-twos, and each course of bottom braid finished separately with braid tail at either end (Savaii); 2, si'u ola, same as (1) but deeper with twilled-twos running in vertical rows (Tutuila); 3, 'ato 'afa chief's basket for containing sennit braid with more elaborate technique; width 19 inches, depth 11 inches; rim, four strips of leaf midrib, twill plait alternated in horizontal and vertical rows, and bottom finished with elaborate five-ply plait (Tutuila). D, Small coconut page 687leaf baskets: 1, breadfruit cover (pulou 'ulu) made of two sections of leaf plaited in check and finished at bottom with braid like 'ato fili tasi and used to protect breadfruit (Manua); 2, basket similar to D, 1 but with three sections of leaf (Savaii); 3, basket with four sections of leaf (Savaii); 4, basket like Cook Island ohini, not much in use, probably introduced (Savaii).
Plate XV. A, Round coconut leaf baskets: 1, inside view, rim diameter 17 inches, depth 19 inches. Method of closing the bottom by plaiting in four quarter-sections shown and finished with three-ply braid tails, which are tucked under crossing wefts in the plaiting. 2, Side view with rim of four strips of leaf midrib with twill plait in vertical rows and bottom edge twisted to form round character of basket (Savaii). B, Inside view of round basket with different closure effected by carrying three-ply braid round in diminishing spiral and finishing off with thick braid (Savaii).
Plate XVI. A, Two samples of coiled baskets in which the coil foundation in split coconut leaf midrib and the coiling material pandanus leaf strips; the technique probably introduced and adapted to local material: 1, basket with long handle; 2, basket with rimmed, flat cover with central knob. B, Basket made of sennit braid with netting knot technique but with knot tied below the upper mesh instead of across it. This old basket was stated to have been for some generations in the family of the talking chief Manu of Safotu, Savaii, and was called by him an 'ato fa'apaupau. They were used by carpenters for their tools and were then termed 'ato to. The basket is 16 inches wide and 15 inches deep in the middle. C, Coconut leaf floor mat (tapa'au or polavai). The mat is a sampler but the full technique is present. Made of four strips of coconut leaf interlaced in the middle, plaited in check and finished off at the sides with three-ply braid. The free tail end of the braid is tucked under on the right and passed under crossing wefts. The tail is purposely left out on the left to show the technique. D, Pandanus leaf baskets of quadrangular shape probably derived from the old tanga type. Wefts of double thickness with the inner layer in check and the outer in' twill. Colored elements overlaid to form design. Wefts cross at right angles to edges of basket. E, Basket of satchel type made of pandanus leaf in check with color introduced, serrated rim, and paired handles.
Plate XVII. A, Floor mats; 1, common type (papa or paongo), length 7 feet, width 2 feet 6 inches, double wefts of the paongo 1 inch wide used with check stroke; 2, floor mat (fala) larger than (A, 1), double wefts of fala 0.5 inch wide, used with check stroke. B, Baby mats (fala lili'i): 1, double wefts of fala 0.4 inch wide used in body with general check stroke spaced with rows of twill. Long edges with narrower wefts plaited in two separate layers with twilled-two stroke and free edges folded in; length of mat 38 inches, width 24 inches. 2, Double wefts of fala in two natural colors arranged to form squares in alternating colors with check stroke. Slits shown near long edge on right as also braid finish of long edge; size same as (B, 1). 3, Single wefts of fala in two natural colors more accentuated than in (B, 2). Sides and edges in check and twill. Body worked with twilled geometrical motives bordered by single lines of check. Size same as (B, 1). C, Sleeping mats (fala moenga): 1, with serrated edges (fa'atalatala), check plait with longitudinal rows of twill, also overlaid plaiting in color for ornamentation; 2, with dextral wefts dyed black and plaited in geometrical design. Both dye and introduction of wool fringe at edges are modern.
Plate XVIII. A, Samplers of plaiting: 1, fa'aalo orthodox oblique plait showing double butt commencement and fa'aulu method of adding weft butts on left margin; 2, tapito plait with wide and narrow wefts alternating to form the technique called lalanga atoa; 3, tapito plait at right angles to edges with diagonal running twill 4, tapito plait showing weft butts below and on left at right angles to edges (compare direction of wefts with A 1) with method of turning back wefts at upper finishing edge, also alternate panels of oblique twill (fa'afatuamanga). B, Cordage material: 1, coconut (niu'afa) 13 inches long, used in making sennit braid ('afa); 2, ordinary nut split to show fibrous husk (pulu) surrounding the nut; 3, longitudinal section of coconut husk page 688split for soaking in sea water before beating; 4, wooden anvil (malaise) with three legs upon which coconut husk is beaten after soaking in water; 5, wooden mallet (sa'afa) for beating coconut husk on wooden anvil; 6, two bundles of beaten husk with only fibres left (matofi). The fibre from each segment is kept separate by tying with a strand of fibre. C, Cordage: 1, scraped fau songa braided at one end to keep strips together when soaking in sea water and bleaching in the sun; 2, fau songa two-ply twisted cord barely 2 mm. thick made for smaller nuts; 3, fau songa fine three-ply twist 1.5 mm. thick, used for rod fishing inside the reef (seuseu) and also troll fishing with pa ala hook; 4, ta'a cord of three-ply for use with bonito hook and rod; 6, five-ply braid of fau songa 4 mm. wide and 2 mm. thick, probably used with pa tangi trolling hooks; 7, three-ply twisted cord of matiata 3 mm. thick, used in shark nets.
Plate XIX. A, Sennit fibres used in braid; 1, matofi bundle of beaten coconut fibres from one husk segment, which is kept separate by tying with strand of fibre; 2, fa'atala rolled strands of sennit fibre ready for braiding; 3, to'oto'o ali'i working material of matofi, fa'ata'a, and three-ply braid 'afa being plaited. B, Sennit braid: 1, small working coil of sennit braid (i'o fanga); 2, loose coil of sennit braid (tanganga) in one-fathom coils; 3, permanent coil of sennit braid ('afa mamanu or 'afa manu fa'aso'a).
