Ethnology of Manihiki and Rakahanga
Headdress. Pieces of net (kupenga) were worn around the head like turbans by men on particular occasions such as consulting the gods.
Eye shades (taumata) have been described. (See p. 125.)
Neck ornaments (takawe) made of coconut leaf and hala were worn around the neck by the whakamaru chiefs when about to consult the gods. Their use inspired dread among the people, from association with this function.