Plate XX. A, Ropes (maea): 1, two-ply twisted rope of fau 9 to 11 mm. in diameter; 2, two-ply twisted rope of fau more neatly made than (A 1), 7 mm. in diameter and used for lines in suspending curtains; 3, commercial three-ply twisted rope used in making shark nooses 0.75 inch in diameter, or 19 mm.; 4, three-ply braid rope, each ply consisting of four strands of ordinary three-ply braid 15 mm. wide by 8 mm. thick, termed 'afa'afalua; 5, five-ply braided rope 11 mm. wide by 6 mm. thick. B, Twist and braid: 1, two-ply twisted sennit; 2, three-ply braided sennit finer than usual, 2 mm. wide and 1 mm. thick with no doubled-over join or twisted fa'ata'a; 3, ordinary three-ply sennit braid 4 mm. wide and 2 mm. thick; 4, thicker three-ply sennit braid 6 mm. wide and 3 mm. thick; 5 four-ply round braid ('afa langa fa or 'afa anufe) 2 mm. in diameter; 6, five-ply fine braid 3 mm. wide and 1 mm. thick; 7, five-ply thick braid 7 mm. wide and 4 mm. thick.
Plate XXI. A (L. 1570), ti-leaf kilt, four-ply braid waistband of fau strips to which ti leaves are added in two layers; width 2 feet 7 inches, depth 1 foot 8 inches. B (C. 727), Kilt of fau bast (titi fau) dyed yellow in ango. Strips of bast attached by two-cord commencement; width 5 feet 8 inches, depth 14 inches. C (C. 728) Kilt of fangai'o bast with 31 hanging strips ornamented with fa'afeti'i loops. Strips joined to a three-ply braid supporting band also ornamented with bast loops.
Plate XXII. A (C. 550), Feather kilt (titi'ula): green and white feathers attached to thin cords and plaited in a three-ply braid of bark cloth. Cords with feathers 8 to 9.5 inches deep; width of kilt 3 feet 2 inches. B, Bamboo frame for storing feather kilt constructed as follows: a length of bamboo 1 inch in diameter and 1 foot 7 inches long including a node at one end, is split longitudinally into 6 pieces, which are run up to the node. A strip of bamboo about 3 feet 5 inches in length and less than 0.25 inch wide is tied together at the ends with 2.5 inches overlap to form a hoop about 1 foot in diameter. The lower ends of the 6 divisions are tied at equal distances to the outer side of the hoop. Another smaller hoop about 9.5 inches in diameter is attached to the inner side of the six radials, 4 inches higher up than the marginal hoop. Six intermediate strips of bamboo are inserted at their upper ends into the spaces between the 6 radials, so that they rest in the upper tube below the node, while below they are tied to the outside of the two hoops midway between the radials. A strip of bamboo 5.5 inches long is tied at the upper part of the cage to two opposite radials. The titi'ula is folded into short, convenient lengths and suspended from the crossbar by tying; cage height 1 foot 7 inches, diameter at bottom 1 foot. C (L. 2071), Kilt of pandanus leaf (titi laufala) attached by two cords to waist; width 2 feet 10 inches, depth 1 foot 7 inches.page 689
Plate XXIII. A (C. 372), Kilt of fau bast plaited in check on single cord commencement; width 2 feet 3 inches, depth of plaiting 6 inches and fringe 1 foot 10 inches; wefts five or six to 1 inch. B (L. 2264), Kilt of fau bast plaited in twilled-twos. Special attachment to two suspensory cords; width 2 feet 7 inches, depth of plaiting 6.5 inches; fringe 13 inches deep; rosettes and ornamentation in native material.
Plate XXIV. A, textile Kilt ('ie tutu pupu'u): width 3 feet 4 inches, depth 11 inches; wefts four to seven to 1 inch; dyed with lama (black dye); fringe of three-ply braid tails with fringed ends 18 inches in depth at all edges, also intermediate fringe of weft ends on body. B, Textile kilt ('ie tutu pupu'u); width 4 feet 4 inches, depth 1 foot 6 inches to 1 foot 9 inches; material fau; dye 'o'a; commencement corner on right upper corner which was lower left during plaiting; wefts four or five to 1 inch with 179 braided tails.
Plate XXV. A, Garment kilt as worn. B (C. 371), white textile kilt fau pata; width 2 feet 7 inches, depth 1 foot 6 inches; tags 6 to 7 inches long, wefts eight to twelve to the inch; braid fringe 10 to 11 inches long.
Plate XXVI. A (C. 371), textile kilt showing check plait and wefts, eight to twelve to the inch (under side). B (C. 375), 'ie lavalava made of fine mat pandanus material, check plait; width 3 feet 4 inches; eleven to thirteen wefts to 1 inch; braided tails at lower edge with free ends forming a fringe 15 inches deep; feathers tied to lower end of braid tails.
Plate XXVII. A, Shaggy mat. ('ie fau); width 3 feet 3 inches, depth 2 feet 6 inches to 2 feet 9 inches; material fau; natural color rich brown; double wefts five to ten to 1 inch; check plait; outer surface covered with tags. B (C. 729), Working edge of 'ie fau garment, showing oblique working edge and fausa wrappings of wefts not immediately in use, also horizontal line of tags attached to body of garment.
Plate XXVIII. A (C. 730), 'Ie sina garment in the making with clear, triangular commencement at lower left corner on dark paper, also showing the knotted fausa wefts with working edge over black paper with working dextrals spread out (Upolu). B (3570), 'Ie sina shaggy garment; width 5 feet 10 inches, depth 3 feet 6 inches; ten wefts to 1 inch; outer coating of tags uncombed.
Plate XXIX. A (2186), 'Ie ta'ele shaggy garment made of fau and colored with red earth ('ele); width 4 feet 6 inches, depth 2 feet 11 inches; eleven wefts to 1 inch; tags 6 inches long; technique check plait. The lower left corner turned up to show the small, triangular commencement and the upper right corner shows the small braid finish resting on a piece of white paper. B (B. 9049), Kilt commenced with check plait; width 3 feet 9 inches, depth 1 foot 6 inches; covered with tags 8 or 9 inches long; eight or ten wefts to 1 inch; tags consist of ends of dextral and sinistral wefts; waist cords commenced from wefts at upper corners.
Plate XXX. A, 1. Braid of discarded under layer carrying butt ends of the upper layer of the lau'ie pandanus for fine mats. After cooking and soaking in sea water, the leaves are cut off at braid and the latter discarded. 2, Leaf of lau'ie pandanus for fine mats. The under surface layer at lower butt end cut away and leaf cooked in earth oven in bundles. 3, Roll of prepared pandanus leaf (lau'ie) for fine mats. B, Lower left corner of fine mat, showing corner clear of fringe elements where plaiting commences. Left edge clear of fringe and lower edge fringed. C, Right upper corner of fine mat, showing three-ply braid finish of the mat. The braid is the last part done except the attachment of feathers. D, Fine mat ('ie tonga), showing functional lower border with weft fringes, pointed wide strips of pandanus lau'ie, and red feather ornamentation. The feathers usually extend right across, but here spaces are left which show up the attachment of the pointed strips. Note also the occasional long ornamental strip.page 690
Plate XXXI. A, Bark cloth beaters (i'e): 1 (B. 8920), Type round beater, ungrooved, length 16 inches, distal end elliptical cross section, diameters 2.5 and 2.3 inches. Handle diameter 1.4 inches, no shoulder between handle and head. Proximal end flared to diameter of 1.8 inches. Weight 27 ounces. 2, Round beater with shoulder; ungrooved; length 16 inches, distal end elliptical, cross diameters 2.5 and 2.1 inches, handle diameter 1.4 inches, marked shoulder 7.5 inches from distal end; handle not flared; weight 28 ounces. 3 (B. 8921), Three-sided smooth beater; length 14 inches, width of surfaces at distal end 2.8, 2.8, and 2.5 inches, handle diameter 1.4 inches; proximal end flared to 1.8 inches diameter; weight 28 ounces. 4 (B. 8914), Four-sided smooth beater; length 15.25 inches, distal end diameters 2.6 and 2.4 inches, proximal end of blade 2.0 and 1.9 inches; no shoulder; handle diameter 1.4 inches, proximal end with flanged knob 1.7 and 1.5 inches in diameter, weight 38 ounces. 5 (C. 760), Type four-sided beater; grooved; length 12 inches, distal end 2.7 inches in diameter, proximal end of blade 2.0 inches diameter, blade length 7 inches; slight shoulder handle diameter 1.5 and 1.6 inches, flared proximal end diameters 1.8 and 1.9 inches; three grooved surfaces with 5 grooves; weight 36 ounces. 6 (B. 8924), Four-sided grooved beater; length 12.5 inches, distal end diameters 2.9 and 2.8 inches, proximal end of blade 2.5 inches diameter; shoulder present; blade length 6 inches; handle diameter 1.6 inches; proximal end markedly flared to 2.1 and 2.3 inches diameter; two surfaces grooved with six and five grooves respectively; weight 42 ounces. 7 (B. 8925), Four-sided grooved beater; length 14.5 inches, distal end diameters 3.2 and 3.1 inches, proximal end blade 2.5 inches diameter; marked shoulder cut with bevel and then at right angles; handle diameter 1.4 inches, proximal end diameters 1.5 and 1.6 inches, forming slight knob; distal end pyramid form ending in point; two surfaces with eight and six grooves; weight 52 ounces. 8 (B. 8915), Small, four-sided beater; length 8.5 inches; distal end 2.1 inches, proximal end blade 1.6 inches in diameter, handle diameter 1.2 and 1.1 inches; proximal end not evenly flared but slight increase to 1.2 and 1.3 inches in diameters. Grooves of five each on two adjacent surfaces; weight 16 ounces. 9 (B. 8918), Four-sided foreign beater; length 18 inches; parallel sides 1.8 inches wide; handle 6.5 inches long and 1.5 inches in diameter; proximal end flared to 1.8 and 1.9 inches; four surfaces grooved with parallel lines ranging from 12 to 24 per surface; weight 38.5 ounces; obtained in Samoa, but probably from Tahiti or Austral Islands. B, Shells for scraping bast of paper mulberry: 1, pipi (Asaphis violacea) used in Tutuila in first stage of scraping; 2, 'asi valu (Arca) used with untrimmed edge in Savaii instead of pipi in first stage of scraping off green coloring matter; 3, shell (Antigone reticulata) used in second stage with the rough outer surface as a rasp for loosening up the material, called pae in eastern Samoa, and mangeo in Savaii; 4, shell (Arca) with edge ground to an even sharp edge, used in third stage to smooth down surface after rasping process, called fa'amalu in eastern Samoa, and pac in Savaii; 5, shell (Arca) ground to a blunt even edge for expressing moisture from scraped bast in last stage of scraping called ta in Savaii and langalanga in eastern Samoa. C, Fai u'a or valu u'a; scraping the bast (u'a) on a board (papa valu u'a); motion of hands away from body; note wooden bowl of water beside board from which a shell full of water is every now and again dashed over the bast to assist in cleaning it. D, Beating the paper mulberry bark with an i'e beater on a wooden tutua anvil (Fangamalo, Savaii).
Plate XXXII. Bark cloth and dyeing utensils: A, 1, tata wiper of bark cloth for painting wide spaces or rubbing designs on bark cloth; 2, tusi fau, large brush of fau fibre for painting bark cloth; 3, smaller tusi fau. B, Cloth process: 1, paper mulberry bast from one rod separated from the outer bark; 2, strip of bast after scraping and with the lower end beaten out to show the expansion that takes place; 3, prepared cloth from one strip of bast showing the thinness and tendency to form holes. The cloth in this stage is called lau u'a or lau'a. C, Wringer for obtaining 'o'a dye; length 7 feet 3 inches, width 11 to 13 inches; made of fau bast in check plait; braided tails at one end for tying over a beam. D, Utensils: 1, pupu 'o'a coconut shell for holding 'o'a dye, stoppered with dry banana leaf; 2, ipu 'o'a half coconut shell for holding 'o'a dye while painting or page 691rubbing bark cloth; 3, ipu lama, half shell for lama dye of candlenut soot and 'o'a mixed; 4, ipu ango, half shell for yellow ango dye made from grated turmeric root; 5, ipu loa, half shell for red loa dye. The above set were the equipment of a woman at Fangamalo Savaii.
Plate XXXIII. A, Straining 'o'a dye: the scraped bark is laid out on the plaited wringer (to tau 'o'a) which rests on banana leaves, the wringer is rolled around the material, tied with cords, and suspended by the ends to a beam where it is twisted with a stick run through the loop formed by the wringer (Leone, Tutuila). B, Women rubbing cloth on upeti tablet of pandanus leaves tied to a section of canoe. The 'o'a dye is in the small wooden bowl on her right and the white ball of arrowroot for pasting may be seen in the other small bowl. The tata wiper or rubber is in the right hand and the design from the tablet below may be seen showing on the cloth (Fangamalo, Savaii). C, Sections of painted and rubbed cloth: 1, piece of painted cloth (siapo tusi) in which the design is painted freehand on cloth made of full thickness before coloring; 2, back of painted cloth showing stains here and there where dye has soaked through but no design is apparent; 3, piece of rubbed cloth (siapo elei) with upper surface showing the clear design that was on a wooden tablet; 4, under surface of the rubbed cloth which was in direct contact with the tablet, showing the less distinct design formed by soaking through from the thin first layer.
Plate XXXIV. A, Upeti fala tablet of pandanus leaf; length 36 inches, 15.75 inches wide; design divided into four sections by vertical panels of pandanus strip 1.5 inches wide; two left sections divided longitudinally by pandanus panels of three straight strips spaced with zigzag strips of pandanus between; smaller areas filled in with horizontal and oblique sets of parallel lines formed of two-ply twisted sennit cords averaging 1 mm. in thickness and varying from 3 to 5 mm. apart; two right segments also divided obliquely by pandanus strips both straight and zigzag; cords bound down with fau stitches 1 to 4 inches apart and running in rows over a series of parallels; sennit braid with ten loops on the upper edge, nine loops on lower edge, and ending in coiled loop, each loop 6 inches long. B, Pandanus leaf tablet tied to a long slab (papa elei) formed from the side of a canoe; the free coil of sennit seen in (A) is passed through the side loops below the slab and binds the tablet firmly down to the slab; on this the bark cloth is placed and rubbed with the dye. C, Upeti papa, tablet with design cut out on a slab formed from side of a canoe with steel tools.
Plate XXXV. A, Sandals: 1, sandal of coconut husk (se'e vae pulu); length 7 inches, width 4 inches, thickness in middle over 1 inch; 2, sandal made of fau bast (se'e vae fau) 7 inches long by 3.25 inches wide; 3, sandal also made of fau bast 6.25 inches long and 4 inches wide; 4, rough sandal of fibrous material at base of coconut leaves (lau'a'a) hence called se'e vae lau'a'a. B, Monumental tia consisting of three tiers of natural stones raised over the grave of a high chief (Savaii). C, The Seat of Sina between the stone house (Le Fale o le Fe'e) and the basaltic cliff at the back composed of pieces of natural basalt; length 5 feet, width 4 feet, height 10 inches, slanting pillar 4 feet 8 inches long.
Plate XXXVI. Front, back, and right side views of adzes: A, Type I. 1. (B.8937) 6 oz. (See fig. 173.) 2. (C.820) 15 oz. (See fig. 174.) B, Type II. 1. (C.788) 15 oz. (See fig. 179.) 2. (L.2029) 7.5 oz. (See fig. 180.) C, Type III. 1. (C.586) 5.5 oz. (See fig. 185.) 2. (C.796) Broken adz, weight 5 oz. (See fig. 186.) D, Type IV; 1. (L.2186) 5 oz. (See fig. 187.) 2. (C.812) 3.5 oz. (See fig. 188.)
Plate XXXVII. Front, back, and right side views of adzes: A, Type V. 1, (L.1491) 10 oz. (See fig. 192.) 2. (C.807) 11 oz. (See fig. 193.) B, Types VI, VII and VIII. 1, Type VI. (C.825) 5-5 oz. (See fig. 195.) 2. Type VII (B.8940) 15 oz. (See fig. 197.) 3. Type VIII. (C.584) 4 oz. (See fig. 199.) C, Chisels. 1. (L.1566) Length, 94 mm., width, 31 mm. 2. (L.1565) (See fig. 211.) 3. (L.1483) (See fig. 212.) 4. page 692(L.1476) (See fig. 213.) 5. (C.345) (See fig. 214.) 6. (C.330) (See fig. 215.) D, Hafted adzes and haft. 1. Haft with projecting heel, single lozenge lashing. 2, Haft without projecting heel, adze butt entirely on toe of haft, chevron lashing. 3, Haft with projecting heel, double lozenge lashing. 4. Haft showing high shoulder and plane level surface below for adz butt, toe angle not so acute as in other three hafts.
Plate XXXVIII. Canoes: A, paopao dugout canoe; length 15 feet 2 inches showing typical bow with forward projection and long sloping stern with hauling knob; thick inner flange of upper edge showing on far side; two straight booms; two pairs of connecting pegs inserted into float close together; vertical suspensory lashing passing under float but usually through hole in float; float sharpened, fore end level with bow, aft end cut off square close behind aft connecting pegs (Ofu, Manua). B, Model of soatau canoe in Bishop Museum; bluff bow, long sloping stern cut off square without hauling knob; three straight booms; two pairs of connecting pegs with each boom separated above by width of boom but more widely diverged below at insertion into float, thus differing from the paopao canoe; vertical suspensory attachment with fore and aft booms pass under the float; two longitudinal rods over booms lashed to them above connecting peg lashings; pointed fore end of float level with bow but cut off square close behind aft connecting pegs. C, Bonito canoe (va'a alo) in Bishop Museum; length 24 feet 6 inches; made of planks sewn together with sennit braid on inside of hull through raised flanges; typical bow and long sloping stern ending in back projection from upper surface; two straight booms connected with float and short middle boom; two pairs connecting pegs with fore and aft booms inserted close together in float; vertical suspensory attachments passing under float; decorated with mesial row of ovulum shells on bow and stern covers; stern cover with raised fishing rod post; bamboo bonito rod resting on forked support attached to fore boom and on aft boom; pointed fore end of float level with bow and aft end cut off close behind aft connecting pegs (Tau, Manua).
Plate XXXIX. A, Section of hold of bonito canoe (Pl. XXXVIII, C) near aft boom showing connecting flanges with sennit lashings on either side of keel and also between lower and second tier; end join between two pieces of lower tier; strengthening ribs in a lower tier section to right of boom; wide gunwales with single lozenge lashing over the aft boom; pu'enga handhold between left gunwale and aft boom. B, Bow section of above canoe; showing bow cover with mesial line of ovulum shells attached to raised stands; fore boom with gunwale lashings and lashings to inner and outer pairs of connecting pegs which are inserted into the float close together; vertical suspensory attachment passing under float; short middle boom; some lashings between gunwale and side piece showing externally; gunwale with wide upper surface and external raised rim.
Plate XL. A, Model double canoe with matting sail, deck house and upper platform, also mast with tomotomo upper end; left view showing smaller dugout corresponding to float, the left end of which is obscured by the typical bow of the right canoe. B, Paddles: 1, paopao paddle with obtuse outer angles of the blade 8.75 inches wide; blade length 21 inches, total length 34 inches; 2, side view of bonito canoe paddle, showing thin edge of the blade, total length 38 inches; 3, bonito canoe paddle, front view, showing raised ridge running down from handle to blade; width of blade 8.25 inches, total length 37 inches. C, Bailers: 1, bonito canoe bailer (no handle) 9.2 inches long, 4.6 inches wide, and 2.7 inches deep; 2, bailers of large canoes with mesial handle, 12 inches long, 6 inches wide, and 4 inches deep. D, Sinkers and anchors: 1, shark bait sinkers (ma'afa'amalie) with hole drilled right through, groove extending from hole and over end of stone, weight 29 pounds; used to anchor bait with set net for sharks outside reef; 2, shark net anchor (taula) with large hole near grooved end; weight 30 pounds; used to anchor shark net set outside reef (Tau); 3, stone weighing 2 pounds with hole drilled through near end, used with others as anchor for small paopao canoe.
Plate XLI. A, 1, Sea eel snare (sele pusi); sennit braid tied to notch around end of stick and slip noose formed; 2, small stone tied with sennit, used as net sinkers. B, page 693(C.336), Side view of squid lure (pule ta'i fe'e) made of two plates of Cypraea tigris fitted and lashed over stone shaped like spinning top; stone of dark basalt, 85 mm. long and 49 by 40 mm. diameter at base; tuasivi rod of coconut root with coconut leaflet strips attached; line slipped under mesial lashing cord and end knotted; cone-shaped wooden float at proximal end of line to mark site when lure is dropped with too large a squid; lure supposed to represent a rat (Leone, Tutuila). C (C. 649), Float for shark bait (uto malie) made of breadfruit wood; length 15 inches; wide end, 4.25, inches wide, 4.75 inches thick, anterior projection 1 inch wide; sennit braid down mesial line looped around peg at back; coil of sennit at narrow end for tying bait on to mesial cord and around side grooves; line attached to loop at narrow end. D, Coconut fibre receptacle for palolo ('a'a); sheet of natural material (lau'a'a) folded and tied at ends with strip of bark. E, Shark bait of bonito heads (pa'o'o); part of head with dried opercula used as bait lure tied to float or separately; maintains strong odor for some time. F, Many-pointed fish spear (tao fuifui); handle of light wood 8 feet 6 inches long; 33 points of hard wood lashed in spiral arrangement with sennit braid. G, Coconut leaf fish sweep (lauloa); split coconut leaf wound spirally around a length of vine (fue vai) and used in driving fish into a set net (Fangamalo, Savaii).
Plate XLII. A, Whitebait scoop (fonoti); formed of coconut sennit braid with a netting knot, made like a satchel but with one end not closed, and wooden handles attached to two upper edges; length 11 inches, depth 7 to 8 inches, handles 21 inches long; handles held at closed end and opened out like scissors; used for scooping up fry (in-gana) when they come up river in shoals (Ngataivai, Savaii). B, Small trap (fanga fa'atau tu'u'u) made with single-pair twine from 'ie'ie aerial roots; black stone within used as decoy for tu'u'u fish; manipulated trap used by women who place hand over opening after fish enters (Fangamalo, Savaii). C, Fish trap (fanga i'a) of lobster pot type made of 'ie'ie root with single-pair twine; self-acting funnel entrance (Leone, Tutuila). D, Fish trap (fanga i'a) being made by Fepulea'i Ripley, Leone; the funnel and the malae concavity leading to funnel are just completed and trap is being bent round to form sides. E, Fanga i'a trap (D) completed with thick rim around lower muli opening; the funnel is also seen. F, Bottom ends of traps: 1. fanga i'a trap showing the muli opening at the bottom end; 2, crayfish pot (fanga ula) showing closed lower end; 3, fanga fa'atau tu'u'u showing small size and bottom where twining commenced over crossed warp; 4, 'enu trap made of 'ie'ie root arranged in two layers of warps with spiral weft of 'ie'ie root between lashed with sennit braid; view showing bottom in centre of which the lashing commenced (Tutuila).
Plate XLIII. A, Crayfish pot (fanga ula) with closed lower end; warp and wefts of more than one element of 'ie'ie root; very flat around outer circumference of funnel entrance (Leone, Tutuila); B, fanga'ofe double entrance trap made of bamboo with different lashing to 'enu traps; length 41 inches, diameter at middle 18 inches, diameter at ends 11 inches (Fasitoouta, Upolu); C, sea eel trap (fanga pusi) made of rods lashed together to form flat box; opening enters into funnel of strips of wood and self-acting mechanism made of lau'a'a coconut natural fabric; length 22 inches, width 13 inches, depth 5 inches (Fasitoouta, Upolu); D, 'enu trap of lobster pot type, showing upper funnel opening; maximum diameter 25 inches and depth 18 inches; funnel 12 inches deep and 6 inches in diameter at inner opening (Tutuila); B, 'enu trap of domed cylinder type set on side; length 28 inches, depth at rim 19 inches; same stroke technique as the lobster pot type (Vaiusu, Upolu).
Plate XLIV. A, Fangauli fish trap made of thick tuafanga vine with single-pair twine; double entrance trap showing the mata opening with finish around rim; diameter at middle 2 feet 3 inches, diameter mata opening 12 inches (Sapapalii, Savaii). B, Fangauli fish trap (A) showing muli opening with the afe turn; diameter of opening 10 by 13 inches.
Plate XLV. A, Netting implements: 1, netting needle (si'a) (Savaii); 2, mesh gage (afa) with newly made meshes upon it; 3, net made of fau songa native cord. B, page 694Se'i hand net; handle sticks 30 inches in length, net 23 inches by 20 inches (Vaiala, Upolu). C, Turtle net of sennit braid ('upenga 'afa) with large floats and stone sinkers; meshes 1 foot; depth of net 24 feet; kept wound up on sticks in two separate parts, each about 34 fathoms long (Ngataivai, Savaii). D, Rather narrow casting net ('upenga tili) with peg floats and stone sinkers, floats 3.5 inches long and 0.4 inch in diameter sinkers of small natural waterworn stones (Tutuila).
Plate XLVI. A, Shrimp net ('u'uti): width at bottom 5.5 feet; sinkers of shells (Cypraea mauritiana), Apia, Upolu. B, Alangamea hand net for catching mullet as they leap over seine net; side poles 9 feet in length, width of net at top 9 feet 9 inches; net opened out for use with right pole in fork of crossbar. Note muli bag part of net near handle (Moata'a, Upolu).
Plate XLVII. A, Eel hooks (matau tuna) made of two pieces of hard wood lashed together,, fixed with fau bast and plaited into three-ply braid (Malaeloa, Tutuila). B, Fish hooks: 1 and 2, bonito (pa 'atu) with length of fau songa cord attached, turtle shell point, and fibre hackle; 3, bonito hook with wider turtle shell point; 4. bonito hook with pearl shell point; 5, bonito hook showing front view; 6 and 7, pa ala hooks with round shanks, feather hackles, turtle shell points, and thinner fau songa cords of hook attached to lines of 5-ply sennit braid; characteristic coiling; 8, pa ala hook with flat shell shank; 9, small pa seuseu hook with shell shank and metal fishhook for point; also three-ply cord of fau songa; 10, two small pa seuseu with metal hook; 11, very large shank said to be pa tangi made of a whale's tooth and inlaid on back with pearl shell; length 190 mm., greatest width at pointed end 31 mm., width lower end 18 mm., greatest thickness 24 mm., hole through near pointed end; lower end nicked on curved sides for lashing the point; obtained at Leone but may be Tongan; 12, Tongan hook, with barbed turtle shell point and five-ply braid line of fau songa; the shank is of whale's tooth shaped and inlaid on back with pearl shell in exactly the same way as the shank (11).
Plate XLVIII. A, Rat trap (mailei 'iole): bamboo cylinder with two wooden cross pieces; the curved spring piece stayed with vertical and oblique pieces; trap set with sennit loop showing in entrance; over elaboration with sennit bindings (Tau, Manua). B, Hooking appliance for flying fox: branches of angaoso creeper with curved thorns tied to long handle in 30-inch lengths; the flying fox is hooked over the wings when coming to feed on fruit trees (Tau, Manua). C, Bow and arrows: 1, bow (aufana) made of fisoa wood 53 inches long and 0.8 inches in diameter; bowstring of five-ply sennit braid which is also wound spirally around bow for ornamentation; grooves cut around ends of bow to take string (Aopo, Savaii); 2, single-pointed long arrow (u match-tasi); point of pau wood 6 inches protruding and 5 inches bound to groove in shaft; free part square in section with edges nicked; shaft of cane (u) 4 feet long and 0.3 inch in diameter, not feathered; 3, two-pointed arrow (u matalua); material same as (2), but shaft not grooved for points which are laid on either side of shaft end and lashed with sennit braid; 4, three-pointed arrow (u matatolu); same material but shorter points; third point concealed in plate behind lower point; 5, single-pointed short arrow (u ta'-afale); for shooting at bird in awkward position to side or behind fowling house.
Plate XLIX. A, Pigeon net ('upenga seu lupe): handle 5 feet 2.5 inches long, length with net 15 feet; net 6 inches wide at top, 27 inches in middle, and 7 inches at handle; bag near top end 30 inches deep (Aopo, Savaii). B, Jack straw sticks (fiti); light sticks 18 inches long and thick as a lead pencil; no definite number; rolled mat with two uprights and sticks laid in bundle between; the game is to flick off the greatest number singly without missing a stroke. C, Coconut shell discs (au lafo): Two sets of five coconut shell discs of various sizes, ranging from diameter of 2.5 inches to 5 inches, used in pitching game like quoits; the large discs have been cracked and repaired with lashings through holes bored on either side of crack; the disks have been carved and lime set in. Plaited pandanus mat used in the game.page 695
Plate L. A, Musical instruments: 1, small wooden gong (pate); wood elliptical in cross section, hollowed out through longitudinal narrow opening to within few inches of ends; ends hollowed out for short distance; introduced from Tahiti; 2, small wooden gong with one end produced to form a handle; beaten with one stick which is beside it; 3, short length of bamboo ('ofe) with one end split; the other end is thumped on the ground in beating time to dances; 4, shell trumpet (pu faofao) Cynatium tritonis with hole bored through third whorl; 5, shell trumpet (pu foafoa) Cassis cornuta with apical whorls cut off to form trumpet. B, Mature coconuts (popo) stacked against vertical stakes to which they are fastened to await convenient time for making copra. C, Wooden gong (lali); two wooden gongs of hollowed-out logs, beaten with two sticks to call meetings together; also used in pairs which are set to different notes (Saleaula, Savaii).
Plate LI. Samoan Clubs: 1 (2114), round billet club (povai): length 36 inches; rounded distal end; distal diameter 2.75 inches, handle diameter 1.5 inches; proximal end flared, low triangular lug; bands of carving; used by King Malietoa in war with Tama-sese; 2 (B.2900), round billet (povai); length 34.5 inches, distal diameter 2.9 inches, handle diameter 1.8 inches; rounded distal end, flared handle with pentagonal lug, wide bands of carving; 3 (2118), four-sided billet (povai); length 32 inches, distal diameters 1.9 and 2 inches, handle diameter 1.5 inches; distal blunt point, handle flared, deep pentagonal lug; bands of carving inset with lime; 4 (5699), bilateral-toothed club (fa'alaufa'i); length 34.25 inches, blade length 15.75 inches, blade width, proximal 2.7 inches, distal 4.5 inches; 17 pairs of teeth; the teeth are bevelled at the sides and back on to the blade; diameter of handle 1.3 inches, flare 2.0 and 2.1 inches; triangular lug (varnished model); 5 (C.700), dancing club (anave); length 45 inches, blade length 15.5 inches, width 4 inches; five pairs bilateral transverse spikes; handle diameter 1.1 inches; no flare, lug, or hole; clubs are used in dances; 6 (B.4022), foreign club; length 51 inches; maximum width of blade 2.9 inches, blade length 23 inches; two raised bands across blade with serrated edges; handle diameter 1.4 inches; no flaring, no lug; transverse hole bored through handle 2.5 inches from end; wood heavy, labelled Samoa, but probably foreign; figured for comparison with dancing clubs; 7, coconut stalk club (uatongi); length 42.5 inches, head width 4.2 inches, thickness middle line 2 inches; end concave transversely; distal band of nine transverse raised ridges followed by seven, four, and three raised transverse ridges; handle diameter 1.3 inches; flared, no lug, but oblique hole for supporting cord through flared rim (Amouli, Tutuila); 8 (2101), unilateral-toothed and hook club (Nifo'oti); length 40 inches, greatest width 9.5 inches, blade length 22.5 inches, greatest thickness 3.2 inches, depth of hook 1.75 inches, handle diamater 2 inches; proximal end not flared; no lug; carved in wide bands; 9 (7879), bilateral-toothed club (fa'alaufa'i); length 49 inches, blade length 17.5 inches, blade width proximal 3.8 inches, distal 4.3 inches; nine pairs of teeth without counting head and shoulder points; handle diameter 1.3, flared to 1.7 and 1.9 inches; pentagonal lug; handle decorated with bands formed of three turns of sennit braid—originally four bands. The club is a full-sized weapon.
Plate LII. A, Clubs: 1 (2120), Paddle club model; length 35 inches; maximum width of blade 3.75 inches, width of rib 3.7 inches, length of blade 16 inches; handle flared; triangular lug; leaf form, of blade; 2 (2119), paddle club; length 39.75 inches, blade width 3.2 inches, rib width 4.4 inches, blade length 13.5 inches, handle diameter 1.3 inches; not flared and no lug or hole; the club is completely carved including handle and its proximal end surface; the blade after sloping in from the cross rib is straight edged; though labelled Samoa the club is probably from Tonga; 3 (2109), intermediate form club; length 24.5 inches; resembling a coconut stalk club with an ear-shaped end on the right side; slightly flared handle; no lug; well made one-handed club; 4 (B.2895), ear-shaped club (fa'alautalinga); length 24 inches; head length 3.4 inches, width 6.3 inches, maximum thickness 1.8 inches; handle elliptical cross section; diameters 1.2 and 1.4 inches; handle flared and with curved lug; carved on head and shaft; well made one-handed club; 5, ear-shaped club (B.2898) length 26.5 inches; head length 64 inches, width page 69610.75 inches, maximum thickness 1.8 inches, handle diameters 1.5 and 1.6 inches; well flared, curved lug; head and shaft carved; well-made club used by Malietoa; 6, ear-shaped club (2129) length 22.5 inches; head length 4.4 inches, width 11.75 inches, maximum thickness 2.4 inches; handle diameter 1.5 inches; well-flared; triangular lug; the end curve is flattened and the median longitudinal edges very pronounced; 7 (L.1509), short baton club; length 20 inches; diameter, proximal 1.3 inches, distal 1.7 inches transverse hole through proximal end for cord, also large transverse hole through distal end; old well-polished specimen; 8 (L.1516), short baton club; length 19.25 inches, diameters, proximal 1.3 inches, distal 2.3 inches, transverse hole through proximal end and projection from end; distal end rounded; the club is wrapped with sennit braid; 9 (L.2132), knobbed throwing club ('olo); length 13.5 inches; longitudinal diameter of head 2.4 inches, transverse diameter 2.8 inches; handle diameter 1.3 inches; slightly flared and rounded end; four bands of carving round handle; 10 (6949), mace club (fa'aaufala); length 26.5 inches, head length 13 inches, widest head diameter proximal 4.75 inches; handle flared; triangular lug; 11 (2133), short mace club (fa'aaufala); length 15.5 inches, head length 6 inches, widest diameter 3.1 inches; handle flared; triangular lug. B, Spears: 1, barbs arranged in three longitudinal rows with one compound barb spaced at intervals between the ordinary long slightly curved barbs; 2 (3579), tala-o-le-lo; length 72 inches, barbed part 20 inches; simple barbs near point arranged in four longitudinal rows; compound barbs (tala-o-le-lo) also in four longitudinal rows; 3 (C.396), spear with barbs on one side (tao fa'aiala lau paongo, spear barbed like the pandanus leaf); length 67.25 inches; also used as talking chief's staff.
Plate LIII. A, Tuinga headdress: 1, pale fuiono band worn over the forehead with the headdress. Foundation of cloth with upper row formed of the nuclear whorls of nautilus and lower row of outer portions of post-nuclear whorls; 2, tufts of human hair, one end seized with coconut fibre to form eyes through which cord is threaded; used with tuinga headdress. B, Tuinga headdress set up with pale fuiono forehead band, lave framework supporting circular mirrors and human hair fluffed out at back and sides; worn by Fa'apua'a, the taupou of Tufele at Tau, Manua. Note the whale's teeth necklace and fine mat skirt.
Plate LIV. A, Chief's fly whisk (fue) of short lengths of sennit braid lashed to a long handle; handle length 15.5 inches, length of fibre 13 inches, diameter handle proximal end 0.7 inches. B, (C.397), Talking chief's fly whisk with longer pieces of three-ply sennit braid in greater numbers lashed to a short thick handle; handle length 14 inches, fibre length 24 inches, diameter handle proximal end 1.6 inches. C, Talking chief Timu of Safotu, Savaii, with orator's fly whisk balanced over left shoulder and staff in hand. Note dress of bark cloth with fine mat. D, Ornaments: 1, boar's tusk ornament worn around upper arm; 2, whale's teeth necklace ('ula lei), teeth ground down to curved pendants from 3.3 to 5.6 inches long; 31 teeth lashed together with cord passed through holes; 3, belt of human hair, 110 strands of three-ply braid, length 39 inches (may be foreign).
Plate LV. A, Combs: 1 (C.378), selu tuaniu, 27 coconut leaflet midribs ranging from 24 to 26 inches in length, bound together by three bands of thin leaflet midrib; uppermost band of plain wrapped work, middle band half wrapped work, and other half of wrapped work followed by wrapped twine; lowest band wrapped work and wrapped twine; two marginal midribs curved in and caught in uppermost band; 2 (2198), selu, height 7.2 inches, width at top 0.2 inches, at top of decoration 1.4 inches, bottom of decoration 1.7 inches, across teeth 2.6 inches; composed of 24 pieces dried midrib, two marginal and middle pairs reach top; side pairs closety bound with coconut fibre dyed black; simple lashing at top; lashing band above decoration of wrapped work without wrapped twine; height of decoration 1 inch; binding technique of decoration consists of wrapped work passing around two midribs; rows of clear and red beads threaded on wrapped work; 3 (7118), selu pau, cut out of pau wood in the solid; height 6.1 inches, width at top of expanded part 1.7 inches, at bottom of carving 2.1 inches; carved with alternating tri-page 697angles making a zigzag line; 4 (7117), selu pau, also cut out of pau wood; height 10.75 inches, width at top of side points 1.5 inches, at bottom of carving 2.1 inches, across the ends of 21 teeth 2.5 inches; carving of alternating and single rows of triangles; 5 (B. 2820), selu, height 7.2 inches, width at top 0.5 inch, top of decoration 1.1 inches, bottom of decoration 2.0 inches, across lower end of teeth 3.9 inches; composed of 18 pieces of dried coconut leaflet midrib half of which end above decoration; top band of wrapped work and wrapped twine as is also the band above decoration; material is of coconut fibre, decorative bindings of black hair and coconut fibre; depth 1.7 inches; technique (see text); 6 (7120), selu, height 7.1 inches, width at top 0.3 inches, top of decoration 1.5 inches, bottom of decoration 1.9 inches, across lower end of teeth 2.3 inches, composed of 18 pieces dried midrib, three pairs reaching top, of which two are extra pieces starting from lower end of decoration; three upper pairs lashed by spiral bindings of coconut fibre with beads threaded on here and there; top end central lashing; in above decoration one lashing is of wrapped work and wrapped twine; height of decoration 1.4 inches; alternate rows of white and blue beads; for technique see text; 7 (C.724), selu tuaniu, width across four triangles 6 inches; height of triangles 1.2 inches; 8 (2196), selu, height 12.5 inches, width at top 0.2 inches, bottom of decoration 2.2 inches, across teeth 3.2 inches; composed of 27 dried midribs of which the three middle ones reach the top; at 5.6 inches from the top, the midribs are thinned out by cutting off two on either side of the middle three, leaving four standing, cutting out the next pair on either side, and leaving the four marginal midribs on either side standing; the eight midribs left standing on either side of the middle three are dealt with in four pairs by bending them inwards and outwards at angles so as to form open lozenges; the innermost pairs are lashed to the middle three at the three points where they touch and are cut off above the last lashing which is 1.1 inches from the top; the next pair are similarly zigzagged and lashed to the inner pair at the two points where they touch and are cut off 1.1 inches below the upper ends of the inner pair; the third pairs reach to 1 inch below the upper ends of the previous pairs where they are cut off after being lashed to them; the last marginal pairs run direct to the outer angles formed by the preceding pairs where they are lashed and cut off; the successive cutting off of the midribs gives a triangular effect; the midribs are closely wrapped with coconut fibre dyed black and with beads threaded on; below the cut off ends of the internal pairs the 27 midribs are bound together with wrapped work without the wrapped twine in four bands close together; vertical panels of spaced bead work follow for a depth of 2.1 inches, followed by close decoration 1 inch in depth. B, Fans (ili): 1, ili aulamalama dry coconut leaf with natural leaf midrib as handle; base of fan distal; check plait technique; 2, ili tea of young bleached coconut leaf; base of fan proximal, distal end bifurcated; twilled-two technique; fan lashed to wooden handle with hair braid; 3, ili tea fan in check with base proximal and openings left for ornamentation; lashed to wooden handle with sennit braid; 4, pandanus leaf fan plaited in check over split bamboo handle; 5 (C.780), ili pau made of pau wood cut out with steel implement; length of fan 10 inches, handle 9.25 inches, width of fan 8.25 inches.
Plate LVI. A, Tattooing process: artist holds tattooing instrument in left hand and mallet in right; patient shows scabbing on back from previous stage of tattooing; assistant holds cloth. B, Tattooing implements: 1, coconut mortar with wooden pestle for preparing pigment; 2, medium-sized tattooing comb (au songi aso tetele); 3, palette of green talo leaf tied over half coconut shell; 4, cylindrical instrument container (tunuma) made of pandanus wood; 5, tattooing mallet (sausau) made of coconut leaf midrib, with handle on the left cut away for grip; 6, large au tapulu instrument for filling in the dark areas; 7, two small au fa'atala instruments for making dotted lines; 8, old bark cloth used as sponges after dipping in water.page 698 page I page II page III page IV page V page VI page VII page VIII page IX page X page XI page XII page XIII page XIV page XV page XVI page XVII page XVIII page XIX page XX page XXI page XXII page XXIII page XXIV page XXV page XXVI page XXVII page XXVIII page XXIX page XXX page XXXI page XXXII page XXXIII page XXXIV page XXXV page XXXVI page XXXVII page XXXVIII page XXXIX page XL page XLI page XLII page XLIII page XLIV page XLV page XLVI page XLVII page XLVIII page XLIX page L page LI page LII page LIII page LIV page LV page LVI